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THE 

AMERICAN 
JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 

PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF THE 

PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 

rx t / 

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE FOR 1917 

Samuel P. Sadtler, Ph.D., LL.D. Charles H. LaWall, Ph.M. 
Joseph W. England, Ph.M. ' George M. Beringer, A.M., Ph M 

Joseph P. Remington, Ph.M., F.C.S. John K. 

Henry Kraemer, Pi 




EDITORS P*U-> 

Henry Kraemer, Ph.D. January to October. 
George M. Beringer, A.M., Ph.M. November to 
December. 



VOLUME 89 



PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
1917 




PRESS OF 
THE NEW ERA PRINTING COMPANY 
LANCASTER, PA. 



THE AMEKICAN" 

JOURNAL OF PH 



JANUARY, 1917 



A LETTER FROM THE ORIEN 




MASTIC AND ITS ORIENTAL US 



ES. 



By John Uri Lloyd, Phar.^^ " 

A series of studies such as I am making is increasingly i mteres't- 
ing and instructive. After having obtained second-hand- informa- 
tion all one's life concerning Oriental drugs and products, it is re- 
freshing to study them in their homes, and to become acquainted 
with the methods of collecting, sorting, and preparing. Indeed, I 
cannot but feel that I have done myself an educational injustice not 
to have more than once made the effort to learn what a person con- 
cerned in drugs should know at first hand, by personal investigation. 
I am quite of the opinion that, for more reasons than one, it would 
have been the proper thing had I made such excursions as this long 
ago, and contributed the results to others. But enough. My object 
is not to intrude professional study in a letter, however interesting it 
may be to me. 

The methods of life of the Orientals are very instructive. The 
foods are often somewhat peculiar, as also are the creatures eaten. 
Nor do we have to go to the land of the Turks for examples. For 
instance, whoever visits Naples makes a mistake if he misses the 
Aquarium. It is the most complete in the world. Indeed, the world 
of science contributes to its support. Our Smithsonian Institution 
makes to it an annual donation of money. Here are to be seen the 
sea creatures of the Mediterranean Sea, alive, and content. In great 
glass compartments are the many swimming and creeping things that 

1 Written in Naples, March 26, 1906. The article on Mastic was written 
in Smyrna, some months later. The right is reserved to its use by a medical 
and pharmaceutical journal. /. U. L. 

(1) 



2 



A Letter from the Orient. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1917. 



live beneath the surface of the ocean. Separated are they from 
each other, because most of them agree about as do the lion and the 
lamb. Here we see a tank in which we behold a number of crea- 
tures that somewhat resemble a great brown shoe, with two glaring 
eyes in the heel. From beneath come eight arms that everlastingly 
stretch and again contract, much like India rubber pipes. They pro- 
ject themselves now here, now there; they grasp whatever they 
touch ; they seize a bit of food and next, the arm contracts. Into 
the stomach beneath the eyes of the creature the helpless victim is 
irresistibly drawn. But while this is occurring the other arms are 
stretching in and out, are slipping up and down, are searching near 
and far, for anything possible. The creature moves as though it, 
too, were a prey of those rubber arms, which stick by rows of 
suckers to whatever they touch, and which, in full-grown specimens, 
have the jpower of grasping a man and drawing him down to the 
ocean's. depths as easily as these do an unfortunate fish. This is the 
octopus, and the Mediterranean Sea is prolific in them. 

Next we" turn to a tank in which at first glance we see only rough 
stones and sand. But, on closer examination we perceive that some 
of the rough stones are alive. They are fish that have the power of 
imitating the objects among which they rest, both as to color and 
form. This one is reddish, that one is brown, or black, or yellow, in 
accordance with the objects among which it lies. Hideous crea- 
tures are they, lying there silently awaiting a fish that fails to per- 
ceive that stones such as they have mouths. Let us add this fact to 
the familiar motto, " Stones have ears." 

Now the sand moves, a darting creature rises from it, and then 
slowly settles down — to become again sand. It is a great flat fish 
that, now we have located it, is seen to lie so close to the sand and 
to so nearly resemble it, as to make it impossible to tell where sand 
ends and fish begins. There are others invisible — we see their still 
eyes looking upward, but no one can trace their bodies. 

The next tank contains crabs with legs, " feet " in length. There 
are tanks of coral, of miniature sharks, of transparent squids, and 
hosts of fish and other creatures of all colors, shapes, sizes and 
habits. The water is as clear as air, the creatures live before our 
eyes, the most instructive object-lesson of the world concerning 
aquatic life of this most interesting, semi-tropical sea. 

Go now to the market place in Naples. There we find the same 
hideous creatures— sold as food. Here are baskets of the octopus. 



Am. jour. Pharm. } ^ Letter from the Orient. 

January, 19 17. J J 



3 




the same rubber-like arms, the same glaring eyes. This basket may 
contain a number of small ones, that basket a few arms chopped off 
a very large body. Here are the repulsive fish that resemble stones, 
there the transparent squids, next the cuttle fish, not less unsightly. 
In fact, whatever the sea breeds seems here to become food for man, 
or, in its native home, to use man as a food. It is a question, I take 
it, simply as to which is the stronger — sometimes the man eats the 
octopus, again the octopus eats the man. 

Whoever travels as I am now traveling needs leave his squeam- 
ish stomach at home. Ask no questions. Eat whatever others eat. 
That is good philosophy, and it is good breeding, too. Withal, it is 
but a difference in education — the man who, in America, eats the 
slimy oyster or the slippery clam need not criticize him who in this 
land considers the octopus a delicacy. Nor yj^sjiauld the man who, 
amid home surroundings, eats lobster, be sensitive or impatient if 
here his host serve him a not less repulsive, but more tmgainly 
horned creature instead. JAU 

1 will close by saying that I have \eft my f; 
city under the dominion of the Sultan of Turkey. I am on- my way 
down the Red Sea to the port of Aden, just around the lower point 
of Arabia. There I expect to have exceptional opportunities in the 
way of exact information concerning some subjects that I wish to 
investigate. Thence I shall return to Turkey and spend as much 
time as possible among the Oriental products of that country. It is 
a land of historical charm, and of intense richness in many directions 
that concern medicine. Both the people and the officials of the vari- 
ous governments spare no effort to give me the opportunity to do 
well my work. I am taking a great number of photographs in the 
way of drug studies, as well as life conditions. These I hope to 
classify on my return, and by such illustrations make effective and 
instructive lessons on special subjects. 

Mastiche (Mastic). 

History. — The island of Scio, or Chio, lies in the Mediterranean 
Sea about six hours by steamer from Smyrna. It has long been 
celebrated in that a pocket of the northern part furnishes the world's 
supply of mastic. This, too, notwithstanding the fertility of ad- 
jacent islands, and their situation as concerns exposure and climate. 2 

2 The circumscribed area of sections producing certain drugs, fruits and 
natural products, is noticeable enough to warrant a special paper on the sub- 
ject of such limitations in the Orient. 



4 



A Letter from the Orient. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 19 17. 



That the tree will thrive elsewhere is exemplified by the fact that a 
photograph taken by me of a mastic tree in the garden of Mr. Alfred 
A. Keun, near Smyrna, is dripping (May 6th) with the transparent, 
brilliant tears. In the island of Chio, one district is called Mastiko- 
horia, which means " Village producing gum mastic," and this dis- 
trict supplies the world with its mastic. 

Mastic, like other Oriental gums, resins, and balsams, has been 
known from antiquity, Theophrastus (4th century before Christ), 
Dioscorides and Pliny recording it as a product of Chio. It was for- 
merly of great importance, as is indicated by the following record. 3 

In the Middle Ages the mastic of Scios was a monopoly of the 
Greek Emperors. The successor of Andronicus II (1304) gave 
the mastic concession to a rich Genoese named Benedetto Zaccarias, 
whose family proceeded to rebel against the Emperor, becoming 
sovereigns of Scio. Subdued by Andronicus III, the island was re- 
taken (1346) by the Genoese, a company called the Giustianiani 
being formed to do " mastic " and other business. It was very rich, 
and compared with the famous East India Company, having its own 
mint, constitution and government, even engaging in wars with the 
Turks. Severe was their law concerning mastic, cruel their punish- 
ment of intruders or offenders. In 1566 the Turks captured the 
island, which since that date has been under Moslem rule. The 
tribute they levied on the inhabitants was that the ladies of the Sul- 
tan's harem should be supplied, free of all expense, with all needed 
supplies of the choicest of mastic. This little island of Chios, on 
account of its mastic, has been a center of Oriental interest from 
the earliest days. It is still famed for its resin, but has lost its 
former prestige, owing to the waning importance of mastic. 

Description. — The mastic tree or shrub grows to the size of a 
small, scraggly, crab tree, being more bush-like. Much does it re- 
semble the Crataegus tree of America. Its bark and small limbs 
carry numerous ducts that are prone to part with their resinous 
secretion. This, as it exudes, is brilliant, colorless, water-white, 
about the consistence of glycerin or honey, and exudes from abra- 
sions, or even forces itself through the natural bark, dripping there- 
from in tears. I observed limbs without any visible abrasions and 
yet, glistening with tears. The slightest abrasion is followed by an 
abundant flow of gum, and this fact leads to the method of collection. 

About June, the ground below the trees is cleansed of trash, and 

3 See Pharmacographia by Fliickiger and Hanbury. 



Am. jour. Pharm. \ A Letter from the Orient. 

January, 1917. } J 



5 



roughly prepared to catch the drip. Then the branches are lavishly 
scarified with superficial incisions. The resinous juice immediately 
begins to exude and drips to the earth, where, of different qualities 
as concerns cleanliness, it gradually hardens. It is thus a conglom- 
erate of isolated tears, agglutinated fragments, and masses of un- 
even consistence, the quality being in accordance with the foreign 
matter present, such as fragments of bark, leaves, sand and dirt. 
Since a single large shrub is capable of producing ten to twelve 
pounds, and the resinous tears drop in profusion beneath the shrubs, 
the glitter of the crystal masses on the limbs, in the sunshine, is very 
pleasing. 

When the fallen tears are dry, or hard enough to be handled, 
the mastic is picked up by means of tongs or pinchers, put into 
baskets, and sold to local dealers. It is then called kilista. 4 The 
merchant employs girls and women to separate the grades, in which 
the large, single, transparent tears are " first." This quality, is 
largely used by the rich Turkish ladies, who chew it as a breath per- 
fume. The irregular, semi-opaque masses constitute the second 
quality, whilst the mixture of small fragments of all consistencies 
makes a third, very low grade. 

Opalescence or dulness of mastic globules or tears may be due to 
dust on the surface, adhering impurities, scratched or abraded sur- 
face. In order to brighten it, the hard, dry fragments are placed 
in tanks of cold water, and hand washed, sometimes with a prelim- 
inary scrubbing with soap-suds. The friction between the frag- 
ments removes the dust, and brightens the surface to a glass-like 
transparency. This manipulation is most successful in cool, dry 
weather, October and throughout the winter being the season se- 
lected. 

Steamers touching at Chios are boarded by men with baskets of 
peculiarly shaped little earthen vases filled with fine chewing mastic, 
which they sell for 2^ piastres each. These have been celebrated 
from "time immemorial," and are today in form and size as they 
were in times gone by. 

Mastic is gathered from June to September, the process being 
disturbed if there be excessive rains. No adulterations of mastic 
are consummated in Turkey, but, since the drug is offered elsewhere 
cheaper than it is supplied in Smyrna, where the product of Chios 
naturally gravitates, it may be inferred that manipulative processes 
are elsewhere possible. 

4 This word is spelled for me by Mr. Alpiar of Smyrna. 



6 



A Letter from the Orient. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
*- January, 19 17. 



Commercial Features. — As is shown in our historical introduc- 
tion, mastic was once one of the important Oriental products. As 
already stated, it has from times gone by been prized by the ladies 
in the rich Turkish harems as a breath perfumer, and is yet so em- 
ployed by the Turkish people. That this use is not illogical from a 
sanitary stand is shown by the fact that mastic carries a decided 
volatile aromatic that is powerfully antiseptic, which cannot be said 
of all " chewing gums." Possibly the nearest American chewing- 
gum approach to mastic in this sense, is the natural " spruce gum " 
of the north, or the " sweet gum" of the middle west and the south, 
both of which carry breath-sweetening, antiseptic aromatics. Mas- 
tic is to be found in the Turkish bazaars generally, being displayed 
in the shop in separate piles of different qualities. Choice tears are 
often sold in boxes holding about an ounce, labeled properly. The 
price was formerly as high as Forty-five Dollars per kilogramme, 
but is now about Two Dollars, the second and third qualities rang- 
ing from One Dollar to One Dollar and Twenty Cents per kilo- 
gramme. About 200,000 kilogrammes are produced each year, of 
which 170,000 kilogrammes are exported. Its field as a varnish- 
maker is much restricted, owing to the abundance of less costly resins, 
whilst as a constituent of pharmaceutical preparations, such as oint- 
ments, in which, during Mediaeval times, mastic was important, is 
now practically obsolete. 

Raki, or Rakee or "Mastic." This is a popular, mastic-flavored, 
alcoholic cordial liquor, much drunk by the non-Moslem populations 
of some parts of Turkey, but not by Mohammedan people, who, so 
far as I could determine, use no alcoholics. This drink is made by 
distilling a mixture of mastic and anise with strong wine or alcohol, 
the following being the formula of Mr. Agop Alpiar : 



Mix together and distill, slowly reserving the fractions as fol- 
lows : 



Take of 



Alcohol 35 per cent. 

Aniseed oil 

Mastic 

Potassium carbonate 



1 ,000 



2.5 gm. 
15 gm. 
3 gm. 



c.c. 



Xo. 1 
Xo. 2 
Xo. 3 



250 c.c. 
350 c.c. 
160 c.c. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 19 17. 



} 



A Letter from the Orient. 



7 



To Xo. 2 (350 c.c.) add 10 grams powdered sugar. This is 
Raki or Rakee, the drink known also as Mastic. 

After this process, the drink subsequently is continuously made 
as follows : 

Mix Xo. 1 (250 c.c.) with Xo. 3 (160 c.c.) and add water, 90 
c.c. ; alcohol (35 per cent.) 500 c.c. ; aniseed oil 1.25 gm. ; gum mastic 
7.5 gm. ; and potassium carbonate 3 gm. 

Distill as before, the second portion (350 c.c.) constituting Raki. 
Thus the process may be continued indefinitely, the second fraction 
of distillate being reserved for use. 

The inferior grades of mastic are utilized in making this drink, 
of which 300,000 litres are estimated as the yearly output. 

Raki or Mastic is a colorless, transparent liquid, of a pleasant, 
aromatic, anise-mastic flavor. The drinker does not take it clear, 
but adds to it about one third its bulk of water, which by precipita- 
tion of the volatile oils, turns the mixture milky. Owing to its 
strong alcoholic composition, this drink is used in moderation, but to 
Americans it does not appeal. It reminded me of paregoric, rather 
than of a grateful cordial. 

Confection of Mastic. — A much-prized confection of mastic is 
prepared by making a syrup of sugar, and when it is reduced by 
boiling to a very thick consistence, stirring into it a sufficient amount 
of powdered mastic 3 to flavor it. This produces a stiff confection 
of a pearly white color, that I was informed is especially a favorite 
with the Greeks. It is served as a course by itself , with a cool drink, 
or as a separate course of sweet after a meal. The following for- 
mula was given me by Mr. Lymberis of Smyrna. 



Dissolve the sugar and acid in the water, and stir in the white of 
egg. Boil, skimming occasionally, until the thick syrup will retain 

3 Powdered mastic is made by mixing enough sugar with hard, small tear 
mastic to prevent its agglutination when rubbed in a mortar. Like camphor, 
to which a few drops of alcohol are added, it cannot be powdered alone. 



Confection of Mastic. 



Sugar 

Water 

Citric acid 

White of one egg. 
Mastic, powdered 



34 oz. 



3 lbs. 
2 pts. 
1 dram 



/ U. L. 



Determination of Boric Acid. { A f an l° a ^ ^ r 7 f' 



its form when dropped on a piece of cold marble, or when a small 
amount is poured into cold water. Remove from the fire, cool in a 
capacious vessel, and then stir in the powdered mastic. In this con- 
nection it may be stated that an item of great interest to me was the 
numberless forms of sweets and cakes the Oriental people consume. 



NOTE ON THE DETERMINATION OF BORIC ACID BY 
TITRATION IN THE PRESENCE OF GLYCEROL. 

By B. H. St. John. 

The method usually given for the titration of boric acid is as 
follows : 

Add methyl orange and neutralize with normal sulfuric acid, add- 
ing a few drops in excess, then boil to expel carbon dioxide, cool and 
exactly neutralize with N/io sodium hydroxide solution. Enough 
glycerin is then added so that the solution shall contain at least 30 
per cent, and the solution titrated to a pink color with phenolphtha- 
lein. 

In the course of some determinations the author noted that in 
the neutralization to methyl orange with N/10 sodium hydroxide 
solution after boiling off the C0 2 , a very slow and unsatisfactory 
color change occurs. With the hope of obtaining a sharp color 
change methyl red was tried in place of the methyl orange. The 
change of color, as is usual with methyl red, was quite sharp and en- 
tirely satisfactory. 

The necessity then arose of checking the accuracy of the results 
obtained by using methyl red in this titration. 

Accordingly a sample of boric acid was prepared by recrystal- 
lizing a commercial product from hot water. The crystals after 
being sucked as dry as possible on the filter were dried over cone, 
sulfuric acid. 

Four solutions were prepared by dissolving 0.2000 Gm. of this 
pure boric acid in about 30 Cc. of water. To two of these methyl 
orange was added, and to the other two methyl red. These solutions 
appeared acid to methyl red but alkaline to methyl orange. How- 
ever one drop (about 0.03 Cc, N/10 alkali sufficed to cause the 
methyl red to indicate a neutral state. And 0.10 Cc. N/10 acid 



Am. jour. Pharm. | Determination of Boric Acid. 

January, 19 17. J J 



9 



changed the methyl orange from the distinctly alkaline yellow color 
to the neutral tint. The sharpness of this color change with methyl 
orange seems to indicate that it is not the boric acid which causes 
the slow color change noted. 

After the neutralization of the solutions, glycerin was added and 
then titrated to a pink color with phenolphthalein. The boric acid 
calculated from these titrations averaged, in the solutions neutralized 
to methyl orange 0.2007 Gm., in those neutralized to methyl red 
0.2001. 

When glycerin is added to a solution containing methyl red the 
indicator changes its color to red and as the titration proceeds the red 
color fades slowly, the point at which the indicator is half trans- 
formed occurring when about half the alkali necessary for titration 
with phenolphthalein has been added. 

Titration of Boric Acid in Solutions Containing Sodium 

Carbonate. 

Several solutions were prepared containing in each 1 Gm. sodium 
carbonate with a known amount of boric acid, thus simulating the 
conditions met with in the determination of boric acid. The titra- 
tions were carried out according to the method given below. The 
endpoints obtained with methyl red in the neutralization of excess 
acid were as sharp as usual but those obtained with methyl orange 
were, as the author had noted before, indistinct. Can it be that 
the endpoint of methyl orange is affected by a considerable amount 
of salts in the solution titrated? The results of these titrations are 
given in the attached table. 

Method. 

The solution was carefully neutralized in the cold with normal 
sulfuric acid and about 0.2 to 0.3 Cc. added in excess, the beaker 
being covered with a watch glass meanwhile to avoid loss by effer- 
vescence. The solution in the beaker, still covered with the watch 
glass, was quickly heated to boiling and boiled about 1 minute. In 
the case of the solutions in which methyl red was used as indicator, 
if the color had faded and become alkaline, normal acid was added 
until the red color was restored and the boiling continued for 1 
minute. The solutions were then cooled to 20 to 25 and neutralized 
with tenth normal sodium hydroxide solution. The neutral point 
with methyl orange being taken as that point where a clear yellow 



io Determination of Boric Acid. ( A ™ania?y ^f 7 m ' 

appears and all suggestion of pink or orange shade has disappeared. 
An equal volume of neutral glycerin was then added and the titra- 
tion completed to the appearance of a pink color with phenolphtha- 
lein. 

It is essential that care should be taken to cool the solution to 
room temperature before neutralizing as the indicators change color 
at a decidedly different hydrogen ion concentration when warm. 

It will be seen that the results obtained by the use of methyl 
orange are high, while those obtained in the titrations in which 
methyl red was used, with one exception, are very close to the theo- 
retical. 



Boric acid 
taken. 


Sodium carbo- 
nate taken. 


II3BO3 found 
methyl orange. 


Error. 


H3BO3 found 
methyl red. 


Error. 


0.2000 Gm. 


1.0 Gm. 


0.2003 Gm. 


+ 0.15% 


0.1988 Gm. 


-.60% 


0.2000 " 




0.2038 " 


+ 1-9% 


0.2004 " 


+ .20% 


0.2000 " 




0.2024 " 


+ 1-2% 


0.2001 " 


+ .05% 


0.2000 " 




0.2034 " 


+ 1-7% 






0.2500 " 




0.2523 " 


+ .92% 


0.2497 " 


-.12% 


0.2500 " 








0.2501 " 


+ .04% 


Average ei 






1.17% 




0.10% 



Conclusions. 

The results seem to indicate that methyl red can be used in place 
of methyl orange in the titration of boric acid, that it is more satis- 
factory since a sharp endpoint can be obtained, and that more ac- 
curate results can be obtained. 



SOME COLOR REACTIONS OBTAINED FROM THE EX- 
TRACT OF ACER SPICATUM (FALSE VIBURNUM 
OPULUS, VIBURNUM OPULUS 
U. S. P. VIII). 

By B. H. St. John. 

Contribution from the Laboratory of the American Medical Association, 

Chicago, 111. 

Some two years since, while in the service of the Bureau of 
Chemistry, the author was engaged in the examination of a number 
of patent remedies which were claimed to be of value in the treat- 



Am. jour. Pharm. j Color Reactions from Acer spicatum. TI 

January, 191 7. J 1 r 1 x 

ment of female troubles. Several of these were found to give Born- 
trager's test for emodin. However, other tests failed to classify 
the emodin-like material as any of the common emodin-bearing 
drugs, i. e., aloes, cascara, rhubarb or senna. 

Knowing the common use of the Viburnums in preparations 
designated for the treatment of female diseases, the idea suggested 
itself that an uncommon emodin-like substance might occur in the 
commercial drug or fluidextract, or perhaps was a common adul- 
terant. Accordingly Borntrager's test was applied to samples of 
commercial fluidextracts of Viburnum opulus and Viburnum pruni- 
folium which were available. 

The test was carried out in the following manner : 
The fluidextract in a separatory funnel was diluted with about 
three volumes of water, about 5 Cc. concentrated hydrochloric acid 
added, and the mixture shaken with about one fourth of its bulk of 
petroleum ether. After settling the petroleum ether was decanted 
into a test tube containing 2 to 3 Cc. of 10 per cent, ammonia water, 
and allowed to stand, whereupon the crimson color appears at the 
juncture of the two liquids and gradually diffuses down into the 
ammonia. 

The fluidextract of Viburnum prunifolium gave only a faint 
yellow color, while the fluidextract of Viburnum opulus gave a very 
characteristic test. 

Considering the possible adulteration of this fluidextract of 
Viburnum opulus, a sample of cramp bark — labeled Viburnum 
Opulus U. S. P. VIII — was obtained and a fluidextract prepared 
from it according to the U. S. P. VIII. (A portion of this sample 
was submitted to the Bureau's pharmacognosist for examination, 
but a report identifying this as Acer spicatum was not received until 
the author, then working in the laboratory of the American Medical 
Association, had satisfied himself that such must have been the case.) 
The fluidextract prepared from this sample was tested immediately 
after its preparation by Borntrager's test as given above, and was 
found to give the test only very faintly. 

About eight months later Dr. W. S. Hubbard's work on the 
separation of the common emodin-bearing drugs again brought to 
the author's mind this question of an emodin-like substance in 
Viburnum opulus — or rather Acer spicatum. Hubbard found that 
ether was more satisfactory than petroleum ether in Borntrager's test 
since the emodin or emodin-like material is more soluble in the 



12 Color Reactions from Acer spicatum. { A f^J^ 

former. He also found that the ether extract from rhubarb, ob- 
tained in a process similar to that used for Borntrager's test, when 
shaken with a saturated solution of ferrous sulphate, imparts a deep 
blue color to the aqueous solution ; also, that when the same ether 
extract was shaken with calcium hypochlorite solution a red color 
developed in the aqueous solution. 

The fluidextract of Acer spicatum (supposed Viburnum opulus) 
which had been prepared eight months before, was examined by 
these tests in the following manner : 

The diluted, acidified fluidextract was shaken with one eighth 
of its volume of ether (not petroleum ether) and the ether layer 
decanted off and used for the tests. When underlaid with 10 per 
cent, ammonia water a brilliant red ring appeared at once. When 
shaken with a saturated solution of ferrous sulphate the same deep 
blue color found by Hubbard with rhubarb extracts appeared in the 
aqueous layer. However, when shaken with calcium hypochlorite 
solution, only a faint yellow color appeared in the aqueous layer. 

The fluidextract itself appeared to have become darker in color. 

These tests were also tried on several extracts of Viburnum 
prunifolium with negative results, only a slight yellow color being 
imparted to the aqueous solution in any of the tests. 

Some months later the author entered the Laboratory of the 
American Medical Association. There were available samples of 
fluidextracts of Acer spicatum and Viburnum opulus prepared by 
Mr. L. E. Warren from drugs which had been carefully identified 
by a pharmacognosist. The fluidextract of Acer spicatum was 
about four months old when tested, that of Viburnum opulus thir- 
teen months. 

These were subjected to the above tests. The fluidextract of 
Acer spicatum gave the tests described very positively, just as the 
fluidextract which the author had prepared had done. That of 
Viburnum opulus gave results exactly similar to those previously ob- 
tained with fluidextracts of Viburnum prunifolium. 

The author was thus led to believe that the sample from which 
the fluidextract on which he had worked previously had been pre- 
pared was in fact Acer spicatum. The report of the Bureau's phar- 
macognosist later bore out this fact. 

A fresh fluidextract of Acer spicatum was prepared from the 
standardized material available. Immediately after preparation it 
was found to give the tests with ammonia water and ferrous sulphate 



Am. jour. Pharm. \ Color Reactions from Acer spicatum. i? 

January, 1917. J J r 1 J 

solution described above, but, as had been noted before, the color 
obtained in the test with ammonia water is not as intense as that ob- 
tained with older extracts. This apparent increase, on aging, in the 
amount of the material which gives the test with ammonia, as indi- 
cated by the intensity of this test, opens the question : is it not 
present originally as a different compound which is changed either 
by simple oxidation or by means of ferments existing with it in the 
bark, into the substance which gives the reaction ? 

Farwell {Bull, of Pharmacy, 191 3, XXXIII, p. 65) points out 
that most of the drug sold as Viburnum opulus is in fact Acer 
spicatum. Kraemer in the second edition of his pharmacognosy also 
states that the drug described in the U. S. P. VIII is in fact Acer 
spicatum. 

This accounts for the fact that several commercial fluidextracts 
of Viburnum opulus, as well as a few proprietary remedies claiming 
to contain Viburnum opulus, gave the tests described above. 

Summary. 

Acer spicatum contains a substance which gives a crimson color 
with ammonia, and which may be similar to the emodins of the 
common cathartic drugs. It also contains a substance which gives 
a blue color with ferrous sulphate solution similar to that obtained 
with rhubarb. 

Further it seems that these two reactions should be of value for 
the identification of extract of Acer spicatum in medicinal prepara- 
tions. Hubbard has shown that rhubarb, alone of all the common 
" emodin-bearing " cathartics, gives the blue color with ferrous sul- 
phate solution. Rhubarb is distinguished from Acer spicatum by 
the red color which the former gives with the calcium hypochlorite 
test. The identification of Acer spicatum in the presence of rhubarb, 
of course, cannot be accomplished by these tests. 

Contribution from the Laboratory of the American Medical Association. 



i a Changes in Formulas of Galenicals. { Ar P- J° ur - Pnarm - 

t u 1 K January, 1917. 

THE REASONS FOR SOME OF THE CHANGES IN THE 
FORMULAS OF GALENICALS MADE IN THE NINTH 
REVISION OF THE UNITED STATES 
PHARMACOPOEIA. 1 



By George M. Beringer, Ph.M. 



Compliance with the legal standards, if there was no other rea- 
son, would necessitate a study of the changes made in the Ninth Re- 
vision of the Pharmacopoeia. As my assignment in the symposium 
of this evening has been restricted primarily to Extracts, Fluid- 
extracts and Tinctures, I will, necessarily, limit my remarks very 
largely to the changes made in the formulas for certain of these 
galenical preparations. To the pharmacists, these are of the first 
importance and the users of the book should certainly understand 
why the changes have been made. 

While the reasons for some of the changes may be apparent, the 
writer is aware, from the criticisms and queries propounded, that 
the reasons for many of these are not generally understood. Hence, 
it appears that this phase of the subject is worthy of special con- 
sideration and that an explanatory paper on pharmacopceial changes, 
even though it may sound elementary to some of my hearers, may 
not be an undesirable subject to present to this audience and, at the 
least, it may be of some assistance to students. 

The changes in the titles of fluidextracts, extracts and tinctures 
have not been very numerous or important. The changing of the 
title Fluidextractum Rhamni Purshianae to Fluidextractum Cascarae 
Sagradse was in recognition of the almost universal practice of phy- 
sicians in using the latter title. The custom of physicians in pre- 
scription writing not infrequently determines changes in pharma- 
copceial titles. 

The adoption of Cardamom Seed instead of Cardamom Fruit 
necessitated a reduction in the amount of Cardamom directed in 
several of the formulas, such as Compound Extract of Colocynth, 
and in Tincture of Cardamom and Compound Tincture of Car- 
damom, as the inert capsule is eliminated. 

Economic reasons, at times, have decided changes. An instance 
of this is seen in the official oleoresins, which, with the exception 

1 Read at the meeting of the Philadelphia Branch of the A. Ph. A., No- 
vember 14, 1916. 



Am. jour, pharm. | Changes in Formulas of Galenicals. 

January, 1917. J 



is 



of Oleoresin of Cubeb, are again directed to be made with ether as a 
solvent instead of acetone. In the Eighth Revision, acetone was di- 
rected in place of ether, because at that time the former was cheaper. 
As it is now permissible to use denatured alcohol in the manufacture 
of ether, that solvent is made so cheaply that it is again advantage- 
ous to use it in place of acetone. 

One of the most noteworthy advances in the present revision 
has been the adoption of introductory chapters and the classifications 
and type processes given under Fluidextracts and Tinctures, thus 
saving a number of pages in the book and avoiding the unnecessary 
repetition of instructions. It is hoped that this attempt at condens- 
ing formulas will prove satisfactory and may be still further ex- 
tended in future revisions. 

The popularity and extensive use of powdered extracts required 
pharmacopceial recognition of a number of the extracts in this form. 
Among these may be mentioned Powdered Extracts of Aconite, 
Belladonna Leaves, Colchicum Corm, Gelsemium, Hydrastis, Rhu- 
barb, Stramonium and Viburnum Prunifolium. In addition, Puri- 
fied Oxgall is now official in the form of a powdered extract, and 
this class of powdered extracts will probably be added to in the 
future revisions. 

The subcommittee recommended that a distinct class of Pulv- 
extracta should be made so as to distinguish these from the pilular 
extracts. The conservatism of the General Committee of Revision, 
however, decided that the pilular or solid extracts and the powdered 
extracts should not be separated but all retained under the one class 
of Extracta and that in the monographs where both forms were 
recognized, the formula for the pilular extract should precede that 
for the powdered extract. 

The preparation of powdered extracts presented some worri- 
some problems for the consideration of the subcommittee. In order 
to obtain a concentrated extract freed as far as possible from muci- 
laginous and gummy extractives, so as to permit of powdering and 
dilution in the form of a permanent powder, higher alcoholic men- 
struums had to be adopted than were required, as a rule, for the 
pilular extracts. Where the drug contained any appreciable amount 
of oil or fat, it was found that this had to be removed before a satis- 
factory powdered extract could be produced. Hence, in the Pow- 
dered Extracts of Aconite Root, Colchicum Corm, Nux Vomica and 
Physostigma, purified petroleum benzin extractions had to be made 



iS Changes in Formulas of Galenicals. { A f a J u ^y ^J}"™' 

to remove the fat, and in some cases, the recovery of tthe alkaloid 
from the benzin solutions became necessary. These added manipu- 
lations complicated somewhat the processes. 

The standardizing of potent galenical preparations, wherever 
possible, is now an established principle in our pharmacopoeia, and 
the ninth revision has carried this out more fully than heretofore. 
In the Extracta, this presented to the committee the problem of 
selecting proper diluents by which concentrated extracts could be re- 
duced to the standard adopted. Our experiments led to the adop- 
tion of powdered starch dried at ioo° C. or, in some cases, a mix- 
ture of powdered and dried starch and magnesium oxide as the 
diluent for powdered extracts. In the introductory chapter on Ex- 
tracts, however, permission has been given to the manufacturers to 
use other inert diluents, such as sugar, sugar of milk, powdered 
glycyrrhiza, magnesium carbonate, or the finely powdered drug or 
marc from which the extract was made. A satisfactory diluent 
must be inert from a therapeutic standpoint, as well as chemically. 
It is difficult to select one substance that will prove preeminently 
satisfactory for all of the extracts. The committee had some diffi- 
culty in coming to a conclusion as to the proper diluent to recom- 
mend for reducing the stanardized solid extracts. The final selec- 
tion was glucose, as possessing the requisite qualification of being 
inert. Yet this has not proven altogether satisfactory and it may be 
possible that some other substance may yet be proposed as a substi- 
tute for glucose, and suggestions in this respect are invited. 

The selection of a proper menstruum for each extract likewise 
required considerable experimentation. The U. S. P. VIII directed 
that Extract of Belladonna Leaves be made with a menstruum of 
two volumes of alcohol and one volume of water. With many 
samples of the drug, the manufacturers found that if the drug was 
completely exhausted with this menstruum that the yield was large 
and the extract was deficient in alkaloidal content. Hence, in the 
U. S. P. IX, a stronger alcoholic menstruum has been directed, 
namely, three volumes of alcohol and one volume of water, so as to 
reduce the amount of extractive and permit of maintaining the alka- 
loidal standard. 

Extract of Ergot, U. S. P. VIII, was a roundabout process 
copied after the British Pharmacopoeia and yielded a small amount 
of extract associated with sodium chloride and at a very high cost. 
The committee were convinced that hydrochloric acid in proper 



\ 



A january "19 17™' } Changes in Formulas of Galenicals. 17 

proportion should be added to the alcoholic menstruum used in the 
extraction of ergot. Several of the samples of ergot worked with by 
the committee contained relatively large proportions of oil and unless 
this was removed, the resulting extract was granular and oily. 
Hence, in order to obtain a smooth and homogeneous product, the 
oil had to be removed from the ergot by purified petroleum benzin 
before it was percolated with the alcoholic menstruum. 

In Pure Extract of Glycyrrhiza, two changes are to be noted: 
The first is the use of chloroform water, following the initial men- 
struum a mixture of ammonia water and water, to complete the ex- 
haustion of the drug. The purpose of the chloroform water is that 
decomposition in both the drug and in the percolate before concen- 
tration, which is prone to take place in warm weather, may be pre- 
vented. The second change is the omission of the five per cent, of 
glycerin which was directed in the eighth revision. Experience has 
shown that pure extract of glycyrrhiza made with this small amount 
of glycerin is apt to become moldy. This is possibly due to the 
percentage of glycerin being insufficient to act as a preservative, and 
in this dilution it actually serves to provide a suitable field for the 
culture of molds. 

A small percentage of tartaric acid was found to aid materially 
in the exhaustion of hydrastis. Hence, in the Powdered Extract of 
Hydrastis, 5 grammes of that acid is directed for each 1,000 
grammes of drug extracted. 

In the U. S. P. VIII formula for Extract of Nux Vomica, the 
nux vomica was first exhausted with a menstruum of acetic acid and 
water, and the concentrated acetic extract then treated with alcohol. 
In the formula of the U. S. P. IX, the extraction of nux vomica is 
made with a mixture of three volumes of alcohol and one volume 
of water, which menstruum extracts the drug and yields an extract 
which, when purified by the removal of the fat, appears to be en- 
tirely satisfactory. 

Extract of Malt, instead of being directed to be evaporated " to 
the consistence of thick honey," which is not at all definite, is now 
directed to have a specific gravity of not less than 1.35 nor more 
than 1.40. 

The fluidextracts recognized in the U. S. P. are, in number, 
greatly in excess of those recognized by any of the other pharma- 
copoeias. In the endeavor to improve on the U. S. P. VIII formu- 
las, the subcommittee made several hundred experiments trying 



1 8 Changes in Formulas of Galenicals. { A f an l™y ^7™' 

various menstruse and methods of manipulations. For the first 
time in the revisions of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, fractional or di- 
vided percolation is directed. This process, Type Process C, is now 
not only permissible, but is officially directed to be employed in the 
fluidextracts of aconite, aromatic powder and bitter orange peel. 

The type samples prepared by several of the committees which 
had worked with this class of preparations in the previous revisions 
had been preserved and reports on these were secured. The orig- 
inal samples, wherever available, were carefully inspected, and the 
changes both in amount and character of precipitate noted. The 
experiments led to the adoption of a number of changes in the men- 
struums directed and, for several, entirely new formulas are intro- 
duced. 

In the following Fluidextracts, an increase in the alcoholic 
strength of the menstruum directed is to be noted : Bitter Orange 
Peel, Belladonna Root, Buchu, Guarana, Hyoscyamus, Pilocarpus, 
Podophyllum, Sarsaparilla, Staphisagra, Sumbul and Uva Ursi. 

Numerous complaints showed that it was practically the universal 
opinion that in the Fluidextract of Buchu of the Eighth Revision, the 
menstruum of three volumes of alcohol and one volume of water 
was incorrect, and alcohol is now directed. 

A reduction in the alcoholic strength of the menstruum is to be 
noted in the following Fluidextracts : Gelsemium, Ipecac, Senna and 
Triticum. 

The U. S. P. VIII directed that Fluidextract of Cascara Sagrada 
should be made with a menstruum of four volumes of alcohol and 
six volumes of water. Our knowledge of cascara sagrada and its 
constituents now permits us to direct the extraction of the drug with 
hot water and the addition of the alcohol to the concentrated aque- 
ous percolate as a preservative only. This improvement has been 
made in both the fluidextract of cascara sagrada and in the pow- 
dered extract, in both of which the extraction of the drug is directed 
to be made with water. 

The Aromatic Fluidextract of Cascara Sagrada of the U. S. P. 
VIII was criticized in several respects. First, the attempt to ex- 
tract the glycyrrhiza along with the cascara sagrada by the use of 
magnesium oxide. The proper solvent for licorice is, beyond any 
question, ammonia water and the extraction of these two drugs 
should not be made together, as either magnesium oxide or calcium 
oxide is the required alkali for the extraction of cascara sagrada. 



A January ^i™ 1 ' } Ch an 9 es i fl Formulas of Galenicals. 19 

The flavoring with compound spirit of orange was likewise criti- 
cized. In the formula directed in the U. S. P. IX, these objections 
have been met by directing the use of pure extract of glycyrrhiza 
and a change in the aromatics to a combination of the oils of anise, 
cassia, coriander, and methyl salicylate. Any slight tinge of bitter- 
ness remaining is drowned by the further addition of I gramme of 
saccharin to the 1,000 mils of product. 

In Fluidextract of Cinchona, the addition of 100 mils of diluted 
hydrochloric acid to the menstruum was found necessary in order to 
exhaust the drug. Without this addition of acid, the resulting fluid- 
extract failed to represent even approximately the total amount of 
alkaloid in official cinchona bark. 

In Fluidextract of Colchicum Seed, while no change is made in 
the menstruum of two volumes of alcohol and one volume of water, 
some means had to be adopted to remove the oil which is extracted, 
possibly largely mechanically, and separates in the fluidextract. 
Hence, in the formula for this fluidextract, the preliminary treat- 
ment of the drug with purified petroleum benzin is now directed. 

The Digitalis preparations present an interesting study. It de- 
veloped that in the preparations of digitalis containing a large per- 
centage of water, deterioration rapidly takes place. Further, that 
the deterioration in the presence of acids was very much more rapid 
and that an acetic preparation of digitalis very soon lost its efficiency. 
This can be explained on the ground that digitalis contains glucosidal 
principles and likewise an acid constituent, and in aqueous or dilute 
alcoholic preparations a reaction takes place between these constit- 
uents by which the glucosides are decomposed. In the fat-free 
tincture of digitalis, the acid is neutralized and thus the increased 
permanency of this preparation is explained. 

A material increase in the percentage of alcohol in the official 
preparations of digitalis was indicated and the fluidextract instead of 
being directed to be made with a menstruum of diluted alcohol, is 
now directed to be made with a menstruum of five volumes of al- 
cohol and one volume of water. For the same reason, the alcoholic 
strength of the tincture has been increased by the use of a men- 
struum composed of three volumes of alcohol and one volume of 
water in place of diluted alcohol. 

In Fluidextract of Ergot, the U. S. P. IX has returned to the 
recommendation of Dr. E. R. Squibb and directs in the menstruum 
the use of 20 mils of hydrochloric acid in place of 20 Cc. of acetic 
acid of the U. S. P. VIII. 



20 J Changes in Formulas of Galenicals. { A f^J^y ^ 

In the Fluidextract of Frangula, the similarity of this drug to 
Cascara Sagrada has suggested that the same method of preparation 
should be adopted for both fluidextracts and this was found to be 
entirely feasible. So Fluidextract of Buckthorn Bark is now di- 
rected to be made by hot aqueous percolation and the alcohol added 
to the concentrated infusion as a preservative only. 

In the Fluidextract of Glycyrrhiza, we note an entire change in 
the formula. The U. S. P. VIII directed the extraction of glycyr- 
rhiza with boiling water, thus obtaining a large amount of inert 
matter which it was difficult to remove by the subsequent manipu- 
lation directed. The new formula directs the extraction of the drug 
with a menstruum of ammonia water and chloroform water, and 
completing the exhaustion with chloroform water. The first portion 
of the percolate is set aside as a reserve. The alcohol is directed 
to be added only as a preservative. The waste of this solvent in 
the previous formula is thus avoided. 

In Fluidextract of Ipecac, the attempt has been made to produce 
a miscible fluidextract from which a syrup could be made by simple 
admixture instead of the roundabout process for the preparation of 
the syrup directed in the U. S. P. VIII. Instead of extracting the 
drug with a menstruum of three volumes of alcohol and one volume 
of water and obtaining in the product resinous and other inert ma- 
terials which had to be precipitated out in the preparation of the 
syrup, the attempt was to produce by the use of a menstruum of 
diluted hydrochloric acid, alcohol and water, a miscible fluidextract. 
This appears to have been overlooked, however, in the syrup of 
ipecac, as the formula of the U. S. P. VIII has still been retained, 
and the syrup will unnecessarily contain acetic acid in addition to the 
hydrochloric acid. 

In the Fluidextract of Lobelia, the menstruum formerly directed 
was a mixture of acetic acid and water. This is now displaced by 
a menstruum of acetic acid and diluted alcohol, which promises a 
stable and active preparation. 

In the Fluidextract of Nux Vomica, the acetic acid directed in 
the U. S. P. VIII has been deleted from the menstruum, as a men- 
struum of alcohol and water in the proportion of three volumes of 
alcohol and one volume of water directed has been found to be satis- 
factory. Acetic acid dissolves from nux vomica substances which 
later continue to precipitate and cause trouble in the preparations 
and there appears to be no necessity for any acid in this fluidextract. 



A january "igi™' } Changes in Formulas of Galenicals. 21 

In Fluidextract of Squill, we have one of the most important 
changes made in this class of preparations. Squill presents a trouble- 
some problem. Its large content of mucilage and sugar make it dif- 
ficult to percolate with the ordinary solvents. The U. S. P. VIII 
directed that Fluidextract of Squill should be made by percolating 
1,000 Gm. of the drug with a menstruum of acetic acid and water 
until 1,000 Cc. of percolate was obtained. No attempt whatever was 
made to exhaust the drug or to obtain a fluidextract of full strength, 
even if it were possible to carry out the instructions and percolate 
the drug with this dilute acetic acid menstruum. 

The process now directed was proposed by Dr. J. M. Francis. 
The squill is first exhausted with a menstruum of two volumes of 
alcohol and one volume of water, and with a hydro-alcoholic men- 
struum of this strength, squill can be percolated. The percolate is 
then concentrated and alcohol is added to precipitate out the muci- 
lage and sugars. The alcoholic liquid decanted from the syrupy 
residue is again concentrated and made up to the requisite volume 
by the addition of diluted alcohol. This is necessarily a tedious 
and an expensive process, but yields a fluidextract of squill which 
appears to be permanent and fully represents the activity of the drug. 

In Fluidextract of Senega, a change in manipulation is to be 
noted. The alcoholic strength of the menstruum remains the same 
as in the previous edition, but no alkali is added to the menstruum. 
Solution of potassium hydroxide is eliminated from the formula and 
in place thereof ammonia water is added to the finished product 
until a faint alkaline reaction is produced. The reason for this 
change in manipulation is that precipitation and gelatinization in 
fluidextract of senega is prevented by maintaining an alkaline liquid. 
The alkali that gives the best results is ammonia water, and in order 
to insure alkalinity being maintained, this is added in slight excess 
to ithe finished product. 

The Eighth Revision directed that Fluidextract of Senna should 
be made with a menstruum of diluted alcohol and that the drug 
should be previously percolated with alcohol to remove the griping 
principle. This preliminary treatment with alcohol and drying of 
the drug is very expensive. The U. S. P. IX endeavors to obtain 
the same results by preparing the fluidextract by using a weaker alco- 
holic menstruum composed of one volume of alcohol and two vol- 
umes of water and omitting the preliminary extraction of the drug 
with alcohol. 



22 Changes in Formulas of Galenicals. { A f a J^y ^j V 7 m ' 

In the Tinctures, several changes are of special interest. In Tinc- 
ture of Arnica, in order to insure the exhaustion of the drug, inter- 
rupted percolation is directed. 

In Tincture of Cantharides, a process of maceration with warm 
alcohol is directed. The cantharides directed (10 per cent.) can 
never be fully extracted by the alcohol and all we can succeed in 
doing is to make a saturated alcoholic solution of the active con- 
stituent, and this is attained by macerating at a temperature of 50 
to 55° C. 

In Compound Tincture of Gentian, the addition of glycerin and 
the reduction of the alcoholic strength to that of diluted alcohol is 
to be noted. 

In Tincture of Iodine, in order to insure the solution of the 
iodine, 50 mils of water per liter is added. 

Tincture of Kino of the U. S. P. VIII was not a satisfactory 
preparation. The addition of glycerin and the attempt at filtration 
meant a long exposure with associated contamination which engen- 
dered enzymic action and the early gelatinization of the product. 
The U. S. P. IX directs the extraction of the kino in a flask with 
boiling water, the alcohol being added to the cooled decoction and 
the tincture decanted and strained. By this simplified process, ex- 
posure of the kino is avoided and a more permanent preparation is 
secured. 

Tincture of Nux Vomica is now directed to be made directly 
from the powdered drug by percolation with the menstruum and 
then assayed, the standard being fixed at total alkaloids .25 Gm. in 
100 mils instead of strychnine 0.1 Gm. 

In Tincture of Sanguinaria, hydrochloric acid is directed in 
place of acetic acid, with the alcoholic strength of the menstruum 
remaining the same as in the previous revision. One has but to try 
the use of hydrochloric acid in the extraction of sanguinaria to note 
its value for this purpose. 

In the Tincture of Strophanthus, we note a decided improvement 
over the formula of the U. S. P. VIII. Strophanthus is a drug 
that is very difficult to extract and its large percentage of disagree- 
able fat is another troublesome factor. The U. S. P. VIII directed 
that the tincture be made with a menstruum consisting of 65 volumes 
of alcohol and 35 volumes of water without previously de-fatting 
the drug. The resulting tincture was cloudy from separated oil and 
was exceedingly nauseating because of the presence of the fat. 



Am. jour. Pharm. | Higher Education in Pharmacy. 2^ 

January, 191 7. ) J J 

The medical use of strophanthus is such that this nauseating 
tendency of the preparation should be eliminated. The formula of 
the U. S. P. IX is a decided improvement over that of the previous 
edition in that the drug is first de-fatted by preliminary treatment 
with purified petroleum benzin. The use of alcohol 95 per cent, as 
the menstruum is likewise to be commended as more nearly ex- 
tracting the drug and yielding a more definite preparation. 



THE SUCCESS OR FAILURE OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN 

PHARMACY. 

By C. Ferdixaxd Xelson, Ph.D., 

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY. UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS 
SCHOOL OF PHARMACY, LAWRENCE. 

There exists at present very little, if any, difference of opinion 
on the question of the desirability and absolute necessity of thorough 
general and scientific training as a preparation for those who expect 
to enter the practice of pharmacy. Higher education is steadily 
gaining ground and making its new converts daily. Indeed, very 
often the men who have themselves never enjoyed the opportunities 
of adequate training are the very ones who insist most strongly 
that the young men and women entering this field should do so only 
after they have received a thorough preparation. Our state boards 
have almost without exception recognized the value of preliminary 
as well as properly organized technical education, and in their rulings 
have constantly sought to raise educational requirements. Our col- 
leges of pharmacy are increasing their entrance requirements year 
by year and making their courses more thorough and comprehensive. 
Many of our schools have today requirements for entrance as high 
as some of the medical colleges of the country, and courses which 
require three or four full academic years for completion. The net 
result of this must be that we will have a much larger number of 
thoroughly equipped men in the future than Ave have had in the past. 
We may indeed congratulate ourselves that our calling is moving 
onward in this splendid way. 

Let us now stop to ask ourselves seriously how long we may hope 
for the important advances we have mentioned to continue. What 



24 Higher Education in Pharmacy. { Al j an uary ^f™' 

factors are there which will determine the ultimate success or failure 
of higher education in pharmacy ? No one person should be so bold 
as to attempt to answer this question outright. Innumerable fac- 
tors enter into the solution of a problem of this sort, and in any one 
discussion it seems best to center all of one's thought and energy 
on a single phase, seeking to make this clear. I shall, then, in what 
follows attempt to review in another light a point of view which I 
have expressed several times before and which seems to me to be 
fundamental in any consideration of the future growth and success- 
ful development of pharmacy. 

The point to which I desire to invite your attention may be 
briefly put in this way. In proportion as we increase our educational 
requirements, we must also increase the unity and stability of our 
professional life. There must be, in other words, something worth 
while for the prospective pharmacist to look forward to when he 
graduates. The business prospects in pharmacy, which are, to be 
sure, very important, we may leave out of consideration for the mo- 
ment, since they enter only indirectly into a consideration of unity 
and stability in the sense in which we are using these terms. 

We may admit at the outset that we do have a kind of unity, 
this largely, however, in the sense that most of us work in, manage 
or own retail drug stores, and therefore have economic interests in 
common. This type, however, will not suffice for us. Carpenters, 
plumbers and members of all of the trades have more of it than we 
have. It aims at mutual protection almost entirely, and nothing but 
that. We need economic cooperation, to be sure, but we need even 
more a unity zvhich makes us feel and act as if we zuere members of 
a really permanent profession. The lack of this continually robs us 
of our real strength and makes many smile at the mere mention of 
such a thing as a professional side to pharmacy. We must build 
up and strengthen the professional side of our work if we hope to 
continue to enforce rigid requirements for admission to practice. 
What else can there be for the young man who is about to enter our 
ranks ? Certainly not financial rewards, surely not an easy life. He 
must receive compensation in part, at least, from a consciousness 
that he is a member of a calling which enjoys the esteem and respect 
of the public as well as of the other professions. Only on such 
terms will he be willing to spend the time, money and energy which 
are needed in order to fit him for his work. 

While it is impossible in any one statement to speak the literal 



A January ^917™' } Higher Education in Pharmacy. 25 

truth regarding conditions that obtain in all of the states of the 
Union, still it can be safely said that, taken as a whole, our pharmacy- 
laws are in many vital respects decidedly out of date, and in woeful 
need of revision. Our capacity to legislate has not kept pace with 
our business or professional growth, and while doctors, dentists and 
lawyers have secured much-needed legislation for themselves we 
have had to go away all too often empty-handed. One very good 
reason for this is that we have not been sufficiently interested in de- 
manding our rights, nor have we been able to bring enough pressure 
to bear to interest legislators in our behalf. Another and even more 
potent reason is that we have not enjoyed the respect of the public 
sufficiently to have created an adequate opinion in our behalf. 

How, then, can we set about to secure a better reputation for 
pharmacy? Let us begin by attempting to become legally on par 
with the other professions. Let us ask the state for the same recog- 
nition that it now accords to law, medicine and dentistry. Let us 
substitute for annual registration a life permit to practise. Then 
and only then can we call ourselves pharmacists in any real, vital 
and significant sense. 

The great pity is that some ardent workers for the good of phar- 
macy persist in confounding the question of the desirability of regis- 
tration with the question of asking the state to grant life-long per- 
mits to practise pharmacy after proper examinations have been 
passed. The question of whether or not it is desirable to have an- 
nual registration to protect and adequately safeguard the pharma- 
cists' interests does not at all enter into consideration. Let us regis- 
ter our pharmacists annually or semiannually if we believe such 
measures are necessary. We may even do as Illinois and other 
states are doing with reference to registration of physicians; viz., 
deny the right to practise unless they are registered with the county 
clerk of the county where they reside. There are a hundred schemes 
that could be devised to secure these ends. We may even devise 
successful means of collecting enough fees to maintain our state 
boards until the legislatures become convinced that it is the duty 
and privilege of the states to appropriate for their support. But 
let us speedily and forever abolish the present degrading annual 
procedure of granting new leases of professional life at one dollar 
and fifty cents per annum. As a practical proposition it does of 
course " bring in the money." No one can deny that. It does help 
the secretary to collect the money the board needs and he does not 



26 Chemical Manufacturing in Philadelphia { A ™ a ^°ry ^917™' 

need to ask twice for it either. But should any body of men have 
the power to deprive a man of his life work, with the years of toil 
and study which it has cost him, simply because he fails to pay an 
annual fee? Such a condition does not find its counterpart in our 
entire social order. We are so accustomed to buying our " annual 
immunity " that most of us have come to feel the process entirely 
natural, and we either go blindly on thinking that it is for our own 
good, or we say, "Well, it's only a dollar and a half a year — that's 
fairly cheap. What's the use bothering about it? I'm willing to 
pay that much to keep protected and to prevent men from practising 
who have no license." We go on to build up pharmacy at the top 
and we leave the same old inadequate foundation below, without an 
added stone to strengthen it. A life permit to practise pharmacy 
would do more than any one other thing possibly could to create 
unity and give stability to our calling. It would help to create a 
professional atmosphere and lend dignity to our work. It would 
help to bring about conditions that would best enable us to continue 
our policy of higher education, which is vital to our existence. 



EARLY CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING IN 
PHILADELPHIA. 



By Professor Samuel P. Sadtler. 



The earliest efforts at chemical manufacturing in Philadelphia as 
in other parts of the American Colonies were undoubtedly due to 
the feeling of the colonists that they must free themselves from op- 
pressive trade regulations of the mother country. We read in the 
sketch of the career of one of the pioneers of Philadelphia chemical 
industry, the following : 

The earliest efforts of the colonists — the manufacture of coarse, woolen 
fabrics in 1719 — so excited the jealousy of Great Britain that the English 
Parliament declared " that the erecting of factories in the colonies must be 
discouraged at all cost," so every enterprise met with great opposition. It 
was not, however, until 1774 that Pennsylvania became so aroused by English 
oppression of her industries that a convention of delegates from all the coun- 
ties was held in Philadelphia. Joseph Reed was president, Jonathan B. 
Smith, John Benezet and Francis Johnston were secretaries. The convention 
earnestly enforced the strict observance of non-importation agreements and 
to provide against the inconvenience which might result, recommended the 



A jiniary ^f 7 m '} Chemical Manufacturing in Philadelphia. 27 

preservation of sheep until they were four years old, and the immediate 
establishment of the manufacture of woolens, salt, saltpetre, iron, nails, 
copper in sheets and kettles, malt liquors and gunpowder especially, " as there 
existed a great necessity' for the latter, particularly in the Indian trade." The 
convention advised the exclusive use of home manufactured articles and 
urged that associations be immediately formed for the encouragement of all 
domestic productions. 

This feeling only came to a head about the time of the beginning 
of the Revolutionary War. Prior to that in the Colonial period, the 
production of potashes and lime, some attempts at the extraction of 
salt from brines, tentative efforts at the making of gunpowder, and 
domestic utilization of the potashes in soap-boiling about comprised 
the chemical manufacturing industry. Of these the most important 
was the manufacture of potash from wood ashes. Scharf and 
Westcott's History of Philadelphia states that in 1772 the value of 
the potashes manufactured in America was ±50,000. 

As before stated, the oppressive trade regulations of England 
acted as an impelling force in the establishment of chemical indus- 
tries. Thus the exportation of powder and its materials from Eng- 
land was prohibited by an order of Council of October 19, 1774, so 
that the American Colonies were made dependent on other sources 
for their supply. 

The Continental Congress in various ways encouraged the erection of 
powder mills and also the production of nitrate of potash. Congress in 1775 
published a manual giving directions for making saltpetre, and about the 
same time the " Committee of the City and Liberties " erected a large salt- 
petre works on Market Street for the double purpose of making saltpetre 
and also to instruct such as were willing to engage in the making of this very 
necessary article for the powder mills. 

The manufacture of gunpowder was very extensively carried on during 
the Revolution in nearly all of the American Colonies. A very large propor- 
tion of this powder, however, was made in Pennsylvania. Philadelphia was 
among the first places in which powder mills were successfully operated. 

Early in the Revolution a public powder mill was established in or near 
Philadelphia by the Assembly, while Congress opened, and for some time 
operated, what was known as " The Continental Powder Mill." Congress 
also offered advances to such persons as would be willing to establish powder 
mills within fifty miles of the city of Philadelphia, and this offer was taken 
advantage of by many who subsequently supplied a liberal proportion of the 
powder used in the Continental Army. 

But to come back to the efforts of the Colonists to free them- 
selves in other lines from dependence on the mother country, we 



28 Chemical Manufacturing in Philadelphia { A ™iJ?ary ^tgxl™' 



read in the sketch of the career of Samuel Wetherill, from which 
we previously quoted : 

Samuel Wetherill was one of the promoters and managers of the " United 
Company of Pennsylvania for the establishment of American Manufacturers." 
He embarked his whole soul in the business, and in 1775 set up at his own 
dwelling house in South Alley, then called Hudson Square, now Commerce 
Street, a factory for jeans, fustians, everlastings and coatings. (Fustian is 
a cloth, the warp of which is linen and the woof thick cotton. It derived its 
name from Fusht, a town on the Nile where it was first made.) This, busi- 
ness was just for spinning and carding and did not necessitate any heavy 
machinery, but in order to properly prepare these goods it was necessary to 
have them dyed. There being no dyers in Philadelphia equal to the task, 
Samuel Wetherill was obliged to undertake this branch of the business also. 
His house on South Alley is described as being of two frames, which I 
suppose means what we would call a double house, and he was probably able 
to turn one frame into a factory and let his family live in the other. How- 
ever that may be, a little inconvenience more or less in those days did not 
matter, where all were working together for the common good and for the 
highest principles. ... So it was that Samuel Wetherill, who started as a 
carpenter, became a weaver, then chemist, etc., and when the war broke out 
he did not scruple about entering into a contract with Congress to furnish 
clothes for the patriot troops, being a patriot himself ; and it is said that his 
timely shipment of supplies to Washington's little army at Valley Forge saved 
it from disbanding. This, his allegiance to his country, and his expressed 
approval of bearing arms for its defense, were the cause of his being " dealt 
with" by the Society of Friends and cut off from religious communication 
and fellowship with them. Thereupon he and a few others who had publicly 
taken the oath of allegiance to the American cause started the Society called 
the " Free or Fighting Quakers." 

Probably the first to inaugurate the manufacture of chemicals, as such, in 
this country, was the firm of Christopher, Jr., and Charles Marshall, sons 
and successors of Christopher Marshall, an early druggist and one of the 
original " fighting Quakers " of Philadelphia ; this firm had, as early as 1786, 
entered quite extensively into the business of making muriate of ammonia 
and Glauber's salt. The factory is described by Watson, in his " Annals of 
Philadelphia," as being a grim and forbidding-looking building on Third 
Street near the stone bridge over the Cohocksink Creek. This firm is said to 
have developed an annual output of upwards of 6,000 pounds of muriate of 
ammonia; quite an achievement for that time. 

Manufacture of Sulphuric and Other Acids. 

Let us now take up the beginnings of the manufacture in Phila- 
delphia of one of the fundamentally important chemicals, viz., sul- 
phuric acid. This substance is recognized as the basis of all chem- 
ical industries and its manufacture must precede that of most other 



Am. jour, pharm. \ Chemical Manufacturing in Philadelphia. 

January, 1917. } j u 1 



29 



chemicals. The theory of the lead chamber process was already 
understood by chemists, by the middle of the eighteenth century. 
Ward had made it in England in 1740 on a large scale in glass 
vessels, and Dr. Roebuck first used leaden chambers instead of 
glass in Birmingham in 1746. The first lead chamber was erected 
in France at Rouen in 1766. 

Mr. John Harrison, the son of Thomas Harrison, a member of 
the Society of Friends, was an early Philadelphia druggist who had 
completed his education by spending two years in Europe, in part 
under the instruction of Dr. Joseph Priestley, the famous English 
chemist. Upon his return he began, in 1793, the manufacture in 
Philadelphia of various chemicals, and notably of sulphuric acid. 
He had at first a lead chamber capable of producing 300 carboys of 
acid per annum, and his laboratory at this time was on the north side 
of Green Street, west of Third. In 1804, he established a new fac- 
tory at Second and Huntingdon Streets, near Frankford Road, 
Kensington, but continued for a time the work on Green Street. In 
1807 he built what was for that time quite a large lead chamber; it 
was 50 feet long, 18 feet wide, and 18 feet high, and capable of 
making nearly half a million pounds of sulphuric acid annually, the 
price of which was then as high as 15 cents per pound. 

As is well known, acid produced in lead chambers, is not the oil of vitriol 
of commerce, and the only method known at that time to concentrate it to 
the required strength was by boiling it in glass retorts — a very precarious and 
dangerous process. The constant breakage of the glass largely increased the 
cost of the concentrated acid and the dangers of the work. To obviate this 
great trouble Mr. Harrison, in 1814, introduced the use of Platinum for the 
manufacture of sulphuric acid, for the first time, at least in this country. In 
the previous year, 1813, Dr. Eric Bollman, a Dane, had come to Philadelphia. 
Dr. Bollman was familiar with the metallurgy of Platinum, and a highly 
scientific man. He brought with him from France Dr. Wollaston's method 
for converting the crude grains of Platinum into bars and sheets. About 
the first use that Dr. Bollman made of these Platinum sheets was the con- 
struction, early in 1814, of a still for the concentration of sulphuric acid for 
the Harrison works. It weighed 700 ounces, had a capacity of 25 gallons 
and was in continuous use for fifteen years. This early application of 
platinum for such purposes was highly characteristic of the sagacity and 
ingenuity of the American manufacturer. At the time the use of this rare 
metal was a novelty in Europe and known only to a few persons and cer- 
tainly entirely unknown in this country. It follows, therefore, that Mr. John 
Harrison was not only the earliest successful manufacturer of Sulphuric 
Acid in America, but the first in this country to concentrate it in Platinum. 



30 Chemical Manufacturing in Philadelphia { Am an ^°^ ^\ r 7 m ' 

Farr and Kunzi were next in Philadelphia to follow the lead of 
Harrison in making sulphuric acid which it is stated they did in 
1 812, and shortly thereafter Wetherill & Bros, also began the manu- 
facture of sulphuric acid on the east bank of the Schuylkill River. 
Chas. Lennig, the founder of the present firm of Chas. Lennig & 
Co., Inc., also began the manufacture of sulphuric acid in 1829, 
Rosengarten & Sons shortly thereafter, and Carter & Scattergood in 
1834 also were early manufacturers of sulphuric acid. 

Nitric acid under the name of aqua fortis is mentioned in Scharf 
& Westcott's History of Philadelphia as made by Christopher Mar- 
shall, Jr., a Philadelphia druggist, at the close of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. A communication from Mr. Thos. Skelton Harrison says his 
grandfather, John Harrison, began to make both nitric and muriatic 
acids in 1804. Carter & Scattergood had it on their list of manu- 
factures in 1834. Muriatic acid is also mentioned as made by this 
latter firm in the year 1834, as were tartaric acid and citric acid. 



Manufacture of Paint Colors. 

We have here another record of which Philadelphia may be 
proud. We have already referred to the energetic work of Samuel 
Wetherill in starting American lines of manufacture just prior to the 
opening of the Revolutionary War. About 1789 he began the manu- 
facture of white lead in Philadelphia and persisted in it, despite great 
efforts made on the part of the importers to hinder him by under- 
selling and misrepresenting him. The first white lead factory of 
Samuel Wetherill & Sons was built in 1804 at the corner of Broad 
and Chestnut streets, but it was burned down a few years later, and 
in 1808 they erected a new factory at Twelfth and Cherry Streets. 

His son, Samuel Wetherill, Jr., was the active man of the concern, and 
assisted his father in all business matters. The enforced experience which 
was pressed upon them during the Revolution, concentrated their attention 
upon the manufacture and sale of chemicals, and they went into the drug 
business. In 1785 Samuel Wetherill & Son were located in Front Street 
above Arch. Here, for many years, " Wetherill' s drug store " was an old 
landmark, and the place at which sons and grandsons were brought up to 
the business. The Wetherills were the pioneers in the manufacture of white 
lead. They established it before the year 1790. They erected extensive white 
lead works near Twelfth and Cherry Streets, which were burnt down in 1813, 
but afterwards rebuilt. » 

The fire which destroyed the white lead works proved to be incendiary 
and started by a young English officer the day before he sailed for England. 



A jan*ua^' ^5™' ) Chemical Manufacturing in Philadelphia. 

In October, 1811, Samuel Wetherill, Jr., obtained patents for a new mode 
of washing white lead and for screening and separating metallic from cor- 
roded lead in the process of making red lead, and using the first machine ever 
used for manufacturing purposes in the United States This method has been 
generally adopted and used by all makers of lead. 

The name of the first white lead firm was Samuel Wetherill & Son, 
Samuel "Wetherill, Jr., evidently being the active member. After his father's 
death in 1816, Samuel Wetherill, Jr.'s, sons joined in the business and the 
firm became Samuel Wetherill & Sons. After the death of Samuel Wether- 
ill, Jr., in 1829 it became Wetherill Brothers. The store of the firm was at 
65 N. Front Street, the warehouse and mill of the old establishment were 
on Coomb's Alley, back of Second Street. 

When the residence part of the city spread to Twelfth and Cherry 
Streets, Samuel Wetherill having bought ten acres of land on the bank of 
the Schuylkill River below Chestnut Street, there in 1847, his sons, Wetherill 
and Brother, built the white lead and chemical works and continue to this day. 

John Harrison also began the manufacture of white lead in 1806. 
The firm of Mordecai & Samuel N. Lewis, which afterwards be- 
came John T. Lewis & Brothers, also began the manufacture of 
white lead in 1812, making three Philadelphia firms manufacturing 
paint colors at that time. These three earliest manufacturers of 
white lead and paint colors or their lineal successors have con- 
tinued in business to the present time, or considerably over a cen- 
tury, and have done much to give Philadelphia its long continued 
prominence as a chemical manufacturing center. 

Chromates were probabfy first made in Baltimore, though as early as 
1816 a Mr. Wesener, a German chemist, had established himself in Philadel- 
phia in the neighborhood of Broad and Cherry Streets, where he made 
chrome salts and chrome pigments in considerable quantities. Being nearer 
the source of supply of the raw material, the Baltimore manufacturers had a 
decided advantage, so much so that before the middle of the last century the 
business had drifted back to that city. 

The manufacture of varnishes followed that of paint colors. 
Christian Schrack who was a manufacturer of paints in Philadelphia 
in 1 81 6, later established the varnish manufacture, and already in 
1836 an export trade in American made varnishes had begun. 

The manufacture of shot by the granulation of lead while not 
properly called a chemical industry, is closely related to the lead pig- 
ment manufacture. This manufacture of lead shot was one of 
Philadelphia's earliest industries. From Winslow's "Biographies 
of Successful Philadelphia Merchants," page 142, we quote : 



-22 Chemical Manufacturing in Philadelphia ( Al P- J° ur - pharm - 

J i v r k. January, 1917. 

On the fourth of July, 1808, the corner-stone of the Southwark shot 
tower, in John Street, between Front and Second, was laid by the firm of 
Cousland, Bishop and Sparks, and the building was pressed forward rapidly 
to completion. Thomas Sparks paid particular attention to this branch of 
the business, and in a short time the patent shot of the firm became cele- 
brated throughout the country. So long as this article was used by sportsmen 
and hunters, there seemed to be no difficulty about the propriety of the manu- 
facture in the firm. But when the war of 1812 broke out, the firm then being 
Bishop and Sparks, the senior partner, who was a consistent member of the 
Society of Friends, felt conscientious scruples as to the rightfulness of con- 
tinuing a manufacture which the United States now demanded should be 
turned to the production of munitions of war. John Bishop, therefore, with- 
drew from the firm, and retired from business. 

Thomas Sparks, therefore, continued the business for several years alone. 
In 1818 he took into partnership his brother, Richard Sparks, and the firm 
continued at No. 49 South Wharves, as Thomas and Richard Sparks, the 
shot tower operations being in full play. It was necessary that they should 
reside near the tower, and accordingly Thomas had his house at No. 476 
South Front Street and Richard at No. 478. This partnership did not last 
very long. Richard Sparks fell a victim to the } r ellow fever in the year 
1821, and for many years Thomas Sparks continued at No. 49 South Wharves, 
and at the shot tower, without a partner. In the year 1838 he took in with 
him his nephew, Thomas Sparks, Jr., a son of Richard. The business was 
then conducted under the firm name of Thomas & Thomas Sparks, Jr., at 
the old stand, which from No. 49 South Wharves had become No. 49 South 
Delaware Avenue. 

One of the lines of manufacture that contributed to make Phila- 
delphia a great chemical center early in the last century was that of 
the yellow and red prussiates of potash. I have been furnished 
a private memorandum concerning the activities of the firm who 
began this industry and were active in it for many years. 

Under the firm name of Carter & Scattergood a profitable chemical 
manufacturing business was conducted from 1834 to 1911; and was absorbed 
in the latter year by The Henry Bower Chemical Mfg. Co. 

John Carter and Joseph Scattergood bought out the old established busi- 
ness of "John & Daniel Elliott" found in 1754 by their grandfather John 
Elliott. 

The Elliotts' place of business and factory was originally on Front Street 
between Chestnut and Walnut Streets, but in 1812 the manufacturing work 
was transferred to a new factory which they erected at 19th and Pine Streets, 
John Carter becoming their apprentice January 1, 1816. 

The list of chemicals produced by Carter & Scattergood was an extensive 
one, John Carter being the manufacturer and Joseph Scattergood the busi- 
ness man of the concern. It included Citric, Tartaric, Oxalic, Nitric and 
Sulphuric Acids, Bichromate and Prussiates of Potash and many other arti- 



A jania?y ^igi™" } Chemical Manufacturing in Philadelphia. 33 

cles, but their operations during the first ten years of their business were on 
a scale which in this day would be considered quite small. 

Yellow Prussiat'e of Potash was first made by them in 1834 (that being 
so far as known the first production of the article in America) , but the 
demand was very small, only 472 pounds being absorbed by the market in 
that year. In 1835 the sales increased to 6,443 pounds, but it was not until 
1843 that the demand became large, the sales amounting in that year to 
69,470 pounds and rapidly increasing in the next two years, the sales in 1845 
being 207,522 pounds. 

The high price, over fifty cents per pound, and the keen demand of 
course resulted in active competition, and the market for many years was 
over-supplied. 

In the year 1846 Carter and Scattergood began to produce Red Prussiate 
of Potash, being the first in America. This was a highly profitable branch 
of the business until the introduction of coal-tar dyes, as substitutes for 
prussiate colors on woolen goods, gradually displaced it in the most important 
field of consumption. Except for the manufacture of Blue-Print Paper, 
there is now very little demand for it. 

Potash and ammonia alums were first made in Philadelphia by 
Chas. Lennig in 1837 and by Harrison Bros, in 1840. 

Coming now to the early manufacture of medicinal or pharma- 
ceutical chemicals which has long made Philadelphia famous, we 
find that George D. Rosengarten and Charles Zeitler as Rosengar- 
ten & Zeitler began the manufacture of chemicals in St. John Street, 
Philadelphia, about 1822. They were the first to manufacture the 
alkaloids of cinchona and opium in this country, having begun the 
manufacture of sulphate of quinine in 1823, of sulphate of morphia 
in 1832, and strychnine in 1834. The salts of quinine were also 
manufactured by John Farr in 1825. 

These two firms and their successors have had much to do with 
the establishment of Philadelphia as a chemical manufacturing cen- 
ter. After the withdrawal of Mr. Zeitler, which took place within 
a year, Mr. Rosengarten continued alone, later taking in a Mr. Den- 
nis. When this partner withdrew some twenty years later, the firm 
became Rosengarten & Sons, which business continued until the for- 
mation of the present combination with the other large Philadelphia 
manufacturer of medicinal chemicals, Powers & Weightman. 

" Farr & Kunzi began the manufacture of chemicals about 181 8. 
Abraham Kunzi, a Swiss by birth, retired in 1838, and the senior 
partner, John Farr, who had been born and brought up in England, 
associated with himself Thomas H. Powers and William Weight- 
man, two young Philadelphians, who had been in the employ of the 



34 Chemical Manufacturing in Philadelphia { A ™ an £°^ v -^f 7 m ' 

firm for some time. The new firm name was John Farr & Co. 
This was later changed to Farr, Powers & Weightman, and, on the 
death of the senior partner in 1841, the firm name was again 
changed ; this time to the title — Powers & Weightman," by which 
it was so long known throughout the entire country. These two 
firms in 1905 united under the name of the Powers-Weightman- 
Rosengarten Co. and continue as probably the best known manufac- 
turers of general and medicinal chemicals in the United States. 

The history of the commercial production of pure glycerine is 
also of interest in this account of Philadelphia's chemical achieve- 
ments. 

The late Robert Shoemaker while making medicinal plasters had 
his attention directed by Prof. Wm. Procter to the residuum liquid 
which was obtained. From this he prepared the first glycerine made 
in this city, if not in America, in 1846, and this was exhibited by 
Prof. Procter to his class at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
at the time. Mr. Shoemaker manufactured it for sale according to 
his statement for some years in connection with the manufacture of 
lead plaster. 

The later development of the refining of waste lyes containing 
glycerine was also a Philadelphia achievement and was worked out 
by the late Henry Bower. By the courtesy of his son, Mr. W. H. 
Bower, I am allowed to quote from a private letter which gives the 
account of his work, in his own words : 

Quite early in life, say in 1857, my attention was keenly directed to some 
mode of purifying these waste liquors of the Stearine Candle factories, and 
in that year I could have purchased the entire product of Crude Glycerine of 
the United States for a sum not exceeding $5,000, although the manufacture 
of it was nearly if not quite as large then, as now. 

I commenced work in earnest to experiment in purifying Glycerine in 
1858 — and expended long and weary efforts, all my earnings, as well as some 
borrowed money. I at first succeeded in producing an article sufficiently pure, 
for use in gas meters (in place of alcohol) to prevent freezing, and stoppage 
of the instrument — it was not however until about the middle of i860 that I 
succeeded in making and placing in the market a " Pure Inodorous Glycer- 
ine " ; even then the amount sold was quite insignificant. Inferior grades 
made their appearance about the same time in the West. The bland and 
neutral nature of the article, and the discovery of various uses for it, soon 
increased the demand to a marked extent; I was enabled from time to time 
to increase my works, and in increasing them was making steady inroad 
into the supply of the crude article. At this period— say in 1863— the business 
of refining Glycerine was scarcely known on the continent of Europe, and I 



A ?anuair V^t?™' ) Chemical Manufacturing in Philadelphia. 3 5 

exported small quantities to Hamburg paying a profit; Belgium, France, Ger- 
many and Austria were immense producers of Crude Glycerine, but like its 
sister product here in previous years, it only found its way to the sea. As 
before stated, the use and sale of the Refined continued to improve, the crude 
growing more scarce each season, until a point has been reached when every 
available pound is worked into a valuable product. It would not be out of 
the way to place the total value of all the Glycerine sold in the United States 
at this time at half a million of dollars. This sum could never have been 
reached had it not been for the discovery of a mode for refining, to which, 
so far as this country is concerned, I lay claim ; by a careful management of 
my business for some years I kept the process a secret, but in time some 
portions of it came to the knowledge of other persons, who have been enabled 
to produce very fair articles. There are besides myself, here, two refiners 
in Cincinnati, one in Chicago, and one in New York. 

There were of course other drug and chemical firms who were 
well and favorably known in the early half as well as the later half 
of the nineteenth century. 

We have already mentioned the name of Christopher Marshall, 
Jr., who was active in Revolutionary days. Himself the son of a 
druggist, he was succeeded by his son, Charles Marshall, and his 
grandson, Charles Marshall, Jr., who in 1814 established himself in 
the wholesale business at 310 Market Street. 

With this Charles Marshall, Jr., entered as an apprentice Geo. 
W. Carpenter, who later became one of the most prominent as well 
as successful of wholesale druggists in Philadelphia. The old store 
of Carpenter & Henszey at Eighth and Market Streets I remember 
quite well as it stood about forty years ago. 

A very well known drug firm of the latter half of the nineteenth 
century was that of Bullock & Crenshaw. They were the succes- 
sors to Smith & Hodgson who established themselves as druggists 
at the corner of Sixth and Arch Streets in 1819 where they con- 
tinued until 1849 when they disposed of their drug business to two 
of their employees who then formed the firm of Bullock & Crenshaw. 
This firm carried on not only a wholesale drug business but handled 
fine chemicals and chemical apparatus, supplying many colleges and 
schools throughout the country. In September, 1868, they moved 
to 528 Arch Street, where in larger quarters they carried on a flour- 
ishing business until the death of Mr. Chas. Bullock, the surviving 
partner. 

The firm French, Richards & Co. was for many years one of 
the best known of Philadelphia drug firms at its centrally located 



36 Notes from Research Laboratory. { A j an ^y 

store, Tenth and Market Streets. The founder of this firm was 
Clayton French who in 1840 entered the drug business as an appren- 
tice with a Dr. Edward S. Wilcox. This firm was disbanded in 
1890 on the death of its founder, but in the meantime its extensive 
cement and plaster department which was started in 1852 at Cal- 
lowhill Street and York Ave., had been erected in 1883 into a sep- 
arate business of Samuel H. French & Co. This has since devel- 
oped into a very extensive cement, plaster and dry color firm, now 
under the leadership of Howard B. French, a son of Samuel H. 
French of the original French, Richards & Co. firm. 

In conclusion I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to various 
friends for furnishing special information and the loan of papers, 
books and pictures of early chemical establishments. I would spe- 
cially mention Mr. Wm. H. Bower, Mr. Wm. C. Carnell, Mr. Thos. 
S. Harrison, Dr. Ewing Jordan, the Librarian of the University Club, 
and Mr. Spofford, the Assistant Librarian of the Historical Society, 
Mr. Howard B. French, Prof. Henry Kraemer of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy, and Mr. Martin I. Wilbert, formerly in this 
city but now in Washington, D. C. The last named published a 
valuable paper in the Franklin Institute Journal for May, 1904, on 
" Early Chemical Manufactures," from which I have quoted in the 
preparation of this paper. 

NOTES FROM THE RESEARCH LABORATORY, PARKE, 
DAVIS & COMPANY. 

Specific Therapy in Diseases of the Thyroid Gland. 

The study of the ductless glands comprises one of the most fas- 
cinating fields of medical research and investigations of recent years 
have afforded some startling revelations of the importance of the 
internal secretions in controlling physical and mental development, 
metabolism and the vital body functions. A practical aspect of this 
line of experimentation in the application of such knowledge to the 
specific treatment of diseases correlated with disturbed glandular 
functions. The thyroid gland, in particular, is interesting in this 
connection because specific measures have been developed for the 
treatment of diseased conditions associated both with deficient func- 
tionating and with excess secretion. 

The three classical types of disease due to decreased thyroid 



A janS5" ^917™'} Notes from Research Laboratory. 37 

secretion are infantile cretinism, cachexia thyropriva (cachexia 
strumipriva) and myxedema. 

These diseases are characterized chiefly by physical and mental 
inertia ; decreased metabolism ; abnormal sensations of taste, smell, 
and hearing ; subnormal temperature ; slow, weak pulse ; changes in 
the skin (dryness, abnormal pigmentation), falling and blanching 
of the hair, and tendency to obesity. In the infantile type, physical 
and mental development are greatly retarded and unless the thyroid 
deficiency is supplied such children become dwarfed and idiotic. 
The metabolism is decreased more in thyroid diseases than in any 
other known condition. 

In addition to the above clear-cut instances of diminished secre- 
tion of the thyroid, there are a number of conditions of hypo- 
thyroidism of less severe types. Certain cases of anemia, scurvy, 
mental disturbances ; retarded growth in children ; fatigue from 
slight exertion; tendency to obesity; swelling of the joints attended 
with feeling of stiffness, dryness of the skin with tendency of the 
nails to crack, and often associated with caries (decay) of the teeth ; 
and migraine — all these have been correlated by various investi- 
gators with deficient secretion of the thyroid. 

On the other hand, the four cardinal symptoms of " hyper " or 
too copious secretion are, enlargement of the thyroid, rapid heart 
action, nervousness, and exophthalmos (protrusion of the eye balls), 
These, with other secondary symptoms varying in character, consti- 
tute the symptom-complex of Graves' disease (exophthalmic goiter). 
The thyroid enlargement, while one of the constant symptoms, is 
not, as a rule, very marked. The cardiac and nervous symptoms 
as well as the exophthalmos vary with the degree of hyper-secretion. 
In advanced cases of exophthalmic goitre with marked toxemia, the 
nervous and cardiac disturbances are often extremely severe. 

In the treatment of the three typical forms of thyroid insuffi- 
ciency, the use of thyroid preparations has been attended with strik- 
ingly good results. The early administration of thyroid products 
in cretinism enables these children, who would otherwise be dwarfed 
and idiotic, to develop normally, both physically and mentally. The 
glandular material must, however, be administered over a period of 
many years, often during the entire lifetime of the patient. In 
cachexia thyropriva and myxedema, results of treatment are very 
much the same. 

With the other conditions which have been more or less loosely 



a 8 



Editorial. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
*- January, 19 17. 



associated with thyroid hyposecretion (thyroid insufficiency) the re- 
sults, as might be expected, have been more or less irregular. 
Thyroid therapy is not to be regarded as a panacea for all of the 
ills which have been described in connection with thyroid disturb- 
ances, but its intelligent application will often prove of great benefit 
in some of these more or less obscure types of thyroid inefficiency. 

Obesity is frequently found in conjunction with those clinical 
conditions associated with decreased thyroid activity, and it is a 
well-known fact that thyroid preparations are capable of bringing 
about a rapid loss in weight. Indiscriminate use of thyroid for this 
purpose is to be condemned. If given at all, it should be used only 
in the most conservative manner and combined with proper hygienic 
and dietetic measures. 

The serum or whole blood of animals from which the thyroid 
glands have been removed has been used with considerable success, 
in the treatment of Graves' disease (exophthalmic goiter). In 
exophthalmic goiter, we have an increased thyroid secretion and 
consequently a toxic condition manifesting itself chiefly by profound 
disturbances of the circulatory and nervous systems. The utiliza- 
tion of the blood from thyreoidectomized animals is based on the 
knowledge that there are normally present in the blood, substances 
which are neutralized by the thyroid secretion and which, in turn, 
are capable of neutralizing the thyroid substance. The removal of 
the thyroid gland permits an accumulation in the blood or of other 
body fluids of these substances having a specific neutralizing power 
for thyroid secretion and the subsequent administration either orally 
or hypodermatically of the blood or serum of animals treated in this 
way, affords a satisfactory means of controlling the thyroid toxemia. 



EDITORIAL. 

The Advancement of Pharmacy in Minnesota. 

It is a matter of gratification to all those interested in the de- 
velopment of pharmacy to note the active interest displayed by the 
members of the Minnesota State Pharmaceutical Association in se- 
curing a prerequisite law. Mr. Ebert, the champion of the retail 
druggists, when he lived said that " the Laws to regulate the prac- 
tice of pharmacy should protect the public, in whose interest they 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
January, 19 17. -* 



Editorial. 



39 



are enacted and they should also in some way benefit the druggist." 
In those states where prerequisite laws have been enacted there has 
never been the slightest desire to repeal such legislation, for it has 
been found not only helpful to the pharmacists themselves, but of 
incalculable benefit to the public. All legislation which is not built 
on the bed rock of the necessity of prerequisite educational require- 
ments, tends to the multiplication of drug stores and the demoraliza- 
tion of the practice of pharmacy. The failure to see this has been 
the chief cause in preventing the universal elevation of the apothe- 
cary in the United States and has caused the multiplication of evils 
connected with pharmacy. The time has gone by when any but the 
thoroughly educated applicant can be considered competent to own 
and conduct a drug store. It long has been known, as was ex- 
pressed by Hallberg in 1893, that "the average young man with two 
or three years experience in four or five different drug stores, by in- 
vesting a few dollars in quiz compends and watching the journals 
for the publication of questions, finds it a comparatively easy matter 
to pass a Board of Pharmacy Examination at the third or at the 
most the fifth time, that he applies." 

The recent report issued by the Legislative Committee of the 
Minnesota State Pharmaceutical Association is of more than local 
interest. Three fourths of the active registered pharmacists of that 
state have voted on the question of having a prerequisite pharma- 
ceutical education bill introduced in the coming session of the Min- 
nesota Legislature, and approximately 80 per cent, of those voting 
favor the proposed measure. 

The following table is of interest in showing how Minnesota 
pharmacists voted on the matter of introducing a Prerequisite Phar- 
maceutical Education Bill in the next session of the Minnesota Legis- 
lature (see page 40). 

The problems of Minnesota pharmacists are similar to those 
which other pharmacists are giving much thought to at the present 
time. The sale of drugs and medicines by peddlers and 'other un 
qualified merchants, dispensing by physicians, the supply of con. 
petent drug clerks, the rapidly increasing number of drug stores, 
and the methods to be employed for training the future pharmacists 
are all questions which cannot possibly be satisfactorily adjusted un- 
til pharmacy is placed upon a sound professional basis. 

These questions furthermore are public-health problems, for the 
practice of pharmacy stands next to the practice of medicine in 



40 



Editorial. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
<- January, 1917. 





A 

Total 
number 
Pharm. 


B 

Total 
number 
voting 


C 

Per 
cent. 

of A 
voting 


D 

Voting 
yes 


E 

Voting 
no 


F 
Per 
cent, 
of A 
voting 
yes 


G 
Per 
cent, 
of A 
voting 
no 


H 
Per 
cent. 

of B 
voting 
yes 


Minn. Regis. Pharm. act. 


















engaged in Minneapolis 


375 


245 


65.3 


188 


57 , 


50.1 + 


15.2 


76.7 + 


Minn. Regis. Pharm. act. 


















engaged in St. Paul. .. . 


218 


131 


60.0 + 


105 


26 


48.I + 


II.9 + 


80.1 + 


Minn. Regis. Pharm. act. 


















engaged in Duluth .... 


66 


36 


54-5 


29 


7 


43-9 + 


10.5 + 


80.5 + 


Minn. Regis. Pharm. act. 


















engaged outside of 




















881 


652 


74-0 + 


496 


156 


56.3 


17.7 


77. - 


Total number of Minn. 


















Regis. Pharm. act. en- 


















gaged in the State 


1. 540 


1,059 


69. 


814 


245 


53- 


15.9 


77- 



Note: — 7 votes non-committal were received. 

7 ballots were sent in marked " yes " but without signature. 
1 ballot was sent in marked " no " but without signature. 
12 ballots, all marked " yes," were received from M. S. Ph. A. 
members outside of Minnesota. 
145 ballots marked "yes" and 10 marked "no" were received after 
the above table was compiled. 

rendering pharmacological service to the public. The social and 
moral welfare of our communities is involved, for pharmacists by 
law hold the responsible duty of restricting to proper and legitimate 
uses narcotic and poisonous drugs. 

Educational preparedness has brought forth success and pros- 
perity in many fields of endeavor and it will do for pharmacy what 
it has done for other occupations. Of all the states in the Union, 
Minnesota stands to-day unexcelled in point of equipment and facili- 
ties for imparting pharmaceutical instruction. It is, therefore, not 
surprising that the pharmacists of the state have grasped the oppor- 
tunity afforded them to secure that which will be of benefit to 
pharmacy and the public. 

The professional drug business is constantly being demoralized 
by commercial influences, and not the least among these is the medi- 
cine peddler. These vendors with little knowledge of drugs and 
medicines are practicing pharmacy, and in some instances, medicine. 
State laws which to a degree restrict the practice of these profes- 
sions to those best fitted by educational qualifications are therefore 
not infrequently nullified. Legislative bodies should increase the 
educational qualifications requested by pharmacists and by so doing 
provide professional pharmacists for the future who would unques- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. j 
January, 1917- * 



Editorial. 



4i 



tionably be best fitted to give that protection which the public has a 
right to demand. 

Those who have made a careful study of the development of 
pharmacy and medicine in this country are not quick to condemn in 
inexcusable terms the practice of dispensing by physicians, or the 
sale of articles included in the so-called side lines of the pharmacist. 
These practices have arisen in most instances, no doubt, not from a 
matter of choice, but rather from necessity. The country, a few 
years ago, was being oversupplied with graduates in medicine. At 
the present time we have one physician for approximately every 700 
persons. Before this time many physicians sought to increase their 
revenue from other sources than professional fees. Physicians 
could not well engage in the sale of miscellaneous merchandise, but 
they could sell drugs, and the result was dispensing physicians. For- 
tunately for medicine, and the public as well, the annual number of 
graduates from our medical schools is now less than half of what it 
was a few years ago. This change has been brought about by in- 
creasing educational requirements, the only manner in which such 
control can be regulated under our system of government. 

The public needs not more physicians, but better physicians, and 
likewise in pharmacy the real need is not for a larger number of 
pharmacists, but rather for better pharmacists. Such conditions 
can obtain only when the number of pharmacists is not in great ex- 
cess of the professional service demanded, as at present. 

The profession of pharmacy is gradually going through an evo- 
lution similar to that through which medicine has passed. Higher 
educational requirements for pharmacists will in time reduce the 
number of drug stores to a point more nearly in accord with the 
pharmaceutical requirements of the public. Pharmacists and the 
general public are rapidly coming to appreciate the importance of 
legislation along these lines, and prerequisite bills will be introduced 
in the legislatures of the following states this month : Indiana, New 
Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Colorado, Michi- 
gan, Montana, Iowa, Virginia, Louisiana, Illinois, West Virginia 
and Minnesota. 

When standards commensurate with the profession are estab- 
lished, pharmacy will develop professionally. The public demands 
professional pharmaceutical service and pharmacy should therefore 
be maintained under such conditions that the public may receive the 
best expert service. 



4 2 



Book Reviews. 



| Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 19 17. 



The interest of the public in the development of professional 
pharmacy was well expressed by the late Gov. Winfield S. Ham- 
mond who stated (Amer. Jour. Pharm., 191 5, p. 142), " It would be 
unfortunate if this old-time honorable profession should become 
merely business. . . . We would not want our lawyers, our doctors, 
our apothecaries, our clergymen to be distinguished principally as 
mere business men. We like to have them remain in the realm of 
professionalism, and be as great and as useful in professional work 
as others are in the business field. . . . 

"We are all interested in legislation tending to restrict the use 
of noxious drugs. Here is a line of endeavor that, of course, should 
be absolutely divorced from the business end of the work. Here is 
a question that appeals to you as professional men and as men wdio 
desire to adapt your profession to the best interests of your brothers 
and your sisters, and any attempt, I fear, to connect this kind of 
legislation with the business end of the pharmacist's occupation and 
profession would tend to detract from the high professional stand- 
ing that the apothecary has always had and that the modern phar- 
macist should endeavor to maintain." 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

A Treatise on Pharmacy for Students and Pharmacists, 
by Charles Caspari, Jr. Fifth Edition, Enlarged and Revised. Il- 
lustrated with 337 engravings. Publishers, Lea and Febiger, Phila- 
delphia and New York. 

This textbook for students of pharmacy is intended as a com- 
pendium to the United States Pharmacopoeia and the National 
Formulary. The recent revision of these two legal authorities for 
drug standards and formulas necessitated the fifth edition of this 
publication to bring it up to date and in order that its statements 
may conform to the official requirements. 

From the viewpoint of the book maker, the book is excellent ; 
paper and binding both good, type clear, and the illustrations, judi- 
cious selections, well serving their purpose. The typographical 
errors are few indeed : unfortunately, the typesetter had to bungle 
" official formulas " on the first page of the preface. 

The subject matter is divided into three parts. Part I is called 
General Pharmacy and treats of the pharmacopoeias and what could 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 1917. 



Book Reviews. 



43 



be termed the Physics of Pharmacy. Part II is named Practical 
Pharmacy and this could with propriety be denominated Galenical 
Pharmacy. Part III is a concise treatment of Pharmaceutical 
Chemistry. 

Chapter I is a succinct account of the intent, history and plan 
of the United States Pharmacopoeia. In subsequent chapters of 
Part I the subjects of weights and measures, specific gravity, heat, 
subdivision of drugs, solution, etc., are presented. The chemical 
and physical principles underlying the process of solution are set 
forth and the subject of "Colloidal Solutions" is clearly explained 
in a paragraph devoted to this interesting phenomenon. 

One notes that throughout the book the word " mil " is always 
followed by "(or Cc.)." The publicity already given to the adop- 
tion of the word " mil " by both the U. S. Pharmacopoeia and the 
National Formulary should have obviated the necessity for anything 
more than an explanatory statement and this monotonous tautology 
could have been omitted. 

The subject of Sterilization is considered in " Chapter VII. 
Solution " and again in " Chapter IX. Separation of Non-Volatile 
Matter." Sterilization and pasteurization are of sufficient impor- 
tance to merit treatment in a separate chapter as distinct processes 
and more especially since the Pharmacopoeia and National Formu- 
lary have set such an example which can be followed by works on 
pharmacy. 

In a short chapter " Crystallization " is admirably presented to 
the extent of the needs of the pharmacist. 

Under the classification of the products used in pharmacy, we 
note that in the treatment of " Fats," the various official fixed oils 
and fats are enumerated and in a separate paragraph each is de- 
scribed, and then in a chapter in Part III. Pharmaceutical Chem- 
istry, much of this is repeated. 

There are a few statements in the book to which one may take 
exception. The pharmacist will object to considering the official 
Compound Solution of Cresol as an emulsion (p. 369). Botany 
requires exact adherence to its scientific terms and definitions. The 
statement on page 108, "only the inner bark being employed, the 
outer epidermis should be removed," is subject to the criticism that 
the writer evidently uses " epidermis " when he intends the outer 
layers. In the official barks the outer portion removed is much 
more than the epidermis and not infrequently includes the cork and 



44 



Book Reviews. 



/Am. Jour. Pharna. 
*■ January, 19 17. 



even the primary cortex. Another inaccuracy is noted on page 363, 
where lycopodium is in the following quoted sentence twice referred 
to as a seed: " In making emulsion of lycopodium, it becomes neces- 
sary to triturate the seed dry, with some pressure, in order to rup- 
ture the hard seed envelope." 

The tendency among the modern authors on pharmacy is to dif- 
ferentiate more clearly and sharply between :the various classes of 
medicinal preparations. In this book the differentiation has not been 
as clearly drawn and distinct as could reasonably have been expected. 
An example of this is seen in the consideration of " Ampuls " in the 
chapter entitled " Compressed Tablets and Tablet Triturates." The 
method of preparation of ampules and the finished products bear no 
relation or similarity to tablets and their manufacture. Moreover, 
the extensive use of ampules for exhibiting all forms of medicine 
warrants a separate chapter devoted to that subject. Similarly, we 
note that in the chapter on " Pills " there is introduced in the dis- 
cussion of pill making and coating a description of the methods and 
machinery employed in manufacturing soft elastic capsules and 
gelatin globules or pearls for encapsulating liquids. Would it not 
have been a better classification to have treated Suppositories in 
the chapter devoted to " Ointments, Cerates and Allied Prepara- 
tions " rather than with Plasters ? Possibly the importance of Sup- 
positories as a distinct dosage form should have necessitated a sepa- 
rate chapter on that subject. 

The various classes of official preparations are, as a rule, com- 
mendably treated and the tabulations commonly used for their pres- 
entation, while concise, are clear expositions. The chapter on 
Syrups is an excellent example of such tabulation. 

" The Prescription " is very quickly dispensed in a chapter of 
less than fourteen pages, of which three pages are devoted to sample 
prescriptions and three pages to abbreviations and terms used in 
prescription writing. The subject of incompatibility, so closely re- 
lated to the pharmacists' important duty of compounding prescrip- 
tions, is treated in a prior chapter on " Mixtures," which is largely 
devoted to the consideration of the official mixtures. 

There is much to commend in this volume and comparatively 
little of importance to criticize adversely. The defects pointed out 
are, after all, only minor ones that can be readily corrected in a 
future edition and will detract very little from its serviceableness as 



A jani°a 1 ^' ^17™' ) Wilbert Memorial Meeting. 45 

a textbook. The very conciseness and clarity of the author's ex- 
pounding of the formulas and requirements of the U. S. P. and N. 
F. accrue to the value of the volume and make it more useful as a 
textbook for pharmaceutical students. Doubtless, it will well serve 
the purpose of the author as " a guide to the intelligent study of 
these two national authorities." 

G. M. B. 

Lessons in Pharmaceutical Latin and Prescription Writ- 
ing and Interpretation, by Harry G. Muldoon, Ph.G., Instructor 
in Latin, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. Published by John 
Wiley & Sons. 

This little volume is intended for medical and for pharmacy stu- 
dents. So in addition to the customary lessons in Latin declensions 
and inflections, there is presented also information on prescription 
writing not only from the standpoint of Latin, but also involving the 
Metric System and the Harrison Antinarcotic Act. Special emphasis 
is placed on interpretation of Latin titles and of abbreviations, pro- 
nunciation of Latin being deemed of lesser importance. 

" Neither drug store experience nor previous knowledge of Latin 
is assumed." 



WILBERT MEMORIAL MEETING. 

Forty-one representatives of various branches of the pharma- 
ceutical and medical professions gathered in the Philadelphia Col- 
lege of Pharmacy on Thursday afternoon, December 7, 1916, at 
two forty-five p.m. to do honor to the memory of Martin Inventius 
Wilbert, who passed away on Saturday morning, November 25. 
Twenty-seven organizations of the chemical, pharmaceutical and 
medical professions were represented and Mr. Howard B. French, 
President of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, was unani- 
mously chosen to preside at the meeting. Owing to pressure of 
other engagements, Mr. French relinquished the chair to Mr. George 
M. Beringer when the meeting was about half over. Robert P. 
Fischelis was unanimously chosen to act as secretary of the meet- 
ing. The following bodies were represented : 



46 



Wilbert Memorial Meeting. 



{ 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 19 17. 



New York Branch of American Pharmaceutical Association, 
New York College of Pharmacy, 

Baltimore Branch of American Pharmaceutical Association, 

Maryland College of Pharmacy, 

New Jerse}^ Pharmaceutical Association, 

American Pharmaceutical Association, 

American Chemical Society, 

American Therapeutic Society, 

American Academy of Medicine, 

American Medical Association, 

Pennsylvania Medical Society, 

Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, 

Pennsylvania Society for Prevention of Tuberculosis, 

United States Pharmacopceial Revision Committee, 

National Formulary Revision Committee, 

Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American Medical Association, 
Pennsylvania Board of Pharmacy, 
College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 

Philadelphia Branch of American Pharmaceutical Association, 
German Hospital, 

Philadelphia Association of Retail Druggists, 
Philadelphia Drug Exchange, 
Philadelphia County Medical Society, 
Philadelphia Pediatric Society, 
Child Federation of Philadelphia, 
Philadelphia Medical Club. 

While the secretary made note of the representatives present, 
Chairman French read communications from the following : 



Dr. H. V. Amy, New York City, 

Dr. John B. Deaver, Philadelphia, 

Mr. John F. Hancock of Baltimore, 

Mr. S. L. Hilton of Washington, D. C, 

Mr. Joseph L. Lemberger, Lebanon, Pa., 

Mr. David J. Reese, Philadelphia, Pa., 

Dr. I. V. S. Stanislaus of Lock Haven, Pa. 



Professor Remington moved that a committee be appointed, which 
would as far as possible represent the associations taking part in 
the meeting, to draw up suitable resolutions, have them engrossed 
and sent to Mrs. Wilbert. The motion was seconded by Dr. F. E. 
Stewart, and carried. Professor Kraemer moved that a copy of 
these resolutions be also sent to Dr. Wilbert's parents. This mo- 
tion was seconded by Mr. Thum and carried. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
January, 19 17. 



Wilbert Memorial Meeting. 



47 



President French then declared the meeting open for comments 
on the life and activities of the departed. Professor Remington in 
a few well-chosen words related the circumstances connected with 
Dr. Wilbert's death and gave a general outline of his career in phar- 
macy. Dr. F. E. Stewart endorsed the sentiments expressed by 
Professor Remington and pointed out what a loss had come to pro- 
fessional pharmacy by the death of Dr. Wilbert. Mr. H. E. Smith, 
vice-president of the German Hospital, spoke of Dr. Wilbert's con- 
nection with that institution, lauding his work very highly. Profes- 
sor E. G. Eberle read a beautiful tribute summing up the activities 
of Dr. Wilbert during his lifetime and referring to his influence upon 
modern pharmaceutical and medical thought. Dr. H. P. Hynson 
feelingly expressed his sense of loss through Dr. Wilbert's death, as 
he had been an intimate friend of the deceased for many years and 
shared his views on the pharmaceutical problems of the day. He 
urged that Wilbert's life and works be made a subject of careful 
study by the coming generation of pharmacists, as great good would 
surely come of his work if it be carried on to its ultimate conclusion. 
Professor Hostmann also expressed the view that Wilbert's in- 
fluence on the younger men in pharmacy would be a profound one. 
Dr. J. W. Sturmer spoke of Dr. Wilbert's activities in the Phila- 
delphia Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association which 
he helped to organize, and said that the many printed pages in our 
pharmaceutical publications were monuments to Wilbert's career. 
His work has ceased but his influence will go on indefinitely. Pro- 
fessor C. H. La Wall referred to Dr. Wilbert's work as a member 
of the Xational Formulary Revision Committee and as the author 
of " Digest of Comments on the Pharmacopoeia and Xational For- 
mulary." Professor Henry Kraemer read a letter from one of Dr. 
Wilbert's sisters in which Dr. Wilbert's early history was portrayed. 
Dr. William D. Robinson, who had worked with Dr. Wilbert at the 
German Hospital, commented upon his scientific attainments, es- 
pecially in the operation and development of the X-ray. He stated 
that Dr. Wilbert had been of incalculable value to the medical profes- 
sion and had been ready and willing at all times to assist physicians 
in their work. 

Other speakers were Drs. P. Samuel Stout, A. T. Pollard, 
Charles L. Turnbull and Franklin M. Apple. 



4 8 



Wilbert Memorial Meeting. { A ™- J° ur - Pharm - 

& *■ January, 1917. 



Mr. George M. Beringer concluded the remarks with a reference 
to the magnitude of Wilbert's work and then appointed the follow- 
ing Committee on Resolutions : Chairman, Joseph P. Remington, 
W. D. Robinson, Henry Kraemer, E. G. Eberle, R. P. Fischelis. 

Robert P. Fischelis, 

Secretary. 

CURRENT LITERATURE. 

Conference on Medicinal Herb Growing 

A Conference of Herb Growing Associations and of others inter- 
ested in this new industry was held September 27 in London under 
the auspices of the Central Committee for National Patriotic Or- 
ganisations, which has been strenuously endeavouring to place the 
industry on a sound footing. 

The following resolutions were carried unanimously : 

" 1. That it is the opinion of this Conference that none of the 
existing organisations as at present constituted in connection with 
the growing and collection of medicinal herbs meets the needs of 
the industry from a national point of view, that these needs can only 
be met by the establishment of definite relations on organised lines 
between the organised and unorganised herb-growers of the country, 
the objects of which shall include the 

" (a) Interchange of information and suggestions and the produc- 
tion and distribution of suitable literature and the organisation of 
propaganda. 

"(b) Investigating of the requirements of central, local, and other 
markets, and regulating prices. 

"(c) Regulating of the production, collection, treatment, output 
and delivery of herbs to meet the needs of the various markets. 

"(d) The furnishing of the necessary funds to accomplish these 
objects. 

" 2. That the consideration of how best to establish such relations 
and carry out the aforementioned objects be referred to a special 
committee, not exceeding twenty-one in number." On this com- 
mittee were to be representatives of the various herb-growing asso- 
ciations of Scotland, Ireland and England. 




Martix Inventius Wilbert, 1865-1916. 



THE AMEEICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 




By John K. Thum, Ph.G., ^^^i^™.^-^ 
Pharmacist at the German Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Martin Inventius Wilbert was born at West Leyden, Lewis 
County, N. Y., June the first, 1865. He was born of German par- 
ents, the second child in a large family. At the age of four years 
and two months his education was begun in a nearby country school. 
Subsequently he attended a private school in Utica, where he gave 
particular attention to the study of the language of his forbears, and 
later on attended Archambault's Academy in the city of Montreal. 

His family on both the paternal and maternal side came to this 
country in 1852, his father having been born in Prussia and his 
mother in southern Germany. Their people were pioneers in what 
is now known as the Adirondack Preserve of New York State, clear- 
ing out their land and building homes of logs, which, as progress 
manifested itself, were followed by frame buildings. 

Dr. Wilbert had the advantage of being brought up under an en- 
vironment and home training whose influence manifestly shaped his 
whole career. His father had been educated in the German schools 
of north Germany, and as these schools are noted for their thorough- 
ness and the strict discipline with which they are conducted, the 
studious habits and sense of discipline which he acquired naturally 
influenced and guided him in the training of his son. Those of us 
here in Philadelphia who were associated with Dr. Wilbert in his 
work, and in a position to observe his whole career, can readily tes- 
tify to the thoroughness with which he did his work; no detail of 
it ever escaped his watchful eyes. 

Of all the mental faculties that man can be blessed with, un- 




MARTIN I. WILBERT, Ph. 



FEBRUARY, 191 




(49) 



Martin I. Wilbert. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 

*■ February, 19 17. 



doubtedly, that of a retentive memory, properly trained and culti- 
vated, is of most use to him in the development of his intellect. 
Our friend had this in a most amazing degree, a memory that can 
only be described as tenacious, and this was supplemented with the 
gift or power of concentration. Some people say that the former is 
naturally the result of the latter, but a closer examination of this 
question will reveal that while concentration of the mind is con- 
ducive to the development of the memory cells, it does not altogether 
explain the wonderful examples we sometimes come in contact with, 
of retention by the mind of things seen or read, and which are always 
available for use by the fortunate owner at a second's notice. Both 
his father and mother are noted in the family for their remarkable 
memory power and their son inherited this faculty in generous pro- 
portions. And, as memory is the purveyor of reason, here we have 
the answer in this case as to why this man had such a particularly 
fine type of mind. 

Besides being the possessor of this extraordinary memory he had 
remarkably keen power of observation. His mother has always 
been exceedingly fond of plants and nothing delighted her more than 
to have time for cultivating them and watching them grow, and 
her son Martin took after her very much in this respect. Plant 
life always had a strong fascination for him; nothing would please 
him more than an opportunity for a ramble in the fields and woods 
and the chance to study the plants in their natural environment. In 
this love of nature one unconsciously broadens in many directions, 
acquires a keenness of observation that becomes second nature, 
and develops the scientific mind. And Wilbert had this in a large 
measure. 

After some time spent in the employ of a drug store in the 
city of Utica, he was impressed with the need for a broader field, 
more systematic training, and education along pharmaceutical lines, 
such as a recognized college of pharmacy could give. Accordingly, 
he came to Philadelphia and matriculated at the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy, from which he graduated with honor in 1890. He 
owned and conducted a retail store in Philadelphia for a very short 
time, and in 1891 he was appointed apothecary to the German Hos- 
pital, Philadelphia. At this splendid institution, built upon efficiency 
and devoted to service, he soon impressed the authorities with the 
fact that he was a man of ability and promise. In fact, he always 
impressed most people that he came in contact with as an unusual 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 19 17. 



Martin I. Wilbert. 



man. I met him for the first time when I was about sixteen years 
of age and was quite impressed with the great fund of information 
that he possessed and the kindly manner in which he would place 
it at the disposal of whoever might be in need of some of it. In- 
deed, I have never met a man who was so willing to help others. 
And he possessed in a great degree the virtue of patience, almost 
unlimited patience ! 

Dr. Wilbert proved himself to be a most valuable addition to the 
hospital in many ways. He possessed the faculty of criticism in a 
large degree but, unlike most criticism, it was of a constructive na- 
ture; what he tore down he replaced with a better structure. He 
never seemed to be at a loss for ideas. In fact, he was that most 
useful oi men, the man with ideas ! There is always room in the 
world for such a type of man, and especially so in a modern hospital. 

Just previous to his departure for Philadelphia to further his 
studies in pharmacy, amateur photography became very much the 
fashion and, with his usual avidity for knowledge, he provided him- 
self with a camera and the necessary books on this absorbingly in- 
teresting subject. To one of his studious nature and research mind, 
the fundamental principles of this delightful science and art were 
soon mastered. Unlike many amateurs he performed every detail 
of the work necessary to obtaining the final picture. Every phase 
of the work was to him a great delight ; from the ramble in the fields 
or woods in order to get some interesting bit of landscape or other 
view of glorious nature to the developing and printing of the ex- 
posures he made. 

This proficiency in photography which he acquired stood him in 
good stead in after years at the hospital. He became one of the 
pioneers in the use of the X-ray in this country. It was very shortly 
after Roentgen had announced to the world his epoch-making dis- 
covery, that the German Hospital began giving its patients the benefit 
of this additional aid in diagnosis and treatment. 

Dr. Wilbert himself made the first X-ray machine used in this 
institution and operated it himself with great success for some time 
We still have it here, but only as an interesting relic. It would now 
he regarded as a very crude affair compared to the magnificent mod- 
ern plant in use at the German Hospital at the present time. 

Naturally, to a man of his exceptional ability and all-consuming 
acquisitiveness for knowledge, work of this kind was most congenial 
and interesting. In recognition of his work along this line, and 



5* 



Martin I. Wilbert. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm, 

February, 19 17. 



firmly convinced that this science would become a requisite for a 
modern hospital, the board of trustees of the German Hospital 
created a department of Roentgenology, and elected him the director 
thereof. He still, however, retained his position of chief apothecary. 
Besides being one of the pioneers in this work in this country he was 
also a frequent contributor to the literature that this wonderful 
science has evolved. 

Strangely enough, while many of the pioneer workers were af- 
fected by constant exposure to this phenomenon of electricity, and 
some even lost their lives therefrom, Dr. Wilbert himself never 
seemed to have developed those insidious burns from which nearly 
all the early workers subsequently suffered. While some of these 
early workers scoffed at any possibility of danger, he was always 
careful to so conduct his work as to reduce personal exposure to a 
minimum. His common sense, which he had a good share of, is 
best illustrated by the reasons he gave for his carefulness in not 
permitting himself to be subjected to any unnecessary exposure. 
He said : " If this phenomenon of electricity is so very potent for 
good, it may in an equal measure be potent for extreme harm." 
Our present positive knowledge on this subject proves him to have 
been right. 

It would be impossible within the brief scope of this memoir to 
go very deeply into his career as apothecary at the hospital. When 
the beautiful and imposing front had been added to the hospital in 
1894, he was given permission to arrange and thoroughly equip a 
complete hospital pharmacy. To this day the German Hospital 
pharmacy is ample testimony to the capable and thorough manner 
in which he carried out this mission. From the day he came here, 
and, we are happy to say, to the present time, pharmacy has been 
practiced as the leaders with ideals in American pharmacy have al- 
ways wished it to be practiced. Dr. Wilbert always held that the 
tendency of the average pharmacist to be satisfied to be a mere dis- 
penser was a very regrettable one and if not checked would indefi- 
nitely postpone the day when pharmacy would be generally regarded 
as a profession. 

He always held the opinion that the pharmacist was morally re- 
sponsible for all medicines dispensed. He continued to hold to this 
to the end. It was a principle that he always fought valiantly for, 
and in return he was subjected to return fire from others who 
sometimes neglected to fight like gentlemen. However, those who 



7 

/ 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 

February, 19 17. ' 



Martin I. Wilbert. 



53 



fight for a principle must be prepared for this, and, as Wilbert was 
a philosopher, he accepted the abuse and scurrility that was some- 
times handed out to him with that spirit that only a great character 
always exhibits. 

At the German Hospital pharmacy he adopted at once the policy 
of buying the crude drugs and chemicals from reliable sources and 
carefully testing them to see that they came up to official require- 
ments. When they failed to meet the standards they were returned 
with a courteous note explaining the reasons therefor. He was a 
great believer in doing an unpleasant thing in a pleasant way. In 
other words he was always a gentleman. When the tested drugs 
and chemicals came up to the requirements, and not before, they 
were then manufactured into the various pharmaceutical prepara- 
tions and dosage forms. This policy of manufacturing our own 
preparations was of inestimable benefit to both our patients and doc- 
tors, as the latter were always sure that medicines were true to label, 
and that their patients were getting just what they wanted them to 
get. 

Everything in the pharmaceutical line was made, fluidextracts, 
effervescent salts, elixirs, emulsions, glycerites, infusions, liniments, 
collodion, ointments, suppositories, medicated waters, syrups, tinc- 
tures, troches, spirits, solutions, and mixtures of all kinds, hypoder- 
matic tablets, and many thousands of compressed tablets in the 
course of a year. All this meant work and plenty of it, but it was 
pharmacy and was in the interests of economy. As the hospital, 
like all charitable institutions, has the privilege of tax-free alcohol, 
it was a distinct asset for it to have in its employ a man who was a 
real pharmacist and who was willing to work at it. And our dear 
friend was all of that ; and not only that, but he had the happy fac- 
ulty of inspiring his associates to the same desire for work and use- 
fulness. 

It was due to his initiative that the hospital has its own apparatus 
for making carbonated waters. Some years as many as over ten 
thousand bottles of these are filled. An automatic water still is 
also one of our useful possessions and the idea is one of the many 
good ones from his fertile brain. 

Dr. Wilbert always had a horror for secrecy in the manufacture 
and sale of medicines, and while it may be admitted that many pro- 
prietaries do not come within this category, yet he could not alto- 
gether reconcile himself to even these, he contending that as the 



54 



Martin I. Wilbert. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 

<• February, 19 17. 



patients generally paid many times what they would have to pay for 
a prescription of useful pharmacopceial drugs, it was not altogether 
honest. For a prescription to be presented to him calling for one 
or more proprietary medicines was like gall and wormwood to him. 
He felt so strongly and earnestly on this matter that the board of 
trustees, at his request, adopted the following resolution : " No pre- 
scription containing in all, or in part, a proprietary medicine shall 
be compounded or dispensed at the pharmacy of the hospital, unless 
the prescription shall be personally signed by a chief of the house, 
or a chief of the dispensary, or by the medical superintendent." 

We doubt if there is another hospital in the country where the 
doctors confine themselves so closely to the prescribing of the really 
useful drugs known to science; where the administration of medi- 
cines is carried out in so rational and intelligent a manner. Our in- 
ternes are cautioned against gullibility, and taught the advantages of 
exhibiting an intelligent and honest skepticism in regard to the newer 
remedies. We are fair to everybody when we assert that this pol- 
icy was largely due to Dr. Wilbert's influence. 

One of the most useful things that Dr. Wilbert did for pharmacy 
in this city was the initiative that he took in the organization of the 
Philadelphia Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 
His activity in this matter was really the beginning of his develop- 
ment as the most marked power and personality in the profession 
of pharmacy to-day, and helped to develop him as the one who really 
and actually was the connecting link between the two professions of 
medicine and pharmacy. There was not a little diffidence among 
some of the leaders of pharmacy in this good old City of Brotherly 
Love at that time as to the advisability of starting, and the necessity 
for such, an organization. But behind our friend's genial disposi- 
tion there was an indomitable will, and by the exercise of tact and 
diplomacy he aroused an enthusiasm that was almost equivalent to 
his own and the Branch was organized at once, with everybody won- 
dering why, in the birthplace of pharmacy in this country, Philadel- 
phians had not seen to it that the organization of the first branch 
should take effect in this typically American city, where nearly all 
the great movements in medicine and pharmacy had their inception. 

The members of the newly-organized branch, in casting about 
for a secretary, for after all is said, the live wire in any organiza- 
tion is, or should be, the secretary, immediately recognized the 
fact that Dr. Wilbert was admirably fitted for this office and the 



Am. Jour. Pharm.] 

February, 19 17. 



Martin I. Wilbert. 



55 



logical man for the position. He was repeatedly reelected to this 
position and held it up to the time that he went to Washington. 

Few could resist his infectious leadership and everyone of the 
membership put their shoulders to the wheel and strived to put phar- 
macy on a higher and better plane. I am sure that many of the 
thinking men in medicine and pharmacy in this city will agree with 
me when I say that his whole influence was directed to bringing 
about better relations between the physicians and pharmacists, not 
only in this City, but in the whole State, and he to a very large ex- 
tent succeeded. 

But Dr. Wilbert always held that such improved relationship 
could not be brought about and held, without a realization on the 
part of pharmacists of their shortcomings and an honest en- 
deavor on their part to overcome them. He always freely acknowl- 
edged that there were many pharmacists who were of a high- water 
mark, but he always insisted, with fearless emphasis, that it was the 
duty of the more intelligent and better type of men in pharmacy, 
not to be merely content with the example they set to the rank and 
file of pharmacy, but to organize, point the way, and lead it to better 
things. 

Bodies of men, if they would accomplish the fullest measure of 
their usefulness, must have, like individuals, an ideal and strive to 
attain it. There could be no civilization otherwise. In proportion 
as the nation has this spirit, just in such measure will it be able 
to render real service to itself and to the rest of mankind. Dr. Wil- 
bert had ideals and I believe he came as near to living up to them 
as any man ever did. Moreover, he sincerely believed it was his 
bounden duty to make others see the light as he saw it. 

Unlike many men with ideals he was of a most practical turn of 
mind. This was very forcibly impressed on many when he sug- 
gested, immediately after the Philadelphia Branch of the Pharma- 
ceutical Association was organized, that a systematic attempt be 
made to bring before physicians the desirability of prescribing the 
really useful drugs and preparations of the United States Phar- 
macopoeia and National Formulary in preference to the many unde- 
sirable proprietaries on the market. He advocated that the pharma- 
cist equip himself in every way so that he could advise his medical 
clientele in an intelligent manner when he made his plea for their 
support ; to fit himself so that his argument, that it was advantageous 
to both patient and physician, that the latter know something of drugs 



Martin I. Wilbert. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 

February, 19 17. 



and give a closer adherence to official drugs and preparations, would 
carry conviction. 

I believe it was in 1907 that the American Medical Association 
met in Atlantic City for the first time. The Philadelphia Branch of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association was invited to give a sci- 
entific exhibition of pharmacy. Under Dr. Wilbert's inspiring enthu- 
siasm an exhibition of the really useful preparations of the United 
States Pharmacopoeia and National Formulary was given that 
aroused the interest of physicians all over the country and caused 
considerable favorable comment in both branches of medicine. The 
value of this idea was at once discerned by the other branches 
throughout the country and used to great effect in stimulating in- 
terest, or rather, renewed interest in official drugs and preparations. 

But, as he pointed out, the Branch could not afford to stop at this 
point. It was but the beginning and must go on, if a proper harvest 
were to be realized. From that time on Dr. Wilbert worked un- 
ceasingly, sending the exhibition to the Philadelphia County Medical 
Society and its various branches, and lecturing earnestly for the 
cause of what was to the best interests of the pharmacist. The well- 
informed pharmacist can never forget his self-sacrificing interest in 
his behalf. He was quick to see that if this work was to be per- 
manent and of lasting good the medical and pharmaceutical profes- 
sions must work together and safeguard the interests of their 
patients. 

This exhibition was afterward sent to various parts of the State 
of Pennsylvania and undoubtedly was of tremendous influence in 
developing the propaganda movement, not only in this state, but 
throughout the country. 

At the meeting of the American Medical Association at Atlantic 
City, June, 1909, the Philadelphia Branch of the A. Ph. A., at Dr. 
Wilbert's suggestion, who was then located in Washington, gave an- 
other scientific exhibition of pharmacy and things related thereto. 
This exhibition was undertaken in a more elaborate manner and re- 
ceived support from members of the parent organization from 
Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Washington, 
D. C. As the writer was a member of the committee who had the 
matter in charge, and its Secretary-Treasurer, he is in a position to 
speak of the valuable assistance he received from this valiant cham- 
pion of a profession of pharmacy. Nothing was ever too much for 
him. He was always helpful with advice, full of ideas and most un- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. j 

February, 19 17. ' 



Martin I. Wilbert. 



57 



selfish in rendering practical assistance to carry them out. I will 
never forget how, on the pier at Atlantic City, when I found it im- 
possible to get the services of a carpenter, Dr. Wilbert took off his 
coat and hat, collar and tie, and handling a saw and hammer like one 
born to it, erected the stand on which we arranged our exhibit. As 
we had been friends for twenty-six years and for a period of eleven 
years I had been his assistant at the German Hospital, I feel that I 
am in a position to say that it was typical of the man. He was es- 
sentially a worker and absolutely honest. There was nothing of the 
poser about him. And thanks to his whole-souled assistance and 
self-sacrifice, the American Medical Association conferred on the 
Philadelphia Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association a 
certificate of honor for this splendid exhibition. 

On October the first, 1908, Dr. Wilbert left the German Hospital, 
which, in a measure, was his home, to accept a position in the fed- 
eral government, as assistant in the Division of Pharmacology of 
the Hygienic Laboratory, United States Public Health Service. 

The severing of his relations with the " dear old German," as 
those who love the institution so fondly refer to it, was to him one 
of the saddest moments of his life. He had formed associations 
and friendships here which were very dear to a man of his largeness 
of heart, and we on our part must acknowledge that he had entered 
very deeply into our affections. 

Dr. Wilbert was a well-read, many-sided man who took a deep 
interest in affairs and was particularly active in the advancement 
and betterment of his profession. He believed with his whole heart 
that man was put here by the Almighty to be of service to humanity, 
and to that end he gave himself gladly and unreservedly to many 
activities. Many of the members of the many scientific societies 
that he was a member of can testify to this ! He was active in the 
affairs of the Franklin Institute, the American Pharmaceutical As- 
sociation, the American Roentgen Ray Society, and the American 
Medical Association. He was a member of theXommittee on Re- 
vision of the United States Pharmacopoeia, the Committee on Re- 
vision of the National Formulary, the Committee on Recipe Book of 
the A. Ph. A., and a member of the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy. For many years he had been a member of the Publication 
Committee of the American Journal of Pharmacy, published by 
the College. He contributed many articles to this journal, the oldest 
and best in this country. To attempt to enumerate and mention all 



Martin I. Wilbert. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 

*- February, 19 17. 



the articles appearing in this journal from his prolific pen would 
take much space. It will suffice to say that one can hardly pick up a 
number appearing in the last fifteen years without coming across a 
paper by him. 

Martin I. Wilbert was regarded by all who knew him intimately 
as a particularly fine type of man. He never made any special effort 
to gain any one's good opinion or respect, he was just himself all the 
time. His wide knowledge, kindliness, and good common sense, 
which was recognized by everybody here, and which he had in large 
measure, commanded respect and admiration from all who came in 
contact with him, either in a business or social manner. He was 
never ostentatious in any of his actions or words. He was tolerant, 
modest, and unassuming and always charitable in his judgments of 
others. Can any one have any finer characteristics than these? 
His many friends and associates at the German Hospital felt his 
departure keenly and to the day of his death took a keen interest in 
all he did in his new sphere of activity. And of the hospital, he 
always spoke of it as " home.' , And in the home that he loved so 
well and among friends of many years, it was vouchsafed him to 
pass into the great beyond. 

As the Journal of the American Medical Association rightly says, 
"the full measure of his influence at Washington in behalf of the 
public health will never be fully known." He was most active in 
helping along the passage of the Harrison Narcotic Law, and a valu- 
able counselor to the National Drug Trade Conference, the repre- 
sentative body whose efforts resulted in the law as it now stands. 

By his work in connection with the Digest of Comments on the 
United States Pharmacopoeia and the National Formulary he has 
built a monument that will endure for a long time. This really very 
necessary adjunct to the revision of a pharmacopoeia was inaugu- 
rated by Dr. Charles Rice, who was one of the first to point out the 
real necessity of a compilation of the criticisms on the pharmacopoeia 
and the substances that enter into it. Only by some such method 
would it be possible to publish a book that would be representative 
of the time. The request of the board of trustees of the United 
States Pharmacopoeial Convention to the surgeon-general of the U. 
S. Public Health Service, for assistance and cooperation in the com- 
pilation and publication of a " Digest of Comments " not only gave to 
this work the backing and resources of the federal government, but 
likewise brought to the task the assistance of the one man in this 



Am. Jour. Pharm.j 

February, 19 17. * 



Martin I. Wilbert. 



59 



country best qualified to do it from every standpoint, that portion of 
this monumental work referring to foreign pharmacopoeias being 
particularly well done. Indeed, Dr. Wilbert's knowledge of foreign 
pharmacopoeias was very comprehensive. It is doubtful if there is 
another man in this country who possessed such a wide and varied 
knowledge on this subject as he did. 

He was always willing and ready to start something that might 
be for the general good and make for progress. He had hardly be- 
come settled in Washington before he saw the need for the organi- 
zation of a local branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association 
in that city. To see the need was for him to act. He possessed 
more initiative than a dozen ordinary men despite the fact that his 
health was never very robust. From childhood his health had never 
been rugged. Yet in spite of this handicap he was always un- 
daunted; no amount of work ever fazed him. He was a most tre- 
mendous worker. If, as Carlyle says, "genius is a capacity for hard 
work," then Dr. Wilbert was most certainly a genius. He was 
never idle for a moment. The Branch in Washington was promptly 
gotten under way and he was made secretary. Under the stimu- 
lus of his remarkable energy this branch has done work that the 
parent organization need never be ashamed of. 

I believe it was in 1902 that he became a member of the Amer- 
ican Pharmaceutical Association. From the very beginning of his 
membership he became very active. He was full of enthusiasm over 
this new outlet for his energy and activity. He never attended a 
meeting without having one or more papers to read. A perusal of 
past proceedings shows that in debate and discussion he made him- 
self a power to be reckoned with. His wide range of information 
and the thoroughness with which he accomplished every task that 
was set before him was appreciated by all. In committee work he 
was an exceedingly able worker and counselor. When the Com- 
mission on Proprietary Medicines was formed it was immediately 
appreciated when Dr. Wilbert's name appeared among those ap- 
pointed, that the most logical choice had been made. His unques- 
tioned fitness for this work was undoubtedly of transcendent value 
to the A. Ph. A. because of the rich experience he obtained as a 
member of the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the x\merican 
Medical Association. As an instance of how one opportunity leads 
to another, I may say that when the sentiment of the Association for 
some method of formulating Standards of Unofficial Drugs had crys- 



6o 



Martin I. Wilbert. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 

February, 19 17. 



tallized itself into the formation of a Committee of Unofficial Stand- 
ards for this specific purpose, Dr. Wilbert's qualifications and 
special fitness for a place on this important committee were not 
overlooked. Whenever and wherever there was work to be done, 
there you found Dr. Wilbert. Always in the forefront, ready 
and willing for service. 

The constructive work that he has done as a member of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association will perhaps never be sur- 
passed. He was an original thinker, and, as previously mentioned, 
brimful of ideas ! And his ideas, combined with the suggestions of 
others and the willing cooperation on his part with others to carry 
them out for the general good, were ever at the service of this asso- 
ciation, whose history is the history of American pharmacy. 

Dr. Wilbert was a voluminous writer on pharmaceutical and 
pharmacological subjects. His literary output was notable not only 
for its quantity and clearness of style, but likewise for its originality 
and high order of thought. The great diversity of thought and 
topics touched upon by him clearly reveal his wonderful versatility. 
He touched upon many subjects connected and allied with pharmacy 
and handled them all with that thoroughness and attention to detail 
that he was noted for. The efforts of the early leaders to develop 
pharmacy, and place it on the same plane with the other learned pro- 
fessions, were ever in his thoughts, and he endeavored always, with 
voice and with pen, to carry forward the work to the end for which 
they had so earnestly labored in the past. He was a most earnest 
worker in the cause for better and brighter things in pharmacy, and 
I am sure that I voice the thoughts of many when I say that he has 
left an impression not only on pharmacy, but likewise on certain 
medical interests, that will endure for a long time. To the younger 
men in pharmacy his name will ever be an inspiration and his life an 
illustration as to what industry and perseverance can lead to. 

In the field of medicine his name shines most brightly as one of 
the ablest workers on the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry of 
the American Medical Association. He was one of the organizers 
of this Council whose aims are the development of a more rational 
therapeusis ; to offer some measure of protection to the medical pro- 
fession and the public against the fraudulent advertising of pro- 
prietary medicinal articles ; and to develop a propaganda against the 
spread of quackery and harmful self-medication and indulgence by 
the laity in nostrums. To this end he performed a tremendous 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 

February, 19 17. ' 



Biological Standardization. 



61 



amount of labor. The well-informed can never forget his work in 
this connection. With Dr. R. A. Hatcher, he was a collaborator in 
the writing of a most useful volume called " The Pharmacopoeia and 
The Physician." The fact that this volume is now in the third edi- 
tion is sufficient affirmation of its usefulness to the medical profes- 
sion. And in the pages of the Journal of the American Medical 
Association he frequently gave expression to thoughts of paramount 
interest to physicians. It is no exaggeration to say that the medical 
profession owes much to him and his unselfish efforts. 

He graduated with honor from the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy in 1890 and in 1903 he received from his alma mater the de- 
gree of Master of Pharmacy in Course. From the Medico-Chirur- 
gical College of Pharmacy and from the Georgetown University he 
received the degree of Doctor of Pharmacy, in recognition of his 
able work in behalf of his chosen profession. 

He is survived by his wife, father and mother, and five sisters. 
Requiescat in pace. 



BIOLOGICAL STANDARDIZATION. 
By Herbert C. Hamilton. 

Under this heading Rusby (1) reviews the U. S. P. methods for 
standardizing the drug and glandular extracts which admit of no 
exact chemical assay. He asserts that from the viewpoint of the 
medical profession any favorable opinion regarding these methods 
was almost entirely because of "confidence in those who recom- 
mended them." But that even "this confidence was considerably 
weakened because of radical differences which existed among those 
authorities." The parallelism between therapeutic value and the 
measured physiological effect was also questioned. " On the other 
hand the convention had the greatest confidence in the specialists 
who were in charge of these investigations." 

The review while entirely impartial is lacking in one important 
feature, it fails to give the viewpoint of the manufacturer just as 
the revision committee failed to give it due consideration. The 
importance of this feature is in the fact that the manufacturers 
were in many instances the originators of the tests in use, and had 
of necessity developed them from scientifically interesting facts to 



62 



Biological Standardisation. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 

February, 19 17. 



a practical working basis. These manufacturers through years of 
experience were in a position to eliminate the nonessentials and to 
arrive at some common ground by compromise. A method which 
under certain conditions can be made fairly satisfactory may fail 
entirely when attempts are made to apply it under practical work- 
ing conditions. 

As may be inferred from the foregoing introduction it is the 
purpose of the writer to point out certain objectionable features in 
the biological assays which are either suggested or required in the 
9th Revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia (2). 

We will assume, as the Revision Committee evidently did, that 
a biological method can be found which is a measure of therapeutic 
value. 

It is very natural that opinions should differ among pharmacolo- 
gists as to which reaction more nearly represents the activity of a 
drug, when the drug has a number of apparently different thera- 
peutic uses. 

It is no more remarkable that differences of opinion exist as to 
which is more accurate, if several assay methods are available. 
One can expect therefore that the methods adopted would be sub- 
jected to criticism, for in this way only can errors be eliminated. 

The Digitalis Series of Heart Tonics. 

The method adopted for the assay of the digitalis series of heart 
tonics is that known as the one-hour frog heart or the minimum sys- 
tolic dose (M. S. D.) method. 

In a review of the various methods in use Edmunds and Hale 
(3) eliminated most of them as illogical or inaccurate. These 
authors found little reason for choice between the one mentioned 
above and another known as the minimum lethal dose (M. L. D.) 
method. 1 Their preference inclined toward the former on the basis 
of cost and time. 

This method leaves much to be desired in regard to accuracy and 
dependability, since if one economizes either in time or in material it 
is usually at the expense of accuracy. 

1 The M. L. D. or minimum lethal dose method is described in detail by 
Houghton and Hamilton (4). The M. L. D. is the smallest dose per gram 
weight of frog which kills a majority of the test animals, the correctness of 
the end point being verified by observation of the laid-bare heart, which is in 
systole, if death is due to the uncomplicated action of one of the digitalis 
series. 



Am. jour, pharm.) Bioloqical Standardisation. 

February, 1917- 3 



63 



This method is subject to the same variable factors as the M. L. 
D. method, namely, temperature, season, different species of frogs 
and their individual susceptibility with the additional disadvantage 
that absorption becomes a more serious factor on account of the 
shorter time of action. The apparent advantages — fewer frogs and 
shorter time — are under some conditions real disadvantages because 
in case of delayed absorption a frog's heart will be found beating in 
1 hour, even when dosed with the M. S. D. while the M. L. D. would 
not be appreciably affected. Another important point in connection 
with the end point in the M. S. D. method is the effect of pithing 
the frog and laying bare its heart. Is it reasonable to suppose that 
this has no influence on the condition of the heart? Whatever this 
influence is it can scarcely be inferred that this is an invariable and 
uniform effect. The method therefore introduces one more factor, 
the effect of which tends towards variability rather than in the di- 
rection of increasing accuracy. 

After an extended series of tests Hamilton & Rowe (5) found 
that the M. S. D. of digitalis is less than the M. L. D., showing that 
an early paralysis of the heart occurs which may be the cause of the 
observed indefinite end point. This paralysis seems to have no uni- 
form relationship to the M. L. D. since in some cases the M. L. D. 
and M. S. D. were identical, while an average of 14 experiments 
showed the latter to exceed the former by 22 per cent, in the case 
of fluid extracts, and 36 per cent, in the case of tinctures, the latter 
being an average of 12 tests. In one assay of a tincture by both 
methods the M. L. D. exceeded the M. S. D. by 60 per cent. 

The conclusion of Edmunds and Hale that choice between the 
two methods is largely one of convenience seems unwarranted. The 
most uniform end point, and the most logical, is that where the 
sample of a digitalis preparation has an opportunity to complete 
its cycle of effects and to be measured by the size of the minimum 
dose which causes death of the frog with heart in systole. Any 
other stage in this cycle is more variable and therefore less accurate 
as an end point for the reaction. 

The standard, ouabain, adopted by the committee for comparison 
in measuring the activity of the digitalis series of heart tonics is also 
open to criticism because it is obtained from a non-official strophan- 
tus seed and because different lots are not uniform in composition. 

While it is true that the standard, in physiological assaying, is 
merely to measure the resistance of the frogs, this resistance is of 



64 



Biological Standardisation. { a^J ^ ^^ tu 



such a complex character that it should be measured by a standard, 
not in any respect open to criticism. The standard, if not identical 
with the sample, should be one whose composition and identity has 
been established. 

The description of ouabain indicates that it is derived from a 
non-official strophanthus seed, that its composition is indefinite in 
that it crystallizes with varying quantities of water and that it does 
not yield a crystalline strophanthidin and cannot therefore be assayed 
chemically to establish uniformity. That it is not uniform is shown 
by Rowe (6), a conclusion which may be deduced from the fact that 
the M. S. D. of ouabain accepted by the U. S. P. Committee is 
.0000005, while the average of the three samples tested by Rowe is 
.00000086 or 76 per cent, more — a difference not due to temperature, 
because in all cases the tests were carried out at 20 C. Further 
it is an expensive substance and obtainable only by importation. 
These and perhaps other objections would certainly have been 
brought out by the ones who must use the test if such an opportunity 
had been granted. 

Strophanthin from Kombe seed can be made of uniform composi- 
tion and activity according to Brauns and Closson (7) and is there- 
fore preferable to ouabain for every reason, but its use seems es- 
pecially logical because of being derived from the official strophan- 
thus seed. 

Cannabis. 

The biologic assay of cannabis indica is another that is open to 
criticism, not only in the wording of the text, but in the size of the 
test dose and in certain of its details. 

As to the words used, the statement is made that cannabis " pro- 
duces incoordination when administered to dogs in a dose of not 
more than 0.03 mil of fluid extract, . . . ." How much smaller dose 
will show a similar, but less marked effect? What is the effect of 
a larger dose? A logical wording would be that Standard F. E. 
Cannabis produces incoordination in a dose not less than, etc. 

The dose chosen is too small for a satisfactory test. The aver- 
age dog will scarcely react to a dose of this size and if the drug is 
somewhat less active than standard, the animal will not react visibly. 
Under the rather drastic conditions imposed, some dogs will show the 
effect of cannabis to a fairly satisfactory degree, but a large majority 
will show the effect very slightly if at all — a statement corroborated 
by Pearson (8). 



Am, jour. Pharm.j Biological Standardisation. 

February, 1917. J & 



65 



A much more satisfactory test dose of a standard cannabis prep- 
aration is one which when administered under proper conditions will 
show a well-marked action. Then if the preparation being tested 
is somewhat less active than standard or the dog slightly less sus- 
ceptible than normal, an evident although less marked effect is pro- 
duced. In this way a measurable difference can often be estab- 
lished, a difference which can be verified by a second test. A dose 
of 0.1 mil of the standard fluid extract does not produce an effect 
too great to obscure the reaction of a sample, slightly more or less 
active than standard. This dose is therefore recommended as the 
standard test dose. In a former communication the author (9) 
suggested 0.01 Gm. as the dose for the extract and a minimum dose 
of 0.09 mil (Cc.) of the fluid extract. 

Testing the standard on each occasion is an unnecessary and 
expensive procedure, since a dog proved to be susceptible to the 
standard to the proper degree remains fairly constant for a long 
period, if in good physical condition. This is admitted in the offi- 
cial description of the test animals (2). 

Testing a sample on two dogs which have been chosen because of 
being susceptible to the standard test dose of cannabis is sufficient 
unless one or both exhibit a reaction very different from that to be 
expected. In such a case the susceptibility of the dogs should be 
reestablished. 

Starving a dog for twenty-four hours is a longer period than 
necessary. Twelve hours is generally sufficient to empty the 
stomach, and is less trying on the test animals. 

Regarding the standard, some more exact method should be de- 
vised for obtaining uniformity among manufacturers. As pre- 
scribed by the U. S. P. the activity of a sample depends on the 
susceptibility of the dog, and it may be any kind of a dog. 

If a test is attempted for the first time and no reaction follows, 
how can it be determined whether the sample or the animal is at 
fault? 

Since the test is compulsory it should be the duty of some cen- 
tral authority to supply a sample which meets requirement to every 
manufacturer of cannabis products, and so insure the uniformity 
which is planned to attain. 

It is an unnecessary requirement to compare each cannabis prep- 
aration with the standard in the same form. If the standard is in a 
stable form it can be considered equally active if .004 Gm. is in ex- 



66 Biological Standardisation. {^bruSy ^9^7™' 

tract, fluid extract or tincture form, while in fact the statement " A 
standard fluid extract will produce incoordination when administered 
to dogs in the dose of 0.03 mil, the extract in the dose of 0.004 Gm., 
the tincture in the dose of 0.3 mil for each kilogram of body weight 
of dogs," gives one no option in dosing, and practically makes a 
test of the standard unnecessary. The effective dose of each is pre- 
scribed without any opportunity of varying it to adjust for a lower 
susceptibility of the test animal. If the method provided for this 
contingency, it would be logical to compare sample with standard in 
every case and to eliminate every possible cause for unequal effects. 

Further criticisms of this test of cannabis preparations are that 
the drug, while intoxicating in a sense is not known to be fatal in a 
relatively immense dose and consequently is not a dangerous drug; 
and that it has no very extended application in human therapy. It 
therefore scarcely deserves so much attention especially when the 
extra refinements of testing suggested add so little to uniformity in 
the activity of its extracts and so much to the cost of standardizing. 

Suprarenal Gland. 

The biologic assay of products of the suprarenal gland is open 
to criticism in only two particulars, namely, in the method of 
measuring and administering the doses and in attempting to check 
the results as described. 

Using both femoral veins for injecting sample and standard al- 
ternately is probably intended to obviate the possible mixing of the 
two solutions if both are injected into the same vein. But it intro- 
duces a very much greater source of error. The amount injected 
can much more easily be measured by use of a pipette than in a 
syringe, and the dose after being injected can be easily and com- 
pletely washed into the blood stream by a follow-up injection of 2 
mil (Cc.) physiological salt solution. When this procedure is fol- 
lowed, no mixing of two injections is possible. 

By the U. S. P. method it is difficult to measure accurately small 
differences in the dose, and impossible to insure that the entire dose 
enters the blood stream. The small part remaining in the dead 
space of the vein seems to be destroyed, because doses administered 
by the U. S. P. procedure are invariably less effective than when im- 
mediately and completely carried into the blood stream by the 
method suggested above. 



Am. jour. Pharm.) Bioloaical Standardisation. 

February, 19 17. J v 



67 



The requirement of checking an assay by making the injections 
of sample and of standard into the opposite sides from those first 
used is no check except in so far as it checks conditions on the two 
sides of the dog. This feature can better be eliminated by using 
only one side. Further, by the official method, if it is impossible to 
complete the test and the check on a dog, no option is left, but to 
repeat both test and check on another dog. It is occasionally neces- 
sary to check an assay on a second dog when conditions during the 
first test were unfavorable for accuracy, but no advantage results 
from a retest on the same dog. 

Pituitary Gland. 

The assay of liquor hypophysis, while not included in the bio- 
logical assays on page 604 et seq. is none the less biologic. It is also 
compulsory for a U. S. P. product. It is open to criticism because 
of the nature and dose of the standard and because of the unsatisfac- 
tory character of the test reaction chosen. 

First as to the standard, it seems unwise as well as unnecessary 
to choose as the standard a substance which has only one of the 
typical physiological effects of hypophysis, and which alone has no 
therapeutic application equivalent to that of extracts of the pituitary 
gland. 

In a previous communication (10) the author described the 
means of obtaining a satisfactory standard test solution, this being a 
fresh solution of the water-soluble part of the dried, defatted, pow- 
dered infundibulum. 

Because of the possible variation in the content of active agent in 
different lots of glands, a stable, highly active, water-soluble powder 
prepared by Aldrich (11) has been largely substituted in the com- 
mercial standardization of pituitrin. The dried glandular substance 
first mentioned, however, can be easily prepared and is well adapted 
to the purpose of making the standard test solution. 

This has the distinct advantage over histamine of being identical 
in action with extracts of the glands both on the isolated uterus and 
on other unstriated muscles, especially those controlling blood pres- 
sure. 

Active extracts of the pituitary gland are remarkable for their 
action on smooth muscular tissues, contracting the uterus and intes- 
tinal muscles and the walls of the veins and arterioles. As results 



68 Biological Standardisation. { ^bruary, 

of this action, the blood pressure is raised, peristalsis is increased 
and the tone of an inert uterus is aroused. 

It is logical to assume that all the effects are due to a constituent 
which acts on unstriated muscle and to choose one of these as a test 
reaction — one which is accurate and measurable. If, however, the 
action on the pregnant uterus is due to a constituent other than that 
which affects the blood pressure, then it is essential that the oxytocic 
test be applied to those preparations intended for obstetrical work. 
But for the assay of such as are used to control the blood pressure 
in cases of shock it would be necessary to apply the blood pressure 
test. 

While some investigators, notably Fuhner (12), claimed to have 
produced evidence that two or more constituents are present in an 
active extract, others have found the two principal effects to go 
hand in hand, pointing either to the presence of only one active con- 
stituent or to a constant ratio in the content of the two constituents. 
Roth (13) whose work was probably the basis for the choice both 
of the method and the standard test dose, submitted little conclusive 
evidence for his choice of the oxytocic method. He made his selec- 
tion because " the simplicity of the isolated uterus method, together 
with the fact that the uterus of the virgin guinea pig shows little 
variation in its reaction to pituitary extracts even after hours, places 
it above other methods in point of desirability as a method." His 
objection to the blood pressure method is "that one encounters a 
degree of tolerance when a second or succeeding dose is given." 

On the latter point he submits as evidence of toleration a series 
of 14 consecutive injections of pituitrin, only 9 of which, however, 
illustrate his point. Each of the first five were followed by an almost 
identical rise in pressure, while the others were made in a manner 
contrary to his own suggestion, namely, "the period between injec- 
tions to be at least 30 minutes long." The nine injections were 
made with an average interval of 5 minutes and into a dog which 
was apparently incompletely anesthetized. He submits no evidence 
whatever on the point that " little variation is shown in the reaction 
of the isolated uterus to pituitary extracts even after hours." 

While the method is apparently simple the test strips of uterus 
muscle which will respond differently to different sized doses with 
any degree of accuracy are so few that a dependable test can rarely 
be made. On the other hand a blood-pressure test can be made on 
dogs with few exceptions and the "tolerance " referred to is scarcely 



Am. jour. Pharm.\ Bioloaical Standardization. 

February, 19 17. } ° 



69 



to be observed when testing a good carefully prepared extract. It 
can be eliminated entirely as a factor by the alternate injection of 
sample and standard. These facts are brought out and illustrated 
by Hamilton & Rowe (14), who suggest that clinicians working in 
conjunction with pharmacologists aid in determining which reaction 
more nearly coincides with therapeutic value. No positive evidence 
has yet been brought forward to prove that the blood pressure test 
carefully carried out is not a direct measure not only of pressor, but 
also of oxytocic activity together with its action on the kidneys, in- 
testines and the mammary glands. 

When a therapeutic agent such as the extract of the pituitary 
gland has been in practical use for nearly ten years and through clin- 
ical as well as laboratory experiments has been standardized to a cer- 
tain degree of activity — a strength demanded by obstetricians and 
surgeons as essential for obtaining the desired results — any read- 
justment of activity should be made with extreme caution. 

The revision committee, however, ignored this phase of the ques- 
tion and have adopted a standard activity for Liquor Hypophysis 
U. S. P. 9th, considerably below that of the standard preparations 
on the market. 

To make an official extract from this gland material conform- 
ing in every respect to U. S. P. requirements lowers the standard 
from that at present generally used by the medical profession to one 
only 40 per cent, as high activity. Is there not reason enough for 
Dr. Rusby's statement that " it may safely be said that its (biolog- 
ical standardization) efficiency and authority were seriously doubted 
by a large majority of the medical profession " ? 

It is in many cases difficult enough to answer the question "Is 
the sample of drug that has been found to possess the greatest power 
to kill a cat the one that will prove most efficient in curing a man ? " 
The advocates of biological standardization are now in the position 
where they must either ignore the official " biological assays " or be 
forced to justify methods which are in part at least illogical and in- 
accurate and standards which are not in line with medical require- 
ments. 

Considering the present status of biological standardization this 
is an unfortunate situation. 



Biological Standardisation. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 

*• February, 1917- 



Summary of Objections to the Official Biological Assay Methods. 

The Heart Tonics. 

1st. The inaccurate method because the end point is obscured 
by (a) variable rate of absorption, (b) shock in exposing the heart. 

2d. The standard, because it is not from the official drug and is 
not uniform in composition or activity. 

Cannabis Sativa. 

1st. The inaccurate wording in the text. 

2d. The smallness of the test dose. 

3d. The absence of a uniform standard. 

4th. The non-essential features which add to the complications 
•of the method with no commensurate gain in the activity or uni- 
formity of the product. 

-Suprarenal Gland. 

The complications introduced into the test : 

(a) The inaccurate manner of measuring the test dose. 

(b) The incomplete administration of the test dose. 

(c) The method of making a check assay. 

Pituitary Gland. 

1st. The inaccurate and unsatisfactory character of the method 

2d. The standard, which is not adapted to measuring blood 
pressure activity, is not a practicable oxytocic agent in therapeutics 
.and is not derived from the pituitary gland. 

.3d. The activity of the standard product. 

VFrom the Research Laboratory of Parke Davis & Co. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

1. Rusby. Druggists Circular, Sept., 1916. 

2. U. S. Pharmacopceia, 9th Revision, p. 604 et seq. 

3. Edmunds & Hale. Hygienic Laboratory, Bulletin No. 48. 

4. Houghton & Hamilton. Am. Jour, of Pharmacy, Oct., 1909. 

5. Hamilton & Rowe. /. A. Ph. A., Jan., 1915. 

6. Rowe. /. A. Ph. A., Nov., 191 6. 

7. Brauns & Closson. /. A. Ph. A., 1913. 

8. Pearson. /. A. Ph. A., Nov., 1916. 

9. Hamilton. /. A. Ph. A., March, 1912. 

10. Hamilton. /. A. Ph. A., Oct., 1912. 

11. Aldrich, T. B. Patent Application. 

12. Fuhner. Zeitschr. f. d. ges. Exp. Med., 1913, I, 397. 

13. Roth. Hygienic Laboratory, Bulletin No. 100. 

14. Hamilton & Rowe. /. Lab. and Clin Med., Nov., 1916. 



Am jour, pharm.j Pharmaceutical Use of Filter Press. 

February, 19 17. ' 1 



71 



THE PHARMACEUTICAL USE OF THE FILTER PRESS. 
By James F. Couch and James E. Kersey. 

Filtration may be denned as the resolution of a disperse system 
into liquid and solid phases by means of a diaphragm permeable by 
the liquid only. In practise such a perfect separation of the system 
is seldom, probably never, realized. We submit mixtures to a 
process of straining whereby all particles which are larger than a 
certain minimum size are retained by the strainer and all others pass 
through into the nitrate. The filtered liquid may at first appear 
crystalline, yet after months of undisturbed standing on a shelf a 
slight, fine precipitate will be found in the bottom of the container 
caused by the agglomeration and deposition of the invisible particles 
which the strainer did not retain. 

Accomplishment of the most complete separation of the phases 
in a minimum of time constitutes the problem of filtration. Let us 
consider the various means employed for its solution. 

In general, filtration processes may be divided into two classes : 
first, those which depend upon gravity, and second, those in which 
extra pressure is employed. Of the first class the most commonly 
used is the funnel and filter paper method. This is adapted to all 
sorts of variations and is quite satisfactory for small volumes of 
liquids. Its great disadvantages consist in the continual diminu- 
tion in the rate of filtration and the evaporation of solvent from the 
surface of the mixture which causes a change in the menstruum, a 
rearrangement of the solution, and, possibly, precipitation with the 
first portions of filtrate. If a filtering agent is used with the paper 
the rate of filtration is retarded still more and may be entirely 
stopped while the volume of liquid absorbed, and consequently lost, 
is very much increased. 

Filter bags of felt are occasionally employed. They are useful 
for hot filtration or for syrups but are slow and permit visible parti- 
cles, notably starch, to pass through, so that filtrates from them are 
frequently cloudy. Straining through cotton or woolen cloths is 
resorted to when coarse precipitates are to be separated but this 
method has only a limited application in pharmacy. 

There are in use devices for securing added pressure in filtration 
by contriving a column of liquid several feet in height in such a way 



72 Pharmaceutical Use of Filter Press. { friary, 

that it may exert force upon the liquid which is filtering. Such ar- 
rangements are intricate, involve an undue amount of room, and 
may present difficulties in cleansing. 




The Sperry laboratory or 10" filter press equipped with plates and frames 
which are convertible into the various arrangements used in commercial ap- 
paratus. It can be used as a press equipped for " Thorough Washing " or 
" Simple Washing." Arrangements are provided so that either of the above 
two arrangements can be used with separate discharge for washing or not, as 
desired. Filtrate can be made to discharge from separate cocks, from each 
plate or from one large cock at the head of the press. In practice the former 
arrangement' is called " Open Discharge," while the latter is known as " Closed 
Discharge." It is a commercial machine in every respect. Other sizes are 
18", 24", 30", 36", and 42". Plates and frames can be made of iron, as shown 
in the cut, or of lead or wood. 



Added pressure secured by means of the suction pump or aspi- 
rator is very infrequently of use in pharmacy. The most serious 
objection to this method arises from the fact that the filtrate is neces- 
sarily exposed to low atmospheric pressure and under such condi- 
tions the volatilization of alcoholic menstrua is so rapid that it con- 
demns the process. 

Centrifugal filters are rapid and efficient. They are, however, 
better adapted to cases where the solid matter is the desired product, 
as in the separation of mother liquor from crystals, than for strictly 
pharmaceutical purposes where the insoluble substances are com- 



Am jour. Pharm.j Pharmaceutical Use of Filter Press. 

February, 1917- ' 



73 



monly worthless. The centrifuge is wasteful ; it splashes the nitrate 
about the outer jacket and, unless the center of gravity is carefully 
maintained in the shaft, will vibrate, shifting the "cake " and upset- 
ting the filtration. 

In the filter press process the liquid to be filtered is pumped 
through the filtering medium. The rate of flow can be easily con- 
trolled and the amount of pressure exerted adjusted to the particular 
conditions. Loss of material due to slopping or evaporation may 
be reduced to a minimum and, once started, the press may usually 
be left to itself to complete the operation. The method has the 
disadvantages of requiring expert handling, the absorbed liquid is 
likely to be large, small quantities cannot economically be filtered 
through the press, and the cleaning of the apparatus is a matter of 
some labor. 

The press used in the laboratory of the Standard Chemical Com- 
pany is a small Sperry machine of six chambers. The liquid is fed 
into the press by a single-plunger, belt driven pump equipped with 
an air chamber and safety tube. The modus operandi is as follows : 

The liquid to be filtered is prepared by proper aging, with or 
without the addition of filtering agent according to conditions, and is 
then filled into barrels which are connected with the pump. A 
quantity of a filtering agent is now put into the liquid and thoroughly 
stirred in so that it may enter the press gradually with the liquid. 
This is an important detail and, if not observed, the press will clog 
when resinous or mucilaginous precipitates are present. 

The liquid is sucked into the pump through an iron pipe con- 
nected with a rubber tube of convenient size which is lowered into 
the barrel. The open end of this tube should be protected by a 
piece of sieve rolled into a cylinder and fitted so as to form a pro- 
longation of the tube. This precaution prevents the entrance of 
coarse particles which might lodge in the pump valves and interfere 
with their proper action. 

The pump should be selected with care. We consider a motor- 
driven pump preferable to a steam-driven pump for general pharma- 
ceutical use for the reason that the steam power available in the 
average pharmaceutical house will not be adequate to overcome 
a back pressure of one hundred twenty pounds in the press, a 
pressure often encountered. The number of cylinders desirable in- 
creases with the size of the press and the filtering surface to be fed. 
A three-cylinder pump will deliver a steady stream of liquid prac- 



74 Pharmaceutical Use of Filter Press. { ^arm. 

tically free from pulsations but, if an air chamber is attached, a 
single plunger will answer pharmaceutical requirements. 

The plunger should admit of adjustment so that the volume of 
liquid delivered at each stroke may be varied to compensate the vis- 
cosity of the mixture being filtered. True, this might be controlled 
by varying the speed at which the pump is driven or by proper regu- 
lation of the safety tube but either of these methods involves other 
difficulties which make it more practicable to adjust the plunger. 
Our plunger is 2^4 in- in diameter with a full stroke of in., so 
that the total volume which may be delivered at each stroke is about 
5 (4-935) fluidounces. It may be adjusted to any lower volume 
and, for filtering light liquids, we regulate it to three fluidounces per 
stroke. 

The speed at which the pump should be run is determined by the 
filtering area of the press and the volume of liquid delivered by each 
stroke of the pump. This must be determined by direct experiment. 
The ideal condition is the one where the volume of liquid forced into 
the press by the pump is just enough to fill the chambers and keep 
up a steady flow of nitrate without causing an undue increase in 
pressure. We operate our pump at a rate of sixty strokes per min- 
ute, which gives us a possible capacity of 140 gallons per hour. This 
is never attained in practise; with most fluid mixtures we operate 
at a rate of from seventy to ninety-five gallons per hour. 

The valves of the pump should be easily accessible so that they 
may be readily cleaned during and after the nitration. Small par- 
ticles of solid matter derived from sugar or" chemicals frequently 
lodge in the valves, interfering with their proper closing and so 
causing leakage. This decreases the efficiency of the pump and may 
become serious enough to stop the nitration. A little practise will 
enable the operator to determine which valve is affected. 

The packing around the plunger should be of the cold-water type 
firmly embedded in place. Yet, with the utmost precautions, there 
will be a small amount of leakage through it whenever the pressure 
rises above one hundred pounds per square inch. Below this point 
leakage may be prevented. 

The pump is connected with the press by an iron pipe of suitable 
size in. is convenient), so arranged that it may be taken apart 
and cleaned. A safety tube, closed by a gate valve, is .fitted into 
this by a T. The function of the safety tube is to return to the 
barrel any excess liquid which the pump is delivering to the press 



Am jour. Pharm.) Pharmaceutical Use of Filter Press. 

February, 19 17. } J 



75 



above the amount which the press is filtering. This affords a second 
means of controlling the pressure and is of service in those cases 
where the pressure gradually rises during the filtration as the cake 
of precipitate thickens in the chambers. With easily filtered liquids 
the safety tube may be kept closed and it should never be opened 
until rising pressure, indicated on the gauge, demands some release. 

The air chamber may be placed anywhere between the pump and 
first chamber of the press on the connecting pipe. If a single- 
plunger type of pump is employed the air chamber becomes a neces- 
sity to equalize the pressure. Without it, the pressure will vary 
during each stroke of the plunger, sometimes as much as eighty 
pounds, rising and falling in pulsations. The effect of such a con- 
tinual pounding is to pack the cake firmly in the chambers and even- 
tually this concreted wall becomes impenetrable and filtration ceases. 
The air chamber takes up the excess pressure and, even with the 
most refractory liquids, diminishes the variation in pressure to, at 
most, twenty pounds. A pet cock should be fitted to the lower ex- 
tremity of the air chamber to allow it to be drained and cleaned. 

The pressure gauge is usually placed just before the first cham- 
ber of the press. Its functions are too obvious to require comment 
here. 

After leaving the pump the liquid enters the press, is conducted 
by a channel into the several chambers, passes through the filter- 
paper walls, and drains out at the bottom into a trough which leads 
it into a covered receptacle. 

The press consists of a number of solid plates of iron separated 
by hollow " distance " frames so arranged that the whole may be 
securely clamped together, forming a series of chambers or cells. 
Lateral openings connect them with the channel, through which the 
mixture enters, bored throughout the length of the press and termi- 
nating in a pet cock which is used to permit the escape of air when 
the press is started. The vertical walls of the chambers are formed 
by the solid plates which are corrugated in such a way as to lead the 
filtered liquid to an outlet in one of the lower corners through which 
the filtrate is discharged. 

The actual filtration is accomplished in these chambers. Heavy 
sheets of canvas are suspended over the faces of the solid plates 
and, for technical use, these serve sufficiently well ; for pharmaceu- 
tical purposes, however, better filtration is demanded and the cloth 
is, therefore, covered with one or more sheets of filter paper. The 



76 



Pharmaceutical Use of Filter Press. J° ur - pharm - 

3 .February, 19 17. 



paper used should be of good quality and fine weave. Fine gray 
filter paper answers well. It is of the highest importance that cloth 
and paper fit well and lie smoothly on the plates ; wrinkles and up- 
turned corners prevent the proper closing of the press and furnish 
channels for the escape of liquid. It is also important that the press 
be closed as tightly as possible to prevent spurting from the 
chambers. 

During the filtration the chambers become filled with a mixture 
of filtering agent and precipitate : in most cases it is possible to add 
just sufficient talc or kieselguhr to the liquids to fill the chambers 
as the last of the liquid enters and this can be determined by experi- 
ment; however, should the chambers fill before the liquid is all 
through, the press should be drained by pumping air into it and then 
should be cleaned and readjusted. 

The amount of material left in the chamber after filtration de- 
pends largely upon the nature of the filtering agent used. We em- 
ploy kieselguhr almost exclusively, for reasons given below, and find 
that each chamber when filled under pressure will hold 18 ounces 
(av.) of dry kieselguhr which will absorb and hold 28 ounces (av.) 
of liquid. We have no figures for other agents. 

The absorption of liquid, as we stated above, constitutes one of 
the disadvantages of the filter press and yet it is no larger, for a 
given volume of liquid, than the absorption in ordinary gravity filtra- 
tion. The absorbed liquid may be recovered by pumping a small 
quantity of water through the press, but that method involves phar- 
maceutical difficulties. We drain the press by pumping air into it, 
thereby forcing a large quantity of the absorbed material out ; that 
which remains behind is lost. 

It may be said that every liquid to be filtered presents a new 
problem and requires individual treatment but, for practical pur- 
poses, we can divide preparations into four classes, three of which 
depend upon the viscosity of the liquid which, in turn, depends upon 
the nature of the ingredients present and the character and amount 
of precipitation. 

The least troublesome class of liquids comprises the very fluid 
elixirs and solutions, such as simple elixir, essence of pepsin, elixir 
of iron, quinine, and strychnine phosphates, and the various elixirs 
of "lactated" pepsin. These preparations commonly filter rapidly 
without elevation of pressure and with little decrease in the rate of 
filtration. 



Am jour. Pharm.) Pharmaceutical Use of Filter Press. 

February, 19 17. > J 



77 



More viscous liquids, such as heavy elixirs, light syrups, solu- 
tions of resinous drugs, or preparations which contain large amounts 
of glycerin or pepsin, filter more slowly and require from twenty to 
eighty pounds pressure per square inch. Successful manipulation 
of this class of liquids depends upon judicious use of filtering agent 
and adjustment of the safety tube. The liquid will automatically 
regulate the pressure in most cases and the operator can judge the 
condition of filtration by the flow of nitrate. It is a mistake to 
attempt to force the filtration by increasing the pressure as this pro- 
cedure nearly always results in clogging. It is better to adjust the 
volume delivered to that which issues from the press by shortening 
the stroke of the pump and, in this connection, it is well to make 
notes of the conditions and difficulties observed during the filtration 
of a preparation for such notes will save time and trouble on future 
batches. 

The class of liquids which requires the most art in handling is 
that which comprises the very thick, heavy, viscous, or mucilaginous 
solutions and fluids complicated by a large amount of precipitation, 
particularly of starch or dextrin. Trouble may always be expected 
from preparations of rhubarb, buchu, uva ursi, senna, and gentian 
if, as is frequently the case, the drugs have been percolated with 
menstrua of low alcoholic content. That difficulty can be avoided 
by proper pharmacy yet it does occasionally present itself. How- 
ever, all such liquids may be successfully filtered in the press if due 
attention be paid to the conditions. It may be necessary to age the 
fluid first and this is desirable where there is precipitation of starchy 
matters. Mucilage is the most difficult complication to deal with. 
The best and proper way to eliminate it is to leave it in the drug 
in the percolator, for when it gets into the finished liquid all there 
is left to do is to summon all available patience, use plenty of kiesel- 
guhr, and throttle the pump down to ten gallons per hour. In filter- 
ing liquids of this class it may become necessary to stop the opera- 
tion for the purpose of cleaning the chambers, washing the cloths 
and adjusting fresh papers on them. This removes a mass of pre- 
cipitate and gives the liquid a new opportunity to pass through. It 
is worthy of note that it is practically impossible to filter such prepa- 
rations clearly by gravity. 

Occasionally it will be found advantageous to line the chambers 
with a layer of filtering agent before attempting to filter the prepa- 
ration in hand. This procedure prevents the precipitate from enter- 



78 Pharmaceutical Use of Filter Press. { A ^/ U ° a u r y F ^* r 7 m ' 

ing the interstices of the paper and clogging it. To line the cham- 
bers it is necessary only to mix a small amount of filtering agent 
with five gallons of water and pump the mixture through the press 
continuing until all the water is drained out. In general, the first 
liquid which flows from the press will be cloudy and a clear filtrate 
will not be obtained until a small layer has formed on the papers. 

The fourth category of liquids is represented by strongly alco- 
holic or ethereal fluids. With these the press has a decided advan- 
tage over all other methods for filtration, for by employing the chan- 
nel into which the chambers drain it is possible to filter such mix- 
tures with a minimum of loss of solvent. 

The selection of the filtering agent may decide the success or 
failure of the process. Some such agent is necessary in all phar- 
maceutical uses of the press to assist in the solution of oils, to dilute 
gummy or resinous precipitates and prevent them from clogging 
through deposition in the interstices of the papers, and to form 
nuclei on which microscopic particles of precipitate may agglom- 
erate and form grains of filterable size. Kieselguhr, talcum, kaolin, 
magnesium carbonate, and calcium phosphate may be used and their 
practicability appears to be in the stated order. Kieselguhr is uni- 
versally applicable; it is light in texture, fine in size and does not 
pack firmly on the papers. It is chemically quite inert. Some- 
times an admixture with talcum may be used and, for heavy work, 
this is judicious. Talcum itself is second only to kieselguhr, but is 
likely to pack firmly on the papers, which unfits it for use with 
viscous liquids. 

Kaolin cannot be used in the presence of mucilage, starch, di- 
gestive ferments, or ox gall, with which it forms a slimy mass that 
clogs persistently and so decreases the rate of filtration. For simple 
elixir and similar preparations it will serve, but presents no advan- 
tages over kieselguhr. Magnesium carbonate and calcium phosphate 
are excluded from nearly all mixtures by their chemical activity. It 
is probable that much of the precipitation which has occurred in bot- 
tled preparations may be traced to the use of either one of these salts 
in filtration. Neither of them has any advantages not possessed by 
kieselguhr. They should never be used in acid liquids and the mag- 
nesium compound will precipitate acid coloring matters, i. e., car- 
mine, from solution. 

The best results cannot be obtained even if all the above men- 
tioned points are scrupulously observed unless the apparatus itself is 



Am jour. Pharm.j jfo e Textbook and the College. 

February, 19 17. } a 



79 



well cared for. It should be thoroughly cleansed after each filtra- 
tion by removing the distance frames with their accumulation of 
precipitate and pumping water through the press. The cloths should 
be washed in'hot water with the addition of appropriate chemicals 
if necessary. The papers will serve for but one nitration and should 
be thrown away at its conclusion. When heavy precipitates have 
been filtered out the pump should be taken apart and cleaned, the 
connecting pipes, safety tube and air chamber should receive the 
same treatment. This must be done shortly after the filtration for 
pharmaceuticals soon dry onto iron and the masses adhere so tena- 
ciously as to make the cleaning a matter of considerable labor. 

In all cases it must be remembered that the filter press is a deli- 
cate piece of apparatus and demands careful attention to produce 
the best results. We believe that it has a place in pharmaceutical 
manufacturing which cannot be taken by any other filtering process 
in use at the present time. It may be difficult to adjust it to suit 
some certain condition sometimes, but it always amply repays the 
labor spent upon it. It is substantial and less liable to serious injury 
than most pharmaceutical apparatus. The products filtered through 
it are as elegant in appearance and as stable as the best. Its use 
indicates a distinct advance in pharmaceutical manipulation. 

(Contribution from the Pharmaceutical Laboratory of the Standard Chem- 
ical Co., Des Moines, Iowa.) 



THE TEXTBOOK AND THE COLLEGE. 
Dean Lucius E. Sayre, University of Kansas School of Pharmacy. 

Dean Lucius E. Sayre, of the college of pharmacy of the Uni- 
versity of Kansas, visited the University of Minnesota during the 
week of October 23. On Thursday morning he was introduced to 
the students of the college of pharmacy by Dean Wulling and de- 
livered a most interesting address. In introducing Professor Sayre, 
Dean Wulling stated that the college of pharmacy of the University 
of Minnesota had contemplated for many years the securing of 
prominent pharmacists in both this country and abroad for special 
lectures and that while not as many such speakers had been ob- 
tained as the college had hoped for, yet some of exceptional note 
had already lectured, and that others would probably be secured in 



80 The Textbook and the College. { ^rJa?y 

the near future. Dean Wulling referred to Professor Sayre as 
one of the leaders in American pharmacy, stating that he was one 
of the foremost pharmaceutical educators in this country. 




Professor Lucius E. Sayre, Dean of University of Kansas School of Pharmacy. 

Dean Sayre prefaced his remarks by congratulating Minnesota 
pharmacists on having a central institution such as the University 
of Minnesota College of Pharmacy. He congratulated Dean Wull- 
ing, not only on his pharmaceutical activities in Minnesota, but also 
as past president of the American Conference of Pharmaceutical 
Faculties and as the present president of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association. 

Dean Sayre stated that he had selected as the topic for his 
lecture "The Textbook and the College." He asserted that there 



^briary "^" m '} The Textbook and the College. 81 

are too many textbook pharmacists and too few college pharmacists. 
He felt that there was great need for more personal contact between 
the pharmaceutical instructor and the pharmaceutical student, that 
there should be a direct study of many of the problems concerning 
pharmacy and that individual textbook review could not possibly 
give the kind of training which pharmacy demands today. The 
college of pharmacy, he felt, should represent a collection and a 
cooperation of students, including the instructors and professors, 
all of whom should work together as scholars for the solution of 
the problems of the profession. 

In commenting on the duties of the student, Dean Sayre called 
attention to the fact that their studies should not end with gradua- 
tion but rather that they should continue as long as the individual 
carried on pharmaceutical work. The pharmacy students of today 
will take positions in the future along commercial and professional 
lines, he said. They will handle the pharmaceutical legislation in 
the days to come. 

Dean Sayre referred at some length to the extensive discussions 
of the present time concerning higher educational requirements for 
pharmacists. He stated that college work was essential and referred 
to Professor Newcomb's reports on the conventions of the A. C. Ph. 
F., N. A. B. P., and the A. Ph. A., which, he stated, truly indicate 
that all pharmacists are gradually coming to recognize that the re- 
quirement of college work would be advantageous to pharmacy. 

The question as to whether or not drug clerks are scarce was 
discussed. Dean Sayre asked whether or not the scarcity of clerks 
was due to our present educational requirements, and in answering 
he stated : " I am inclined to believe that it is not high requirements, 
perhaps, so much as, maybe, it is low requirements that are pro- 
mulgated and fostered by certain individuals and institutions. The 
' short course ' and makeshifts for an education tend to lower the 
vocation so that young men of ability, who might be attracted to it, 
are rather repelled. 

" Recently it happened that a drug clerk, who has had consider- 
able experience as a clerk in Kansas, came into my office. I asked 
him to express his views as to the cause of the scarcity of drug 
clerks. He remarked that it was his experience that young men 
were being discouraged from entering the pharmaceutical profession 
because of the fact that standards were so low that the business 
was not attractive to them. The output from the short-course 



82 



The Textbook and the College. { A gw J u°a U ry, 



schools was filling the vacancies, discouraging good education and 
training. 

"This young man had come from 'filling in' a position in one 
of the stores in a lively town of the state. On leaving, the pro- 
prietor told him that he had never had a clerk with whom he was 
satisfied until he had hired a college man. A few days before this 
young man left the store referred to, the proprietor told him he was 
very glad to have had him because it had taught him how valuable 
a trained college pharmacist was to a store. 

"This testimony, it should be said, was not prompted by any 
views expressed by myself." 

Furthermore Dean Sayre said that college education is neces- 
sary in order that our after lives may be satisfactory to ourselves. 
He urged college men to continue their pharmaceutical activities 
through alumni association work. He stated that in Kansas there 
were 1,000 pharmacists who had never taken college work and that 
these men had soon come to be at a disadvantage with the college 
men, and that college men are usually well rounded and broad com- 
mercially and scientifically. The results of an investigation concern- 
ing the location and occupations of 1,000 graduates of the University 
of Kansas were discussed and he stated that the college men carry 
on a great diversity of work and that they were uniformly suc- 
cessful. 

Dean Sayre discussed the college curriculum in relation to the 
students, stating that the college should be broad and that it should 
attempt to educate and train young men and women for whatever 
locations they, as pharmacists, may find themselves in the future. 
He strongly urged students with special likings to take advanced 
work along these lines. Students who follow specific lines are more 
likely to meet with exceptional success, he declared. 

Close acquaintanceship among students was recommended and 
the value of such comradeship was emphasized by reminiscent re- 
marks concerning the time when the speaker was a student at the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, where lasting friendships were 
formed with such men as Maisch, Procter and Parrish. Following 
this thought further the value of association with men of national 
reputation was emphasized. 

Dean Sayre expressed the hope that what he had said would not 
be taken in any way as an attack upon short-course schools but 
rather it was his belief that such courses should be lengthened to a 



Am. jour. Pharm.j j ne Textbook and the 

February, 1917- J 



83 



minimum in proportion with the needs of the profession of phar- 
macy. Dean Sayre said: 

" Success in pharmacy has become synonymous with success in 
business. But what of the scientific qualifications of the pharmacist. 
While it is largely true today that the so-called successful pharmacist 
must be, first of all, a business man, indications all point to the 
fact that scientific equipment will be the future ruling criterion. 
The future pharmacist must thus have, more than ever, an attitude 
which bespeaks scientific, professional confidence as well as business 
ability. It is for this reason, in part, although, of course, not pri- 
marily, that we are ever insisting on increased requirements and 
longer curricula in our pharmacy schools. Commercialism has 
taken all too deep root in our profession and nothing but a healthy 
scientific spirit can adequately counteract it. Young men leaving 
schools of pharmacy should be alive to this fact and be sympathetic 
toward the advances of the morrow. It may be that the future 
will insist on a quality of intellect that we shall have to change from 
the quality of afTability and business acumen to an air of intellectual 
competency. Those who are closely in touch with the medical pro- 
fession today know this demand of the future is imperative for 
greater professionalism. 

" One of our writers on commercial pharmacy insists that phar- 
maceutical education needs rebuilding, that it should tend to a larger 
instruction in business methods and that the strictly professional 
lines should be subservient, that the object of the preparation for the 
boards of pharmacy examinations shall be changed to an accom- 
plishment of better business training. What folly could be worse! 
While we have not ignored the value of business training, any ob- 
server of our pharmaceutical life can readily see that we are now 
steeped in a commercialism which threatens the very existence of our 
profession. The nation, the state and the public in general regard 
us as a profession. • If this halo were to be removed from our 
corner drug store and we should be obliged to enter into competi- 
tion with the grocer, butcher, etc., pharmacy would cease to exist." 

The speakers discussed the general question of patent medicines 
and emphasized the importance of pharmacists taking an active part 
in eliminating fakes and nostrums. He also commented upon the 
large percentage of drugs and medicines which are not sold by the 
registered pharmacist and stated that upwards of 35 per cent, went 
direct to the customers from the hands of the physician. In closing 



§4 



Carrel-Dakin Solution. (Am jour. Pharm « 

February, 19 17. 



the speaker stated that the future welfare of pharmacy, in his 
opinion, would depend on whether it should be more prominent 
commercially or whether the professional side should be emphasized. 



CARREL-DAKIN SOLUTION. 1 

To the Editor:— I have just read in The Journal, Oct. 7, 191 6, 
p. 1 108, a short note about the formula for Dakin's solution. I be- 
lieve that the answer will not allow your reader to obtain the proper 
kind of solution. Therefore, I take pleasure in sending you the de- 
scription of the technic which is used in my hospital for the making 
of the solution. 

A. Carrel, M.D., 
Hopital Temporaire 21, Rond-Royal, Compiegne, France. 

Preparation of Dakin's Solution (Daufresne's Technic). 

Dakin's solution is a solution of sodium hypochlorite for surgical 
use, the characteristics of which, established after numerous tests and 
a long practical experience, are as follows : 

(a) Complete Absence of Caustic Alkali. — The absolute necessity 
for employing in the treatment of wounds a solution free from alkali 
hydroxid excludes the commercial Javel water, Labarraque's solu- 
tion and all the solutions prepared by any other procedure than the 
following : 

{b) Concentration. — The concentration of sodium hypochlorite 
must be exactly between 045 and 0.50 per cent. Below 0.45 per 
cent, of hypochlorite the solution is not sufficiently active; above 
0.50 per cent, it becomes irritating. 

Chemicals Required for the Preparation. — Three chemical sub- 
stances are indispensable to Dakin's solution: chlorinated lime, an- 
hydrous sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate. Among these 
three products the latter two are of a practically adequate con- 
stancy, but this is not the case with the first. Its content in active 
chlorin (decoloring chlorin) varies within wide limits, and it is ab- 
solutely indispensable to titrate it before using it. 

Titration of the Chlorinated Lime. — There must be on hand for 
this special purpose: 

1 Reprinted from Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., December 9, 1916, p. 1777. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.'j. 
February, 19 17. ■* 



Carrel-Dakin Solution. 



3S 



A 25 Cc. buret graduated in o.i Cc. 
A pipet gaged for 10 Cc. 

A decinormal solution of sodium thiosulphate (hyposulphite). 

This decinormal solution of sodium thiosulphate can be obtained 
in the market ; it can also be prepared by dissolving 25 Gm. of pure 
crystalline sodium thiosulphate in 1 liter of distilled water, and 
verifying by the decoloration of an equal volume of the decinormal 
solution of iodin by this solution. The iodin is prepared by dis- 
solving 1.27 Gm. iodin and 5 Gm. potassium iodid in 100 Cc. of 
water. 

The material for the dosage thus provided, a sample of the pro- 
vision of chlorinated lime on hand is taken up either with a special 
sound or in small quantities from the mass which then are carefully 
mixed. 

Weigh out 20 gm. of this average sample, mix it as completely 
as possible with 1 liter of ordinary water, and leave it in contact 
for a few hours, agitating it from time to time. Filter. 

Measure exactly with the gaged pipet 10 Cc. of the clear fluid; 
add to it 20 Cc. of a 1:10 solution of potassium iodid and 2 Cc. of 
acetic or hydrochloric acid. Drop, a drop at a time, into this mix- 
ture a decinormal solution of sodium thiosulphate until decoloration 
is complete. 

Quantities of Ingredients for Ten Liters of Dakin's Solution. 



Titer of Chlorinated 
Lime. 



20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 

33 
34 
35 
36 
37 



Chlorinated Lime, 
Gm. 



230 
220 
210 
200 
192 
I84 
177 
170 
I64 
159 

154 
148 
144 
140 
135 
132 
128 
124 



Anhydrous Sodium 
Carbonate, Gm. 



115 
110 
105 
100 

96 
92 
89 
85 
82 
80 

77 
74 
72 
70 
68 
66 
64 
62 



Sodium Bicarbonate, 
Gm. 



96 
92 
88 
84 
80 
76 
72 
70 
68 
66 
64 
62 
66 
59 
57 
55 
53 
52 



86 



Carrel-Dakin Solution. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 

I February, 1917. 



The number of cubic centimeters of the hypochlorite solution 
required for complete decoloration, multiplied by 1.775, gives the 
weight of the active chlorin contained in 100 Gm. of the chlori- 
nated lime. 

This figure being known, it is applied to the accompanying table, 
which will give the quantities of chlorinated lime, of sodium carbo- 
nate and of sodium bicarbonate which are to be employed to pre- 
pare 10 liters of Dakin's solution. 

Example: If it required 16.6 Cc. of the decinormal solution of 
the sodium thiosulphate for complete decoloration, the titer of the 
chlorinated lime in active chlorin is : 



The quantities to be employed to prepare 10 liters of the solution 
will be in this case: 



If crystalline sodium carbonate is being used, then instead of the 
80 Gm. of dry carbonate it must be replaced by : 



Preparation of Dakin's Solution. — To prepare 10 liters of the 
solution : 

1. Weigh exactly the quantities of chlorinated lime, sodium car- 
bonate and sodium bicarbonate which have been determined in the 
course of the preceding trial. 

2. Place in a 12-liter jar the chlorinated lime and 5 liters of ordi- 
nary water, agitate vigorously for a few minutes, and leave in con- 
tact for from six to twelve hours, over night, for instance. 

3. At the same time dissolve, cold, in the five other liters of 
water the sodium carbonate and the bicarbonate. 

4. Pour all at once the solution of the sodium salts into the jar 
containing the maceration of chlorinated lime, agitate vigorously for 
a few moments, and leave it quiet to permit the calcium carbonate 
to settle as it forms. At the end of half an hour, siphon the liquid, 
and filter it through double paper to obtain an entirely limpid prod- 
uct, which must be protected from light. 



16.6X1-775 = 29.7 per cent. 



Chlorinated lime .... 
Dry sodium carbonate 
Sodium bicarbonate . 



154 gm. 
77 gm. 
62 gm. 



Crystalline sodium carbonate 



220 gm. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.\ 
February, 19 17. * 



Carrel-Dakin Solution. 



87 



Light, in fact, alters quite rapidly solutions of hypochlorite, and 
it is indispensable to protect from its action the solutions which are 
to be preserved. The best way to realize these conditions is to 
keep the finished fluid in large wicker-covered demijohns of black 
glass. 

Titration of Dakin's Solution. — It is a wise precaution to verify, 
from time to time, the titer of the solution. This titration utilizes 
the same material and the same chemical substances as are used to 
determine the active chlorin in the chlorinated lime : 

Measure out 10 Cc. of the solution, add 20 Cc. of 1 : 10 solution 
of potassium iodid, and 2 Cc. of acetic or hydrochloric acid. Drop, 
a drop at a time, into this mixture a decinormal solution of sodium 
thiosulphate until decoloration is complete. 

The number of cubic centimeters employed multiplied by 0.03725 
will give the weight of the sodium hypochlorite contained in 100 
Cc. of the solution. 

A solution is correct when, under the conditions given above, 
from 12 to 13 Cc. of decinormal thiosulphate are required to com- 
plete the decoloration : 

13X0.03725 = 0.485 per cent, of NaOCl. 

The Test for the Alkalinity of Dakin's Solution. — It is easy to. 
differentiate the solution obtained by this procedure from the com- 
mercial hypochlorites and from Labarraque's solution: 

Pour into a glass about 20 Cc. of the fluid, and drop on the 
surface a few centigrams of phenolphthalein in powdered form. 
Dakin's solution, correctly prepared, gives- absolutely no change in 
tint, while in the same conditions Javel water and Labarraque's 
fluid give an intense red coloration which indicates in the latter two 
solutions the presence of free caustic sodium. 

Apparatus Required for Sterilization of Wounds. — 1. One liter 
bottles, the lower opening with an interior diameter of 7 mm. 

2. Distributing tubes with one, two, three or four branches 
(Gentile). 

3. Connecting tubes: (a) cylindric tubes, 2.5 cm. long, interior 
diameter, 4 Mm.; (&) cylindric tubes, 4 Cm. long, interior diameter, 
7 Mm.; (c) Y tubes, interior diameter, 7 Mm. 

4. Mohr pinch-cocks. 

5. Irrigating tubes. Drain tubes No. 30 (interior diameter, 7 
Mm.). 



88 



Book Reviews. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
February, 19 17. 



6. Connecting tubes. Drain tubes No. 16 (interior diameter, 4 
Mm.), closed at one end. Above this end these tubes are perfo- 
rated with holes from 0.5 to 1 Mm. in diameter : 

(a) Tubes perforated for 5 Cm., 30 Cm. long; (b) Tubes per- 
forated for 10 Cm., 30 Cm. long; (c) Tubes perforated for 15 Cm., 
40 Cm. long; (d) Tubes perforated for 20 Cm., 40 Cm. long. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Manual of Chemistry, by W. Simon, Ph.D., M.D., Late Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, and 
in the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery; and Daniel Base, Ph.D., 
Professor of Chemistry in the Maryland College of Pharmacy. 
Eleventh Edition. Cloth, 648 pages ; price $3.50. Lea & Febiger, 
Philadelphia, Publishers. 

This textbook has reached its eleventh edition, which is con- 
clusive evidence of its merits. The revision was probably made 
necessary by the advent of a new pharmacopoeia, but the author 
(Dr. Base) has taken advantage of the occasion to recast a number 
of sections, to introduce new matter, and to delete some which is 
no longer deemed necessary in a book on chemistry, intended for 
medical and for pharmaceutical students. The book is primarily 
a textbook — a teaching book — and only secondarily a reference book. 
This accounts for the arrangement, and for the divisions, Chemical 
Physics, General Chemistry, Metals and their Combination, and 
Analytical, and Organic Chemistry. The division dealing with the 
metals and their compounds, is particularly valuable, and includes 
besides the descriptive chemistry, a very serviceable compilation of 
tests. That phase of chemistry which may be spoken of as the 
philosophical, is dealt with under the heading General Chemistry, 
and in connection with the non-metallic elements. 

The colored plates, on which are reproduced the colors of the 
more important precipitates in qualitative analysis — plates which 
have been a conspicuous feature of this textbook, have been re- 
tained in this revision. 

The paper, type, and binding are excellent. All in all, the 
eleventh edition of the " Manual of Chemistry " is a worthy suc- 
cessor to the editions which have preceded it, and which have found 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 19 17. * 



Book Reviews. 



89 



their way to the book shelves of many medical and pharmaceutical 
students. J. W. Sturmer. 

Histology of Medicinal Plants, by William Mansfield, A.M., 
Phar.D., Professor of Histology and Pharmacognosy, College of 
Pharmacy of the City of New York, Columbia University. John 
Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 191 6. 

Vegetable histology is an exceedingly important branch of phar- 
macognosy. Dr. Mansfield's book, evidently intended as an intro- 
ductory course to the study of pharmacognosy, should be welcomed 
to the field because it shows an increasing interest in that subject 
rather than for any new data presented. 

The book is divided into three parts : Part I, consisting of 49 
pages, is a brief discussion of the microscope and microscopic tech- 
nique. The illustrations contained in this portion of the book may 
be found in the catalogues of the various houses dealing in micro- 
scopes. The discussion of microscopic technique is very incomplete 
and should have been supplemented by references to some of the 
standard works on this subject. 

Part II includes the fundamental consideration of tissues, cells 
and cell contents, classified from a physiological point of view. 
This portion of the book is profusely illustrated with line drawings, 
many of them on a very generous scale, and, with a few exceptions, 
well done. While the drawings are original, the subjects have been 
handled by a number of previous investigators. In some cases the 
drawings are incomplete, which will cause confusion to the student. 
Plate 30, illustrating collenchyma, and plates 39 and 46, showing 
root hairs and sieve tubes respectively, are incomplete and mislead- 
ing, while plate 51 conveys an entirely false impression, owing to the 
dividing lines between the cells being omitted, a fault even more 
pronounced in plate 68. Starch grains are' shown with a granular 
or dotted surface, which, while it adds to the attractiveness of the 
drawings, should be discouraged. The author classifies bast fibers 
into a number of more or less well defined groups, which would be 
useful, if nature did not insist upon merging one into another by 
every conceivable variation. Emphasis is placed upon the study 
of calcium oxalate crystals, which is noteworthy in that it tends to 
confirm the studies of Dr. Kraemer, published in a paper and read at 
the St. Louis meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association 
in 1 901. 



9° 



Book Reviews. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
February, 19 17. 



In Part III the histology of the following drugs is given: Spi- 
gelia, Ruellia, Marrubium vulgar e, Marrubium peregrinum, Buchu, 
Pinus alba, Quassia-, Pyrethri, Flores, Petroselinum, Amygdala 
Dulcis. Sections of mountain laurel and trailing arbutus are also 
given, together with a study of pollen grains and the papillae of the 
stigmas of a number of flowers. Of course every author has his 
own ideas as to proper selection of material for study and will be 
largely influenced by his own practical experience. An incomplete 
index handicaps the book for use as a work of reference. 

This book will be found valuable in courses of histology where 
there are well-trained teachers to handle the subject and interpret 
the author's drawings and statements. It will also be found useful 
as a work of reference for the special drugs which are considered 
in detail. 

John Moser, Jr. 

The National Standard Dispensatory. — Containing the Nat- 
ural History, Chemistry, Pharmacy, Actions and Uses of Medicines, 
including those recognized in the Pharmacopoeias of the United 
States, Great Britain and Germany, with numerous references to 
other Foreign Pharmacopoeias. In accordance with the Ninth De- 
cennial Revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. By Hobart Amory 
Hare, B.Sc, M.D., Professor of Therapeutics, Materia Medica, and 
Diagnosis in Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia; Charles Cas- 
pari, Jr., Ph.G., Phar.D., Professor of Theoretical and Applied 
Pharmacy in the University of Maryland, Baltimore; and Henry H. 
Rusby, M.D., Professor of Botany and Materia Medica in the Col- 
lege of Pharmacy of the City of New York. New (3d) edition, thor- 
oughly revised. Magnificent imperial octavo, 2103 pages, with 465 
engravings. Cloth, $9.50; full leather, $11.50; thumb-letter index, 
50 cents extra. Lea & Febiger, Publishers, Philadelphia and New 
York, 1 91 6. 

With the advent of the new U. S. Pharmacopoeia, we are accus- 
tomed to the announcements of new editions of the several dispen- 
satories. The first of the latter in the field apparently is the Na- 
tional Standard Dispensatory. When one reaches middle life and 
has been accustomed to consult this class of works, he is not likely 
to become very enthusiastic over the new editions. The publishers 
may say that they have "been revised in every line to cover the 
latest advances in the whole vast field of Materia Medica, Phar- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 19 17. ■> 



Book Reviews . 



91 



macy and Therapeutics," yet anyone who is conversant with the 
previous editions and the advances of science soon finds on com- 
parison that this is far from the case. In the present work it is 
stated that the United States Pharmacopoeia is "here embodied as 
a whole/' but even this is far from the truth. This opens up an 
entirely new question in regard to the use of the text of the United 
States Pharmacopoeia and as to whether when permission is granted 
to publishers to use this text, it should not be insisted that it be used 
in its entirey. This is hardly the place in a review of a work like 
this to discuss such questions even though they are prompted by the 
opportunity for review. 

The authors' preface probably gives the best idea of the promi- 
nent features of the work which they have written. In the present 
volume it is stated that "the complete Pure Food and Drugs Act 
and Regulations, as well as the Harrison Narcotic Law, have been 
appended, together with the official decisions necessary to their inter- 
pretation. This is a very valuable addition, as it contains many of 
the F. I. D. decisions relating to the regulations concerning the 
labelling and marketing of medicinal and other products. The 
pharmacist should have this information at his command, and while 
the decisions can be obtained from the government for the mere 
asking, it is very likely that the separate decisions are likely to be 
mislaid when required for use. Outside of very slight changes, the 
preface of the present edition is almost the preface of the earlier 
editions verbatim. It is true that there are some changes in the text 
and it may be that any number of causes have prevented a more 
complete revision being made. The statement is made in the preface 
that " at least 200 new articles have been introduced." Most of 
these probably relate to the drugs in the National Formulary, but 
even these are far from being complete. 

In conclusion, the reviewer should say this, that the information 
which is given, even though incomplete, may be relied upon as being 
more or less accurate. The editors and collaborators are all men 
of eminence and prominence in their respective professions. 

H. K. 



9 2 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { A F ^ r J u ° a ry, ^f™' 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

Minutes of the Quarterly Meeting. 

The quarterly meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
was held December 26, 1916, at 4.15 p.m. in the Library, the presi- 
dent, Howard B. French, presiding. Fourteen members were 
present. The minutes of the semi-annual meeting, held September 
25, were read and approved. The minutes of the board of trustees 
for September, October, and November were read by the registrar, 
J. S. Beetem, and approved. Professor Kraemer in commenting 
on the minutes of the board of trustees said the board was to be 
commended for the large amount of important business transacted 
during the past three months. The president expressed his appre- 
ciation for the remarks of Professor Kraemer. 

The secretary read the report of the joint committee of the board 
of trustees and the Alumni Association on the celebration of the 
Fiftieth Anniversary of the Alumni Association. The report wa& 
prepared by Professor E. F. Cook, chairman of the committee on 
exhibition, and gave a detailed description of the various exhibits 
and the names of many of the exhibitors. A report on the exhibition 
prepared by Dr. R. P. Fischelis was published in the American 
Journal of Pharmacy, December, 1916, pages 529-541. 

The president announced the death of Martin I. Wilbert on 
November 25, who was a member of the college since 1893. On 
motion it was voted that a committee of three be appointed to draft 
suitable resolutions to his memory. The president appointed H. K. 
Mulford, Joseph P. Remington and Dr. F. E. Stewart. 

The resignation of William A. Carpenter, an active member, 
because of impaired health, was presented and accepted. 

Dr. A. W. Miller for the committee on the relief of Belgian 
Pharmacists asked for instructions as to the disposition of the 
funds in the hands of the treasurer. After some discussion it was 
voted that the funds on hand be transmitted to the Netherlands 
Pharmaceutical Society to be distributed as needed. 

Professor Remington announced that our fellow member L. L. 
Walton had been reappointed to the Pennsylvania Board of 
Pharmacy, and thought a record of the appointment should be 
made in the minutes of the college. 

Dr. F. E. Stewart proposed that an invitation be extended to the 



Am jour. Pharm.) Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. crt 

February, 1917. y r v 1 J 7 J 

graduates of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and of the de- 
partment of pharmacy of the Medico-Chirurgical College to unite 
with the college and participate in its transactions, when, on motion, 
it was voted that the matter be referred to the committee on mem- 
bership. 

Mr. George M. Beringer donated to the college an opium pipe. 
The thanks of the college were tendered the donor. 

Professor Kraemer on behalf of Mr. George L. Carnan of the 
class of 1885 presented a very old lignum vitse mortar. The thanks 
of the college was tendered the donor. 

Professor Kraemer on behalf of Mr. Henry C. Blair presented 
a large reproduction of the historic drug store at 800 Walnut 
street. The painting was made in 1835 before the days of photog- 
raphy. In a descriptive letter accompanying the picture it is stated 
the building was erected in 181 2 and with the exception of a change 
in the bulk windows the building is practically the same now as it 
was when first built. The outside sign of " Pharmaceutist " is 
believed to be the first of its kind in this country. There were also 
presented on behalf of Mr. Blair the matriculation tickets of three 
generations of Blairs. These interesting historic relics were ac- 
cepted and the thanks of the college tendered our fellow member, 
Mr. H. C. Blair. 

The president made the following appointments : 

Committee on Legislation: Theodore Campbell, chairman; 
Joseph P. Remington, W. L. Cliffe, Samuel C. Henry, Warren H. 
Poley and R. H. Lackey. 

Committee on Membership : Joseph W. England, chairman; R. 
H. Lackey, O. W. Osterlund, with the treasurer and secretary 
ex-officio. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Recording Secretary. 

Abstracts from the Minutes of the Board of Trustees. 

September 5, 1916. No quorum present, as many members of 
the board were attending the meeting of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association, held at Atlantic City. 

September 12, 1916. Twelve members were present. Regrets 
were received from Messrs. Lemberger, Mulford and Shoemaker. 

The Committee on Property reported that the college buildings 
were in good condition ; and although it was necessary to make some 



94 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { ^ruary ^f;™* 

repairs and alterations, everything would be ready for the opening 
day. 

The Committee on Finance made a report upon salaries and the 
mode of payment, which was approved. 

The Committee on Scholarships reported that some of the stu- 
dents to whom scholarships had been awarded desired to continue 
their studies for higher degrees, particularly the B.Sc. degree. 
After further explanation and discussion, it was voted that " such 
students may matriculate for other courses leading to degrees, upon 
the payment of the difference in the fees of the two courses." 

On motion it was voted that Louis J. Gershenfeld, P.D., class of 
191 5, be awarded the Clayton French Fellowship, providing he was 
able to take up the work as assistant to Professor Roddy. 

The Committee on Examinations reported that Paul D. Sands, 
P.D., had successfully passed all his examination in analytical chem- 
istry and was, therefore, recommended to receive the certificate of 
proficiency in chemistry. On motion the certificate was awarded. 

The Committee on Announcement reported the issue of 1916-17 
catalogues and the Bulletins, the latter with an insert relative to the 
merger with the department of pharmacy of the Medico-Chirurgical 
College. 

The Committee on Commencement reported that the Academy * 
of Music had been leased for Wednesday evening, June 6, 1917, for 
the commencement exercises of the college. 

The amendment to the by-laws presented at a previous meeting 
was again read and adopted. 

A communication was received from George F. Troutman, class 
of 1892, requesting a duplicate diploma, the original having been 
destroyed by fire. All the requirements had been complied with 
and therefore, on motion, the secretary was instructed to have a 
duplicate diploma prepared. 

The Committee on By-Laws offered additional amendments to 
the by-laws, which were held over for future action. 

Committee on Membership reported favorably on the application 
of Lewis M. Hires for active membership in the college. A ballot 
was taken and he was unanimously elected. 

October 3, 191 6. Thirteen members were present. A com- 
munication was received from the secretary of the college reporting 
that Messrs. Edwin M. Boring, Charles Leedom and Theodore 
Campbell had been reelected to membership in the board of trustees 
for the ensuing three years. 



"February ^" m '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 95 

The Committee on Property recommended that additional insur- 
ance to the amount of $25,000 be placed on the college and also that 
a new inventory of contents should be made. This recommenda- 
tion was approved. The Committee on Property further reported 
that the office for the associate dean and also the lunch room for 
the convenience of the women students had been completed. 

The Committee on Scholarships was given power to act in the 
award of scholarships. On motion of Mr. French, the Thomas S. 
Wiegand Scholarship was awarded to Sister Mary Beatrice. 

The Committee on Announcement presented the report of Mr. 
J. R. Graham, the publicity agent, and also his resignation, he having 
accepted a position in another state. The report was received and 
the resignation was accepted with regret. 

The Committee on Membership reported favorably on the ap- 
plication of Ivor Griffith and Charles L. Liebert, for active member- 
ship in the college. A ballot was taken and they were unanimously 
elected. 

November 8, 191 6. Thirteen members were present. The 
amendments to the by-laws proposed at a previous meeting were 
adopted. 

The Committee on Property recommended that 25 steel lockers 
be added to the accommodations and that some alterations be made 
in the registrar's office. The committee was given power to act. 

The Committee on Library reported that up to date 9,062 books 
had been accessioned and shelf-listed and 4,569 books catalogued. 
A number of purchases had been made and some gifts were re- 
ceived. 314 persons used the library during the month. 

The Committee on Instruction made a number of recommenda- 
tions which were considered seriatim. 

First. The large class of students enrolled necessitates three 
additional student assistants in the laboratories. Approved. 

Second. To departmentize the faculty into four subdivisions, 
namely : 

The Department of Pharmacy under the direct supervision of Pro- 
fessor Remington, to include Professors Remington, LaWall, 
Cook, Vanderkleed and instructors, Professor Truesdell, Dr. 
F. E. Stewart and Mr. Ivor Griffith. 

The Department of Chemistry, under the chairmanship of Professor 
Moerk, to include Professor Moerk, Emeritus Professor Samuel 
P. Sadtler, Professors Stroup and Sturmer. 



96 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { friary ^i a ~ m ' 

The Department of Botany, Pharmacognosy and Materia Medica, 
under the chairmanship of Professor Kraemer, to include Pro- 
fessor Kraemer, Dr. C. B. Lowe and Dr. P. S. Pittenger. 

The Department of Bacteriology, under Dr. J. A. Roddy. 

It is intended that the members of these various departments of 
the college faculty hold frequent conferences to harmonize the 
instruction in the departments, to outline advances in the courses 
and to economize the time. Approved. 

The Committee on Instruction also recommended postponing the 
date for advancing the entrance requirements to the completion of 
two years' high school work, from the beginning of the session of 
1917 to the beginning of the session 1918. Approved. 

Professor Remington reported the selection of Mr. A. H. 
Fitzkee, class of 1916, as instructor in operative pharmacy. This 
was approved. 

The Committee on Examinations reported that Harry Louns- 
bury, P.D., class of 1916, had satisfactorily completed the special 
course in bacteriology and was entitled to receive the certificate. 
On motion the certificate was awarded. 

The application of Clayton S. Hill, class of 1916, for a duplicate 
diploma was read (the original diploma having been damaged). As 
all the requirements had been complied with, the request was 
granted. 



CURRENT LITERATURE. 
Syrup of Tea. 

Charles H. and M. R. LaWall (Proc. Penn. Pharm. Assoc., 
1 91 6) proceed as follows in making a plain Tea syrup which seems 
to be permanent and satisfactory : Place 1 lb. of Tea siftings in a 
glass percolator after moistening slightly with cold water; pack 
firmly, and pour boiling water over the tea until 64 fl. oz. of percolate 
have been obtained. Place y\ lbs. of dry granulated sugar in 1 
gallon bottle, add sufficient of the tea infusion to fill the container 
and dissolve the sugar by agitation, subsequently sterilizing the 
finished preparation in the customary manner. As it is a little diffi- 
cult to dissolve the sugar by agitation, the sugar may be dissolved 
during the sterilization. 



THE AMEEICAIsT 

•JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



MARCH, 1917 



THE AIMS AND DEVELOPMENTS OF PMtTOcA^iML 

RESEARCH. 1 / 

{ tmi6 lm \ 

By Frederick B. Powe^^ ^ <q J 

It is not very long ago since there was a wi^fl^ir^^lfft^con- 
ception, which apparently to some extent still exists, that the chemical 
examination of plants is a comparatively simple procedure, requiring 
for its accomplishment neither very broad chemical knowledge nor a 
high degree of manipulative skill. This view is doubtless to be at- 
tributed to the fact that in past years many so-called proximate 
analyses of plants have been conducted which consisted of but little 
more than the extraction of a small amount of some vegetable ma- 
terial with various solvents, and subjecting the products to a super- 
ficial examination. In this way it has been possible for those pos- 
sessing but little chemical training to record the occurrence of such 
widely distributed classes of organic compounds as volatile and fatty 
oils, resins, sugar, tannin, and the simpler organic acids, while the 
larger proportion of undetermined material was, as a rule, quite con- 
veniently designated as extractive matter. To such observations may 
have been added an occasional indication of the presence of an 
alkaloid or a glucoside. 

It is not by any means my intention to deprecate or discourage 
such simple determinations as those to which I have alluded, pro- 
vided they be accurately and intelligently conducted, for in the in- 
vestigation of any vegetable material certain preliminary tests are 
desirable and important, both in order to obtain some general in- 
formation respecting its character and for the purpose of ascertain- 

1 An address delivered before the Washington Chemical Society, Novem- 
ber 23, 1916, and approved for publication by the Secretary of Agriculture. 

(97^ 



9 8 



Phytochemical Research. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 19 17 



ing the presence or absence of a particular compound. On the other 
hand, it is evident that the chemical examination of a plant should not 
be restricted to such narrow limits. A very much more extended and 
detailed study is in fact required if any contribution of value is to 
be made to the more exact knowledge of the constituents of plants or 
drugs, for no field of research can be considered to demand a more 
intimate acquaintance with the properties and behavior of organic 
compounds, or, in general, to afford a wider scope for the applica- 
tion of chemical knowledge and skill, than that of phytochemistry. 

In contrast to the qualifications I have indicated, it will be found 
that much of the earlier literature pertaining to the chemical exami- 
nation of plants is extremely superficial in character, and it is thus 
apparent that such investigations have frequently been attempted by 
those who were quite inadequately prepared for the task. The 
results obtained under such conditions are naturally of limited value, 
and are sometimes quite misleading. It is probably for this reason 
that the subject of phytochemistry appears hitherto not to have re- 
ceived its full measure of recognition, although it must also be con- 
sidered that the application of newly developed methods and the gen- 
eral extension of scientific knowledge have been important factors 
in the achievement of such results as have attended the more recent 
endeavors in this field of investigation. 

The subject of phytochemistry in its broadest sense may evidently 
be considered to comprise the application of chemical science to all 
conditions affecting the cultivation and growth of plants, as well as 
a knowledge of their constituents. It would thus be concerned, 
among other things, with the character and composition of the soil, 
the selection of suitable fertilizing material, the study of such ques- 
tions as the influence of radioactive ores and residues on plant life, 
and also the conditions under which the economically important con- 
stituents of the plant are produced in the largest amount. As an 
example of the latter purpose, with which botanical knowledge and 
skill must naturally be associated, it may suffice to mention the efforts 
to increase the yield of a particular alkaloid, such as quinine from 
cinchona barks, or to promote the development of such other im- 
portant compounds of diverse character as are afforded by various 
plants. In this connection it may be noted that one of the largest 
and most attractive fields of chemical investigation still remains prac- 
tically unexplored, for comparatively little is as yet known respecting 
the constituents of the plants which inhabit North America, or even 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 19 17 



Phytochemical Research. 



99 



those of our immediate surroundings. There can be no doubt that a 
careful and complete examination of this material would reveal not 
only much of scientific interest, but also a considerable number of 
substances which would be found to possess medicinal value. 

The numerous applications of phytochemistry, to some of which 
I have briefly alluded, render it evident that it represents an im- 
portant part of agricultural science. In surveying this large domain 
it has been deemed desirable to devote the time this evening to a 
consideration of the chemical characters of some plant constituents, 
and for the elucidation of this phase of the subject a brief account 
may be given of some results obtained in the course of investigations 
with which I have been personally associated. 

Among the drugs which possess not only chemical interest, but 
very considerable medicinal importance, may be mentioned the so- 
called chaulmoogra seeds, or the fatty oil obtained therefrom. 

Chaulmoogra Oil was for a long time considered to be obtained 
from the seeds of Gynocardia odorata R. Br., but chiefly through 
the researches of Sir David Prain, Director of the Royal Botanic 
Gardens at Kew, it was definitely ascertained that the seeds yielding 
this oil are those of the plant Taraktogenos Kurzii King, or, as 
designated by some botanists, Hydnocarpus Kurzii Warburg, which 
is a native of Burmah. 

The chief use of chaulmoogra oil is in the treatment of leprosy 
and other skin diseases, for which it is employed both internally and 
externally. It is the remedy most relied upon for leprosy, and by 
some is regarded as a specific for that disease. 

Chaulmoogra oil was first chemically examined many years ago, 
when, after hydrolysis, a product was obtained therefrom which 
received the designation of gynocardic acid, but which is now known 
to have consisted of an indefinite mixture. On the other hand, the 
more recent and complete examination of the oil has shown it to 
possess very exceptional chemical interest. 2 Its chief constituents 
are the glyceryl esters, or glycerides, of acids of an entirely new 
type. These acids are optically active, have a cyclic structure, and 
are represented by the general formula C n H 2rl _ 4 2 . The acid 
present in the oil in the largest proportion possesses the empirical 
formula C 18 H 32 2 , and has been termed chaulmoogric acid, with 
reference to its source. For the purpose of classification in the 
literature, it represents, together with its homologue, the so-called 
chaulmoogric acid series. 

2 Power and Gornall, Jour. Chem. Soc, 1904, 85, pp. 838-851. 



100 



Phytochemical Research. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 19 17 



Chaulmoogric acid is a beautifully crystalline substance, melting 
at 68°, and having an optical rotatory power of [a] n +56 . 
Although isomeric with linolic acid, it combines directly with only 
two atomic proportions of bromine or iodine, therefore has but one 
ethylenic linking, and must contain in its structure a closed carbon 
ring. 

Another crystalline acid, which represents a lower homologue of 
chaulmoogric acid, has also been isolated from chaulmoogra oil. 
This acid possesses the empirical formula C 16 H 28 2 , melts at 6o°, 
and has [a] D +68°. It has been termed hydnocarpic acid, on ac- 
count of having first been obtained from a Hydnocarpus oil, to 
which reference will again be made. 

A number of derivatives of both chaulmoogric and hydnocarpic 
acid have been prepared, and their constitution has been thoroughly 
elucidated. 3 They have been shown to be cyclopentene derivatives, 
containing an aliphatic side chain, and a consideration of their 
behavior towards oxidizing agents indicates them to exist in two 
tautomeric forms. In the case of chaulmoogric acid these two 
forms may be represented by the following formulae : 

CH CH 2 

// \ ^\ 

CH CH[CH 2 ]i2-C0 2 H CH— C[CH 2 ]i2-C0 2 H 

II II 
CH 2 • CH 2 CH 2 • CH 2 

The simplest expression of the constitution of chaulmoogric 
acid would therefore be by the following formula, in which the 
dotted lines represent a state of equilibrium between a hydrogen 
atom and two carbon atoms : 

CH 

CH— H C • [CH 2 ] 12 • C0 2 H 

I I 

CH 2 — — CH 2 

Hydnocarpic acid possesses the same structure as chaulmoogric 
acid, and differs from it only by containing ten methylene groups in 
the side chain instead of twelve. 

In addition to the two acids already mentioned, chaulmoogra 
oil has been found to contain a relatively small proportion of palmitic 
acid or its glyceride, and a phytosterol. The seeds contain, further- 

3 Power and Gornall, Jour. Chem. Soc, 1904, 85, pp. 851-861, and Barrow- 
cliff and Power, ibid., 1907, 01, pp. 557-578. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.j 
March, 19 17 > 



Phyto chemical Research. 



101 



more, a considerable amount of a substance which yields hydro- 
cyanic acid on hydrolysis, and is evidently a glucoside, but the 
attempts to isolate this compound have not as yet been successful. 

In connection with the investigation of chaulmoogra oil, the oils 
expressed from two distinct species of Hydnocarpus seeds have also 
been chemically examined, 4 since they are used in their respective 
countries for similar purposes. One of these oils was obtained from 
the seeds of Hydnocarpus Wightiana Blume, which is a native of 
Western India, while the other was obtained from the seeds of 
Hydnocarpus anthelmintic a Pierre, which is indigenous to Siam. 
The last-mentioned seeds are exported to China under the name of 
"Lukrabo." It may be sufficient to state that the oils obtained 
from the seeds of these two species of Hydnocarpus closely resemble 
chaulmoogra oil in their physical properties and chemical composi- 
tion, containing the same crystalline, optically active acids, and 
therefore doubtless possess identical medicinal value. 

Inasmuch as the seeds of Gynocardia odorata had for a long 
time been regarded as the source of chaulmoogra oil, it was deemed 
desirable to ascertain the character of the oil expressed from them. 5 
For this purpose a quantity of perfectly authentic seeds was specially 
collected in Sylhet, Assam, since they are not an article of com- 
merce, even in India. The oil from gynocardia seeds is a pale 
yellow liquid, whereas the true chaulmoogra oil at ordinary temper- 
atures is a soft solid. Gynocardia oil has an odor resembling that 
of linseed oil, and is optically inactive. In its chemical composition, 
as well as in its physical properties, it bears no resemblance to chaul- 
moogra oil, since it contains none of the members of the chaul- 
moogric acid series. It consists chiefly of the glycerides of the 
ordinary fatty acids, such as linolic acid or its isomerides of the 
same series, palmitic acid, linolenic and w-olinolenic acids, with a 
relatively small amount of oleic acid. The results of this chemical 
investigation thus served to confirm the previous botanical observa- 
tions, and completely established the fact that the product known as 
chaulmoogra oil has never been obtained from the seeds of Gyno- 
cardia odorata. 

It has already been noted that genuine chaulmoogra seeds con- 
tain a considerable proportion of a compound which yields hydro- 
cyanic acid on hydrolysis, but that the attempts to effect its isola- 

4 Power and Barrowcliff, Jour. Chem. Soc, 1905, 87, pp. 884-896. 

5 Power and Barrowcliff, ibid., 1905, 87, pp. 896-900. 



102 



Phytochemical Research. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 19 17 



tion had not yet been successful. On the other hand, it has been 
possible to obtain from the seeds of Gynocardia odorata a beauti- 
fully crystalline, cyanogenetic glucoside, which possesses the em- 
pirical formula C 13 H 19 9 N, and has been designated gynocardin. 6 
It is accompanied in the seed by an enzyme, termed gynocardase, 
which readily hydrolyzes /?-glucosides. 

In connection with the subject under consideration it would ap- 
pear of interest to refer to an incident in which the results of the 
investigation of chaulmoogra oil and related products proved to be 
of very considerable practical value. During the latter part of the 
year 1910 a number of cases of poisoning occurred in Germany 
through the use of a margarine which had been brought into com- 
merce under the name of " Backa," and which was stated to have 
been prepared from a so-called " maratti fat," imported from India. 7 
Legal proceedings were subsequently instituted against the manu- 
facturer of the margarine, and the subject naturally attracted the 
attention of the health authorities as well as the general public. The 
investigations which ensued, in which chemists, botanists, and 
medical men participated, soon revealed the fact that the fat em- 
ployed in the particular instance for the manufacture of margarine 
had been obtained from chaulmoogra seed or from the seed of one 
of the closely related species of Hydnocarpus. The identification of 
the fat was effected, not only by a comparison of its physical proper- 
ties with those of the products which so short a time previously had 
been made the subject of extended research, but also by the isolation 
therefrom of the crystalline, optically active chaulmoogric acid. 

Another native product of the East Indies, which is much more 
familiar through its use as a condiment than as a drug, is the nutmeg. 
It is probably not generally known, however, even among chemists, 
that the nutmeg when taken in considerable quantity possesses de- 
cided narcotic properties. Nevertheless, there have been in past 
years somewhat frequently recorded cases of so-called nutmeg 
poisoning, the symptoms of which are stupor and delirium, and 
alarming, if not fatal, consequences are said to have followed the 
free use of the drug in both Europe and America, as well as in 
India. On the other hand, in the quantities ordinarily used as a 
condiment or flavoring agent, the nutmeg may be regarded as per- 
fectly harmless. 

6 Power and Lees, Jour. Chem. Soc, 1905, 87, pp. 349-357- 

7 Zeitschr. f. Untersuchung der Nahrungs- und Genussmittel, July, 1911, 
p. 226, and Deutsche Med. Wochenschr., 191 1, p. 53. 



Am ;J 0U , n Pharm -) Photochemical Research. 

March, 19 17 J J 



103 



A desire to ascertain the nature of the toxic constituent of the 
nutmeg was the chief incentive to its complete chemical examina- 
tion, and this yielded results of considerable interest. 8 

Although the nutmeg contains a considerable amount of a fatty 
oil, the more important product is the essential oil, which has been 
found to be of very complex composition. This essential oil con- 
tains, for example, pinene, camphene, and dipentene, eugenol and 
uoeugenol, linalool, borneol, terpineol and geraniol, safrole and 
myristicin, CnH^Og. It also contains formic, acetic, butyric, and 
octoic acids, and an acid of the composition C 13 H 18 3 , all in the form 
of esters, together with myristic acid in a free state, and some minor 
constituents not here enumerated. The so-called " myristicol " of 
earlier investigators is now known to have been a mixture of 
alcohols, which probably consisted chiefly of terpineol. 

Physiological experiments have shown that the toxic properties 
of nutmeg are due to the compound known as myristicin, C^II^Os, 
which is a 3-methoxy-4 : 5-methylenedioxy-i-allylbenzene : 

ch 2 — ch=ch 2 
c 

HC CH 

il I 
O — C C.OCH3 

CHi— OC 

This compound is a liquid, possessing only a faintly aromatic 
odor and a high boiling point, 171-173 at 40 mm. By treatment 
with metallic sodium or with an alcoholic solution of potassium 
hydroxide it is converted, through the change of the allyl into a 
propenyl group, into the handsomely crystalline womyristicin, which 
melts at 44 . 

The chemical interest pertaining to nutmeg is not restricted to 
the characterization of its constituents, or even to the determination 
of the physiologically active component, for the primary investiga- 
tion, as is frequently the case, suggested another line of research 
which led to results of considerable importance. It was conceived, 
for example, by my associate in these investigations 9 that myristicin, 

8 Power and Salway, Jour. Chem. Soc, 1907, gi, pp. 2037-2058, and 1908, 
93, PP- 1653-1659. Also Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1908, 80, pp. 563-580. 

9 Salway, Jour. Chem. Soc, 1910, gy, pp. 1208-1219. 



Phy to chemical Research. { Am k£ch i^ h i7 rm ' 

C 11 H 12 3 , might serve as a starting point for the synthesis of 
cotarnine. As is well known, the base cotarnine, C 12 H 15 4 N, is an 
oxidation product of the opium alkaloid narcotine, C 22 H 23 7 N, and 
under the name of " stypticine " it is used to some extent medic- 
inally. By an extended series of complex reactions it was indeed 
found possible to pass from myristicin to cotarnine, or, in other 
words, from a constituent of nutmeg to a derivative of an opium 
alkaloid. Inasmuch as cotarnine may be combined with meconine, 
C 10 H 10 O 4 , to form narcotine, and meconine has in turn been synthe- 
sized from guaiacol, C 6 H 4 <^j^^ 3 , the complete synthesis of narco- 
tine has been effected. 

It has not been the intention to devote the time this evening ex- 
clusively to such vegetable products as are obtained from the Far 
East, but brief consideration may be given to another Indian plant, 
on account of both its chemical and physiological interest. The 
plant in question is known botanically as Gymnema syhestre R. Br., 
which belongs to the family of Asclepiadacece, and is indigenous 
to Banda and the Deccan Peninsula. Although various medicinal 
properties have been attributed to it by the Hindus, it was brought 
more prominently to notice some years ago on account of the ob- 
servation that the leaves, when chewed, have the property of render- 
ing imperceptible the sweet taste of sugar and other saccharine sub- 
stances, and also, but in a less marked degree, the taste of many 
bitter substances. This effect is due to a substance which appears 
to have a selective action upon the nerve fibers or nerve endings 
concerned with taste, and has been designated gymnemic acid. The 
most recent investigation 10 of this product has shown, however, that 
as originally prepared it was not homogeneous, 11 and even after 
extended treatment for the purpose of purification it could not be 
obtained crystalline, nor in a form which would permit of its more 
definite characterization. 

Apart from the constituent of gymnema leaves to which the 
peculiar physiological property referred to is due, they have been 
found to contain another substance of chemical interest, namely, a 
lsevorotatory modification of quercitol, C 6 H 7 (OH) 5 .H 2 0. 12 The 

10 Power and Tutin, Pharm. Journ., 1904, 73, pp. 234-239. 

11 Hooper, Pharm. Journ., 1887, 17, p. 867, and Chemical News, 1889, 59, 
p. 159. 

12 Power and Tutin, Jour. Chem. Soc., 1904, 85, pp. 624-629. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.j 
March, 19 17 > 



Phytochemical Research. 



105 



pentahydric alcohol, quercitol, which is a pentahydroxyhexahydro- 

CH 2 

HO.Hc/NcH.OH 

HO.HC^yCH.OH 
CH.OH 

benzene, had hitherto only been known in the dextrorotatory form, 
as obtained from the fruits of various species of Quercus and some 
other sources. This has a specific rotation of [a] z> , '+ 24.1 6°, whereas 
the new laevorotatory modification has [a] D — 73-9°, and the one 
cannot therefore be the optical antipode of the other. Inasmuch 
as quercitol possesses four asymmetrical groupings, a number of 
stereochemical modifications are possible, and the configuration of 
the respective dextro and laevo compounds can only be determined 
when the other isomerides are known. 

In any consideration of the subject of phytochemistry it seems 
eminently desirable that some attention should be given to the plants 
which are indigenous to the North American Continent, for it may 
certainly be assumed that they are not lacking in chemical interest. 
The fact may, however, again be noted that comparatively few of 
the native plants have as yet been subjected to a complete examina- 
tion, while the constituents of a large proportion of them are as yet 
completely unknown. A great wealth of material therefore awaits 
the investigator in this field of research. 

Among the American plants which have been made the subjects 
of more recent study a few may specially be mentioned which are 
natives of the Pacific coast, such as Grindelia camporum Greene; 13 
Eriodictyon calif ormcum Greene, 14 or "Yerba Santa"; Micromeria 
chamissonis Greene, 15 or "Yerba Buena," and the so-called Cali- 
fornia laurel or mountain laurel, which is known botanically as Um~ 
belhdaria calif omica Nutt. 16 The last-mentioned plant is of particu- 
lar interest on account of the character of the essential oil contained 
in its leaves. This essential oil possesses an odor which at first is 
agreeably aromatic and somewhat camphoraceous, but when strongly 

13 Power and Tutin, Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 53, pp. 192-200, and 
1907, 55, PP- 337-344- 

14 Power and Tutin, ibid., 1906, 54, pp. 352-369, and Jour. Chcm. Soc, 
1907, gi, pp. 887-896. 

15 Power and Salway, Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc, 1908, 30, pp. 251-265. 

16 Power and Lees, ibid., 1904, 85, pp. 629-646. 



I0 6 Phy to chemical Research. ( Am ka?cf 1917™' 

inhaled it is exceedingly pungent, affecting particularly the mucous 
membranes of the nose and eyes. A complete examination of the 
oil has shown it to contain pinene, eugenol, eugenol methyl ether, 
safrole, and a considerable proportion of cineol, but its chief con- 
stituent, and that to which its peculiar pungency is due, is a ketone 
of the composition C 10 H 14 O, which has been designated umbellulone. 

As an illustration of the chemical interest pertaining to a plant 
which is quite cosmopolitan in its distribution, the constituents of the 
common Dandelion, Taraxacum officinale Weber, may be briefly 
considered. The root of this plant, as is well known, is used to a 
considerable extent medicinally, and, together with extracts pre- 
pared therefrom, has long been recognized by most of the national 
pharmacopoeias. A comparatively recent examination of English 
taraxacum root 17 revealed the presence of a somewhat unexpected 
number of interesting compounds, some of which had not hereto- 
fore been described. It was found to contain, for example, two 
new, handsomely crystalline, monohydric alcohols, one of which 
possesses the formula C 29 H 47 .OH, and has been termed taraxasterol, 
while the other has the formula C 25 H 39 .OH, and, being a homologue 
of the former compound, has been designated homotaraxasterol. 
Both of these compounds are members of a series, which may be 
represented by the general formula C n H 2 „_ 10 O. There was also 
isolated a small amount of p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, C 6 H 4 (OH).~ 
CH 2 .C0 2 H, which had not previously been observed to occur as 
such in the vegetable kingdom, and 3 : 4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, 
C 6 H 3 (OH) 2 .CH : CH.C0 2 H, together with a number of the com- 
monly occurring fatty acids, such as oleic, linolic, palmitic, cerotic, 
and melissic acids. Furthermore, there was found a phytosterol 
glucoside, a small amount of choline, C 5 H 15 2 N, and a consider- 
able quantity of a sugar, which appeared to consist chiefly of laevu- 
lose. When an extract of taraxacum undergoes the so-called 
mucous or viscous fermentation, it has been observed to contain 
mannitol, but this does not preexist in the root. Its formation would 
appear to be easily explained by the fact that the root of the plant, 
like other Composites, contains an abundance of inulin, which, on 
hydrolysis, is converted into lsevulose, and the latter, by the special 
fermentative process referred to, becomes reduced to mannitol. 

It would appear of interest to note that while the chemical 
examination of taraxacum was in progress it was recorded in Eng- 

17 Power and Browning, Jour. Chem. Soc, 1912, 101, pp. 241 1-2429. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.j 
March, 19 17 J 



Phytochemical Research. 



107 



land that the use of an extract of this root in cases of cancer had 
been attended with beneficial results, and shortly afterwards atten- 
tion was directed in Germany to the use of choline in the treatment 
of this disease. Some particular significance would seem to be 
imparted to these quite independent observations by the fact that 
taraxacum root has been found to contain choline, but the value 
of the suggested remedies has apparently not been further confirmed. 

It occasionally happens that an investigation may gain in interest, 
if not in practical importance, through developments in a direction 
that would at first seem quite divergent from the original subject 
of inquiry. Some recently published researches by Russian chemists 
relating to the formation and chemical composition of rubber may 
serve to illustrate such an occurrence as I have indicated, while also 
helping to elucidate some problems in plant metabolism. In order, 
however, that the points of connection between the results of two 
quite distinct investigations may be more clearly apparent, the pur- 
pose and sequence of these investigations should first be explained. 

A good many years ago a discussion arose respecting the solu- 
bility in alcohol of the oil of bay, as distilled from the leaves of 
Myrica acris DC, it having been stated by the Pharmacopoeia that 
the oil was soluble in an equal weight of alcohol, whereas it was 
contended by some observers that it yielded a turbid solution, and 
consequently that the official statement was incorrect. Subsequent 
Observations had shown that the freshly distilled oil usually yields 
a perfectly clear solution with 90 per cent, alcohol, but that when 
the oil has been kept for some time its solubility becomes impaired. 
In order to ascertain the cause of this change, the oil was submitted 
to a complete chemical examination. 18 One of the most important 
results was the isolation of a so-called olefinic terpene, an open chain 
hydrocarbon of the composition C 10 H 16 , whose constitution may 
probably be expressed by one of the following formulae: 

CHs x CH 3 \ 

>C:CH.CH 2 .CH 2 .C.CH:CH 2 or xC.CH 2 .CH 2 .CH 2 .C.CH:CH 2 
CH/ II CH 2 ^ || 

CH 2 CH 2 

This compound, which possesses a density lower than that of 
the ordinary terpenes, and contains three ethylenic linkings, was the 
first known representative of its class, and has been designated 
myrcene. On hydration, an alcohol was produced which possessed 
the odor of linalool, and this on oxidation yielded citral. 

18 Power and Kleber, Pharm. Rundschau (New York), 1895, 13, p. 60. 



108 Phytochemical Research. { An V Tou £- Pharm - 

J 1 March, 1917 

Myrcene is very susceptible to change, becoming readily poly- 
merized by distillation under ordinary pressure or on exposure for 
some time to the air, with the formation of a viscid product which 
is very sparingly soluble in alcohol. The isolation of myrcene was 
not only of considerable scientific interest, but a consideration of its 
characters, especially its tendency to polymerize, also served to ex- 
plain the apparent discrepancies of statement respecting the solu- 
bility in alcohol of oil of bay. 

The more recent researches in another direction, to which I have 
already referred, may now be briefly considered, since they would 
seem to impart added interest and significance to the observed oc- 
currence in nature of an olefmic terpene. It is well known that the 
hydrocarbon isoprene, C 5 H S , or CH 2 : C(CH 3 ) .CH : CH 2 , when 
treated with suitable reagents, becomes polymerized, with the forma- 
tion of a product having the general characters of caoutchouc or 
rubber, and the various processes for the production of synthetic 
rubber have been, in fact, chiefly based upon the utilization of this 
hydrocarbon. It has, however, recently been asserted 19 that all the 
polymerides of isoprene thusfar obtained differ from natural Para 
caoutchouc, inasmuch as the decomposition of their diozonides with 
water yields acetonylacetone and succinic acid in addition to lsevu- 
linic aldehyde and lsevulinic acid. No succinic acid or acetonyl- 
acetone could be detected in the products of hydrolysis of the 
diozonides from natural caoutchouc. The correctness of these ob- 
servations is apparently confirmed by the results of some further, 
quite independent investigations, which, together with the deductions 
from them, are of particular interest. It has been found, for 
example, by Russian chemists 20 that when isoprene is cautiously 
heated at a temperature of 80 to 90 C. it yields an open chain 
hydrocarbon of the composition C 10 H 16 , which contains three ethyl- 
enic linkings, and resembles the myrcene obtained from oil of bay. 
This new hydrocarbon has been designated by its discoverers as 
/?-myrcene, and its most probable constitution is considered by them 
to be: 

CH 2 : CH.C(CH 3 ) : CH.CH 2 .CH 2 .C(CH 3 ) : CH 2 . 

It is a colorless, mobile liquid, boiling at 63 C. at 20 mm. pressure, 

19 Steimmig, Ber. d. deutsch. chem. Ges., 1914, 47, pp. 350-354. 

20 Ostromyslenski and Koschelev, Jour. Russ. Phys.-Chcm. Soc, 1915, 47, 
pp. 1928-1931. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.j 
March, 19 17 J 



Phytochemical Research. 



109 



and is soluble in all the ordinary organic solvents. When heated al 
60-70 C. with metallic sodium and barium peroxide, it is con- 
verted quantitatively into normal isoprene-caoutchouc, whereas 
under similar conditions isoprene gives an abnormal caoutchouc. It 
has thus been considered by one of the investigators 21 that this poly- 
merization of chemically pure /3-myrcene may possibly represent 
the only synthesis of natural caoutchouc, that is, of a substance per- 
fectly identical with natural Para caoutchouc, both in the general 
structure of its nucleus and also in the position of the methyl groups 
and double linkings of the molecule. In this connection it has been 
remarked that there is every reason to believe that tropical plants 
synthesize caoutchouc by means of /?-myrcene or myrcene-like hydro- 
carbons or their dimerides, and not by the polymerization of isoprene 
The view has furthermore been expressed that, inasmuch as com- 
pounds with an atomic grouping like that of myrcene, such as 
geraniol, linalool, nerol, etc., are of frequent occurrence in plants, 
the simple dehydration of these unsaturated alcohols would lead 
immediately to the corresponding myrcenes. 

With consideration of the observations to which I have just 
referred, it would appear to be of some interest to ascertain whether 
myrcene or an analogous hydrocarbon is contained in plants yield- 
ing rubber. If fresh material were available, experiments in this 
direction could very easily be conducted. 

The few examples that have been given of recent phytochemical 
investigations, although fragmentary in character, may serve in some 
measure to illustrate their development and scope. It has naturally 
not been possible in the short space of time to give adequate con- 
sideration to the large number of important researches which in 
recent years have been conducted by various other workers in this 
field of science. Among these there may specially be noted the 
contributions to the knowledge of chlorophyll and the coloring 
matter of flowers, and also those pertaining to the compounds which 
impart to flowers their fragrance. On the other hand it will doubt- 
less be conceded that no very extended account of phytochemical in- 
vestigations would be necessary in order to demonstrate their utility, 
for an enumeration of even a few of the organic plant constituents 
which have long been known and largely used, either in medicine or 
the arts, would alone afford sufficient evidence of the lasting benefit 
which such investigations may confer on mankind. 

21 Ostromyslenski, ibid., pp. 1941-1947. 



no 



Research. i Am -J ou l- pharm - 

<- March, 1917 



1 Although dependence must still be placed upon natural sources 
for many invaluable medicinal agents, such as morphine, quinine, 
strychnine, and other familiar representatives of the group of alka- 
loids, in several instances the determination of the ultimate constitu- 
tion of important vegetable compounds has made it possible to pre- 
pare them synthetically, thus frequently giving rise to large and 
prosperous branches of industry. In briefly citing a few well- 
known examples of such achievements, it may be mentioned that 
synthetic methyl salicylate, although first produced on a manufactur- 
ing scale but a comparatively few years ago, has now displaced to a 
large extent the natural oils of wintergreen and sweet birch, of 
which it forms the chief constituent, while the salicylic acid em- 
ployed in the process of manufacture is also an artificial product. 
Vanillin and coumarin, which represent the aromatic principles of 
the vanilla bean and tonka bean respectively, are now rarely ob- 
tained from these natural sources, but almost entirely by synthetic 
methods. Artificial indigo is now produced to the extent of several 
million pounds per annum, and is actively competing with the natural 
product, but for various reasons it has not completely displaced it. 
On the other hand, alizarin has long since ceased to be obtained 
from the root of Rubia tinctoria L., or Dyers' madder, being now 
prepared from anthracene, a constituent of coal tar. 

It will be evident from the brief account of recent phytochemical 
research that I have now been able to present that it is not restricted 
in its scope to the isolation of definite organic compounds and their 
characterization, although this may be considered of primary im- 
portance. Its higher aim would be to determine the constitution of 
these compounds, and, if possible, the means for their synthetic 
production. A wide and most attractive field of scientific investiga- 
tion is thus afforded, in which the opportunities for development are 
practically unlimited. 

In conclusion, the hope may be expressed that the newly estab- 
lished phytochemical laboratory of the Bureau of Chemistry may 
render useful service, both in promoting the knowledge of plant 
constituents and in extending the applications of the knowledge per- 
taining thereto. 

Phytochemicae Laboratory, 
Bureau of Chemistry. 



Am k£ch i 3 ^*™ 1 *} Assay Processes of U.S. P. IX. 



in 



ASSAY PROCESSES OF THE U. S. P. IX. 1 
By Philip Ashee, Ph.G., M.D. 

About ten days ago, when requested by the chairman of your 
program committee to read a paper at this meeting in lieu of the 
appointed speaker, who found that he would not be able to have 
his subject ready for the occasion, I little realized what it meant to 
prepare a paper of this magnitude upon such short notice. Never- 
theless I have prepared a few observations relating to the assay 
processes of the new U. S. P. Owing to the short time at my dis- 
posal, your indulgence is asked for any omissions that may occur 
in this paper. Before taking up the subject of the evening, a few 
remarks will be apropos concerning the Pure Food and Drugs Act, 
and also Pharmacy. 

It may not be generally known that the Pure Food and Drugs 
Act owes its existence to the efforts of the energetic members of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association. In 1901 a committee of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association reported that the govern- 
ment had established a pharmaceutical laboratory in connection with 
the Department of Agriculture. From that time until the final 
passage of the bill which has placed this law among the national 
statutes, the A. Ph. A. has been persistent in its efforts towards this 
end. It can be said without fear of gainsay that no legislation 
has ever been enacted that has done so much good for the conser- 
vation of the public health as this law. The people of this country 
owe much to the American Pharmaceutical Association for its un- 
tiring efforts in their behalf. The passage of this law has given 
rise to the establishment of food and drug laboratories throughout 
the country and this has resulted in the employment of a large num- 
ber of chemists. 

Pharmacy is not only the mother of medicine, but chemistry 
owes it a debt as well. Those familiar with the early history of 
chemistry are well aware that many of the men who have given 
their best efforts to the development of the science of chemistry had 
their thoughts in the domain of this science awakened in the simple 
apothecary shop. 

1 Read before the Louisiana Branch of the American Chemical Society, 
December 15, 1916. 



j 12 Assay Processes of US. P. IX. { Am ^™h]?w m ' 

The processes outlined in this article will show the wide range 
of chemical knowledge that the pharmacist should possess. 

In no school where chemistry is taught, except in those institu- 
tions making chemistry a specialty, is the subject of chemistry taken 
up so fully as it is taught in pharmacy colleges. There is hardly a 
branch of chemistry that has not some pharmaceutical bearing and 
it is not surprising then that this subject receives the consideration 
it does. 

U. S. P. Assay Processes. 

As is well known today, the U. S. Pharmacopoeia and the Na- 
tional Formulary are the legal standards for drugs, chemicals and 
their preparations. The methods of assay given therein must be 
strictly followed in every instance : this cannot be too strongly em- 
phasized. 

In reviewing the assay processes of the new U. S. P. in a gen- 
eral way, one sees that quite a number of changes have taken place, 
some quite radical. It is almost impossible in the time allotted to 
the subject to touch upon all the details, so that in a large number 
of instances a generalization of the methods will alone be consid- 
ered ; but where any general method offers any special features, these 
will be taken up at greater length. 

There have been several errors observed in the quantities given 
under some of the assays, so that the writer does not wish it under- 
stood that the amounts given have been verified. It had been his 
intention to have done so had he had sufficient time to complete this 
paper in the time originally allotted to him. 

For example, under potassium chlorate the quantity of acidu- 
lated ferrous sulphate is insufficient. The amount of iron sulphate 
is only .750 Gm., whereas the quantity required for the oxidation 
by .1 Gm. potassium chlorate is 1.400 Gms. Again on page 221, 
under ammoniated mercury, it is directed to multiply the weight of 
mercuric sulphide found by .162. This is wrong, it should be .862. 

ACIDIMETRY AND ALKALIMETRY. 

The following acids are assayed by titrating with normal alkali : 
Acetic, citric, hydrobromic, hypophosphorous, sulphuric, tartaric 
and trichloracetic. 

Boric acid is also titrated with normal alkali, but gylycerin is 
used with it. * 



Am ka°rch r ; i P 9 h i a 7 rm "} Assa V Processes of US. P. IX. n 3 

With aromatic sulphuric acid the same method is followed, but 
it is first refluxed six hours, the object of which is to decompose 
the ethyl-sulphuric acid of the compound under examination into 
alcohol and sulphuric acid, and thereby obtain its full acid content. 

In the assay of phosphoric acid and phosphates a departure from 
the general method is resorted to. About i Gm. of the acid is ac- 
curately weighed and diluted with water to make 100 mils; 10 mils 
of this solution are transferred to a 100 mil flask and neutralized 
with special KOH T.S. (one free from chlorides), phenolphthalein 
being used as an indicator. To the solution 50 mils n/10 silver 
nitrate are added and then zinc oxide, free from chloride, is added 
in small portions to neutralize the liquid. Sufficient distilled water 
is added to make exactly 100 mils, and the whole agitated. The 
mixture is filtered through a dry filter, and to 50 mils of the filtrate 
2 mils of nitric acid and 2 mils iron and ammonium sulphate T.S. 
are added, and the excess of silver used is titrated with n/10 KCNS. 

In the old U. S. P., lactic acid was assayed with normal KOH, 
in the cold. The new directions are that after the addition of the 
alkali, the solution be boiled 20 minutes. This is to convert the 
lactones, or inner anhydrides, into the lactate. The purity rubric of 
the old U. S. P. was 75 per cent. By the new method a strength 
of 85 per cent, results, including both the lactic acid and its an- 
hydrides. 

In the assay of benzoic and salicylic acids, n/10 barium hy- 
droxide is substituted for the KOH, phenolphthalein being used 
as an indicator. The end reaction with alkali hydroxide is not 
sharp, owing to the carbonate it usually contains and because the 
titration is conducted in the cold. Barium hydroxide has been sub- 
stituted to overcome this. 

There are several salts of the pharmacopoeia that are assayed 
by acidimetry or alkalimetry: by direct titration without inter- 
mediate steps. Under the acidimetric method is potassium bitar- 
trate. Under the alkalimetric method are the following: am- 
monium carbonate and hydroxide; potassium hydroxide, bicarbo- 
nate and carbonate; magnesium oxide, carbonate and hydroxide; 
sodium borate, carbonate, hydroxide, cacodylate and glycerophos- 
phate; zinc stearate, carbonate and oxide. 

With compounds such as zinc stearate the process slightly varies. 
They are first boiled with an excess of n/10 sulphuric acid, which 



1 1 a Assay Processes of U.S. P. IX. f Al V Tou £- Pharm - 

1 A 'i- - ' l March, 1917 

breaks up the compound into the acid and the sulphate. The ex- 
cess of acid used is then titrated with n/io KOH. 

The direct titration of borax, sodium cacodylate, sodium glycero- 
phosphate and others of this class, by n 2 HC1 depends upon the 
property of the liberated acids from these compounds being indif- 
ferent to methyl orange. The compounds are ionized in the solu- 
tion, and only the bases respond to the indicator. 

In the assay of chloral hydrates, the compound is first treated 
with an excess of normal KOH. This converts the chloral into 
chloroform and potassium formate, according to the following equa- 
tion : 

CCI3CHO + KOH = CHCL 4= KC0 2 H. 

Chloral Potassium Chloroform Potassium 

Hydroxide Formate 

The excess of alkali is then titrated with normal sulphuric acid. 

Several of the compounds, such as formaldehyde and parafor- 
maldehyde, are assayed under the acidimetric method, after having 
been first oxidized by peroxide of hydrogen. The compound to be 
assayed is treated with alkali, then with hydrogen peroxide, after 
which the excess of alkali used is determined by titration with sul- 
phuric acid, litmus being used as the indicator. 

Only one of the compounds of the U. S. P. is assayed by dis- 
tillation, solution of ammonium acetate. The assay is carried out 
by adding an excess of alkali to the solution. The mixture is 
heated and the ammonia is distilled into a known quantity of nor- 
mal sulphuric acid. The excess of acid used is determined by titra- 
tion with alkali. 

Metallic organic salts are directed to be assayed by first car- 
bonizing the salt. By this process, the compound is converted into 
its carbonate. The cooled mass is disintegrated ; the crucible and 
mass are transferred to a beaker. Fifty mils each of water and 
half-normal acid are added and the beaker covered with a watch 
crystal and boiled for thirty minutes. The solution is filtered and 
the residue washed until no longer acid to litmus. The excess of 
acid is titrated with alkali, with methyl orange as an indicator. 
The following salts are assayed by this method : calcium lactate, 
lithium citrate, potassium acetate, citrate, potassium and sodium 
tartrate, Seidlitz powder, sodium acetate, benzoate, citrate, salicylate, 
and strontium salicylate. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. j AsSd\> PvOCCSSCS of U S .P . IX. II" 
March, 1917 } J j 

With volatile organic salts, such as ammonium benzoate and sali- 
cylate, the above method would not apply. The method used for 
these salts is as follows : To .5 gram of the salt, dissolved in 10 
mils of water, are added 5 mils of diluted sulphuric acid. The 
liberated organic acids are then extracted with successive portions 
of 25, 15 and 10 mils of chloroform. The chloroform solution is 
evaporated spontaneously, 25 mils of neutral alcohol are added, and 
the solution titrated with n 10 barium hydroxide. 

Gravimetric Methods. 

There are quite a number of purely gravimetric methods in the 
U. S. P. processes. They may be divided into four classes : First, 
decomposition directly by heat into definite compounds, admitting of 
weighing and determination ; secondly, precipitation ; thirdly, pre- 
cipitation and further decomposition of the precipitate by heat; 
fourthly, miscellaneous. 

The following substances are assayed by the first method : cal- 
cium glycerophosphate and all the official bismuth compounds, con- 
sisting of bismuth and ammonium citrate, betanaphtholate, hydrox- 
ide, subcarbonate, subgallate, subsalicylate, and the subnitrate. 

The inorganic bismuth compounds are simply incinerated ; but in 
the case of the organic bismuth compounds nitric acid is added to 
completely destroy any remaining carbon, the solution evaporated 
to dryness and ignited, and calculated as Bi 2 3 . Under bismuth 
betanaphtholate, a method is also given to determine the amount of 
of betanaphthol present, as follows : To the salt, 10 mils of HC1 are 
added, and the betanaphthol is extracted by successive portions of 
chloroform. The chloroform solution is evaporated. The residue 
should not weigh less than 15 per cent, of the salt taken. 

Calcium glycerophosphate is assayed by dissolving in water, add- 
ing acetic acid, and then ammonium oxalate. The calcium oxalate 
is washed, dried and ignited, and from the weight of calcium oxide 
found, the glycerophosphate is calculated. 

The second gravimetric method of assay, precipitation, is used 
for the following : ammoniated mercury and bichloride. For ex- 
ample, .5 Gm. of mercuric chloride is dissolved in water and acidu- 
lated with HC1, and completely precipitated by H 2 S. The precipi- 
tate is filtered upon counterpoised filters and washed, first with 
water, then with three portions of 10 mils of alcohol. The funnel 
is closed with a stopper, and to remove any adhering sulphur surfi- 



n6 Assay Processes of US.P. IX. { Am ^f *£* Tm ' 

cient carbon tetrachloride is added to cover the precipitate. After 
an hour the precipitate is drained and further washed with carbon 
tetrachloride until the nitrate upon evaporation no longer shows any 
visible residue. It is further washed with alcohol, dried and 
weighed. The mercuric sulphide found multiplied by 1.167 gives 
the mercuric chloride. 

The third method of gravimetric assay, precipitation and fur- 
ther decomposition of the precipitate by heat, is used in the follow- 
ing: alum, gold and sodium chloride, zinc acetate, sulphate, phenol- 
sulphonate and valerate. 

Alum is determined by precipitation as hydroxide, igniting, and 
weighing as oxide. 

Gold and sodium chloride is assayed by the addition of KOH 
in excess. The potassium meta-aurate, KAu0 2 , formed is reduced 
to metallic gold by the addition of peroxide of hydrogen. The 
precipitate is filtered, washed and ignited. 

The zinc compounds are dissolved in water made slightly alka- 
line with ammonia water, and then precipitated as sulphide by the 
addition of ammonium sulphide. The precipitate, after washing, 
is dissolved in nitric acid, the solution evaporated, the residue ig- 
nited, and weighed as oxide. 

Miscellaneous gravimetric methods of assay are used for sul- 
phur, magnesium citrate and sulphate, and uranium nitrate. 

To assay sulphur, 1 Gm. of sulphur is added to 50 mils of 10 
per cent. NaOH. The resultant solution of sodium sulphide is 
boiled, cooled and made up to 250 mils with water. 25 mils of the 
above solution is oxidized by the addition of hydrogen peroxide, 
and heated. HC1 and BaCl 2 are then added, and from the precipi- 
tated BaS0 4 , after washing and igniting, the amount of sulphur is 
calculated. With this method a blank is run, using the same quan- 
tity of solution, but omitting the sulphur. 

The solution of magnesium citrate is first evaporated to dryness, 
then carbonized, and the carbonized mass treated with HC1. To 
the well-washed filtrate, sodium phosphate is added and ammonium 
water, and the precipitated magnesium ammonium phosphate, after 
washing and drying, is ignited, and from the magnesium pyrophos- 
phate obtained the citrate is determined. Magnesium sulphate is 
also determined in a similar manner. In this case carbonization 
is unnecessary. 

Uranium nitrate. The salt is dissolved in water, and to the 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 19 17 



} Assay Processes of US.P. IX. 



117 



heated solution ammonia water is added until precipitation is com- 
plete. After washing with ammonium nitrate solution, it is dried 
and gently ignited, and weighed as urano-uranic oxide, U 3 O s . 



The methods of ascertaining the purities of the volatile oils of 
the U. S. P., other than methods for determining their physical 
constants, such as polariscopic, refractometric and gravity methods, 
may be divided into several groups : Saponification, for the deter- 
mination of esters and phenols ; acetylization, for determining the 
alcohols ; treatment with phenylhydrazine, for aldehydes ; and solu- 
tion in sodium sulphite. 

With oil of peppermint, two distinct assays are carried out. 
First, for the amount of ester, and secondly, for the menthol. The 
ester of oil of peppermint is menthyl acetate, C 10 H 19 C 2 H 3 O 2 , of 
which not less than five per cent, should be present. The assay is 
carried out as follows: 10 mils of the oil, the exact weight of which 
has been found, are treated with 25 mils of half-normal alcoholic 
KOH, and refluxed for one hour. After cooling, the excess of al- 
kali is titrated with n/2 sulphuric acid, and the number of mils of 
alkali used multiplied by 9.909, and divided by the weight of oil 
taken, gives the percentage of ester. For menthol: The official re- 
quirements are that it should contain 50 per cent, total menthol 
free and as ester. 10 mils of the oil are introduced into an acetyli- 
zation flask, to which are added 10 mils of acetic anhydride and 
about 1 Gm. anhydrous sodium acetate. This is heated for one 
hour, allowed to cool, and the acetylized oil washed with water 
and solution sodium carbonate, until the washing is slightly alkaline 
tophenolphthalein. The oil is then dried by adding calcium chloride, 
filtered, and 5 mils of it, after weighing, are placed in a flask, 50 
mils of half-normal alkali added, and refluxed one hour. After 
cooling, the residual alkali is titrated with half-normal sulphuric 
acid, and from the following formula the percentage of menthol is 
calculated. 



A represents the number of mils half-normal alkali used in the 
saponification. 7.808 is 100 times the amount of menthol corre- 
sponding to each mil of half-normal KOH, the molecular weight 



Volatile Oils. 



Percentage of menthol - 



A X 7.808 



B - (AX .021) ' 



n8 Assay Processes of U.S. P. IX. { AnL M J a S 1 I ^ n1, 

of menthol being 156.16. B represents the weight of acetylized oil 
used. But as the calculation must be made upon the basis of men- 
thol, the difference between the molecular weights of menthyl ace- 
tate and menthol must be subtracted from it for each mil of KOH 
consumed. 

Menthyl acetate is C 10 H 19 C 2 H 3 O 2 M.W. 198.18 

Menthol is C 10 H 19 OH M. W. 156.16 

The difference between the molecular weights is 42.02 

In the saponification of the ester one molecule of menthyl acetate re- 
quires one molecule of KOH. If calculated upon the basis of half- 
normal alkali 2,000 mils would be required. Dividing this differ- 
ence of molecular weights, 42.02, by 2,000 a quotient of .021 is ob- 
tained, and this is the coefficient for each mil half-normal alkali 
consumed. 

Oil of rosemary and sandalwood are assayed by the same 
method. The changes in calculation are A X 7-7^7 for the former 
and A X Il.n for the latter. The ester of rosemary is bornyl ace- 
tate, C 10 H 17 C 2 H 3 O 2 (M. W. 196.16), of which not less than 2 per 
cent, must be present. The alcohol is borneol, C 10 H 17 OH (M. W. 
154.14), of which the oil should contain not less than 10 per cent, 
of total borneol. 

Oil of sandalwood should contain not less than 90 per cent, of 
the alcohols calculated as santalol, C 15 H 25 OH (M. W. 222.2). 

Two of the volatile oils, caraway and cinnamon, are assayed 
by the sulphite method, depending upon the property that one of 
the principles is soluble in sodium sulphite solution and the other 
insoluble. Oil of caraway. 10 mils of the oil are placed in a 
cassia flask, and 50 mils of neutral saturated sodium sulphite solu- 
tion are added. The mixture is heated on a water bath, and the 
flask is repeatedly shaken, and the mixture neutralized by additions 
of dilute acetic acid. When cool, sufficient solution of sodium sul- 
phite is added to raise the lower limit of the oil within the graduated 
portion of the flask. The decrease in volume subtracted from the 
volume originally taken will give the value of carvone, C 10 H 14 O, 
present; which, when divided by the volume originally taken, gives 
per cent, by volume of carvone. Carvone is a ketone, isomeric with 
carvacrol and thymol. Carvacrol and thymol are phenols. In the 
former, the (OH) is in the ortho position, and in the latter, it is in 
the meta postion. 



Am Jour. Pharm.j AsSCLV Processes of U.S. P. IX. 
March, 19 17 J - J 



HQ 



The same method is followed in the assay of oil of cinnamon 
as with caraway. The requirements are that it should contain not 
less than eighty per cent, by volume of cinnamic aldehyde, C 9 H s O. 
In this instance, cinnamic aldehyde forms with the acid sodium sul- 
phite an additive compound, formerly called sodium bisulphite cin- 
namic aldehyde or, as it is now called, sodium cinnamalhydroxysul- 
phonate. C 6 H 5 ■ CH : CH • CHO + NaHSO, = C 6 H 5 CH : CH • CHO 
•NaHS0 3 . Under the influence of water, the additive compound 
splits up into cinnamic aldehyde and sodium sulphocinnamalhy- 
droxysulphonate. 

2C 8 H 7 COHXaHSO s = C s H 7 CHO 

Sodium Cinnamalhydroxy- Cinnamic 
sulphonate Aldehyde 

+C 6 H 5 CH 2 CH(S0 3 Na)COHNaHS0 3 . 

Sodium Sulphocinnamal hydroxysulphonate 

This latter compound is soluble in excess of sodium bisulphide. 

With some oils, like bitter almond and lemon, the sulphite method 
does not give satisfactory results. In the new U. S. P. these oils 
are tested by the phenyl hydrazine method. 

Oil of bitter almond. About 3 Gm. of freshly re-distilled 
phenylhydrazine is dissolved in 60 mils alcohol, and 25 mils of this 
solution is titrated with half-normal hydrochloric acid. To about 
1 Gm. of oil accurately weighed 25 mils of the above solution is 
added and allowed to stand one hour, to form benzal phenylhydro- 
zone. 

C 6 H 5 NHNH 2 + C 6 H 5 CHO = C 6 H 5 CH-NNHC 6 H 5 + H 2 0. 

Phenylhydrazine Benzaldehyde Benzal Phenylhydrozone 

One drop of methyl orange is added and an excess of half-normal 
HC1. The mixture is filtered and washed until it no longer gives an 
acid reaction to litmus. The excess of HC1 is titrated with n/2 
KOH. Subtracting the number of mils consumed in the former 
from the amount used in the phenylhydrazine test, and the difference 
multiplied by .053 gives the benzaldehyde present. In the titra- 
tion of phenylhydrazine with HC1, phenylhydrazine chloride is 
formed. When the aldehyde is added to phenylhydrazine, phenyl- 
hydrazone is formed. 

Oil of bitter almond also contains hydrocyanic acid, and its de- 
termination is carried out as follows : To a solution of magnesium 
sulphate a definite amount of NaOH is added, to form magnesium 



120 Assay Processes of US. P. IX. { An V Jou f- Pharm - 

A w J J l March, 1 9 17 

hydroxide. Two drops potassium chromate are added, and then 
sufficient silver nitrate to produce a red tint. To the mixture thus 
prepared a weighed quantity of the oil to be tested is then added and 
titrated with n 10 silver nitrate. 

Oil of lemon. The aldehyde present in this oil is citral, 
C 10 H 16 O (M. W. 152.13), of which it should contain not less than 
4 per cent. Its method of assay is similar to that of benzaldehyde, 
with but slight modifications. 

Eugenol. ally! guaiacol. C 6 H 3 OCH 3 CH 3 OH. Several of the offi- 
cial oils, such as cloves, allspice, etc., contain this principle. The 
assay is readily carried out by placing 10 mils of the oil in a cassia 
flask and shaking for 5 minutes, after which it is heated for 10 
minutes on a water bath, cooled, the liquid allowed to separate and 
sufficient KOH added to raise the lower level of the oil within the 
graduated part of the neck, and noting the volume of residual liquid. 
The alkali converts the phenol into a soluble sodium compound. 

Oil of thyme should contain not less than 20 per cent, by volume 
of phenol. Its assay is like the above. 

Oil of mustard presents a method of assay different from all 
others. It owes its property to allyl-isothiocyanate, C 3 H 5 SCN, of 
which not less than 92 per cent, should be present. 4 mils of the 
oil, accurately weighed, are diluted with alcohol to make exactly 
100 mils. 5 mils of this solution are placed in a 100 mil flask, and 
50 mils of 11 10 silver nitrate are added, and 5 mils of ammonia 
water. The flask is connected with a reflux condenser and heated 
for one hour. After cooling, it is made up with water to 100 mils, 
mixed and filtered. 50 mils of the filtrate, after treating with nitric 
acid and iron indicator, is titrated with KCXS. The allyl-isothio- 
cyanate is converted by the ammonia into thiosinamine : 

C 3 H 5 NCS + NH 3 = C 3 H 5 NHNH_XS. 

AIM- Ammonia Thiosinamine 

isothiocyanate 

The action of the silver oxide produced by adding ammonia water 
to silver nitrate, removes the sulphur as silver sulphide, with the 
formation of allyl-cyanamide : 

CH 3 XHXHXS + Ag 2 = Ag 2 S + CNNHC 3 H g + H 2 0. 

isothiocyanite' Silver Sulphide Allyl-cyanamide 

Oxide Silver 



Am -J ou l- pharm -} Assay Processes of US.P. IX. 

March, 1917 J J J 



121 



In the assay of oil of eucalyptus another foreign condition is 
met. This oil contains eucalyptol or cineol, C 10 H ls O, of which not 
less than 70 per cent, by volume shall be present. 

The assay directs that 10 mils of the oil be placed in a round- 
bottom glass dish, imbedded in finely broken ice. 10 mils of arsenic 
acid T.S. are added and stirred until precipitation is complete. 
When the mixture ceases to congeal further, it is allowed to stand 
10 minutes in the ice bath. Upon the expiration of this time, it is 
transferred to a hard filter paper and covered with another paper, 
the whole being surrounded by filter papers and placed between the 
plates of a press to remove all liquids. When completely dry, the 
eucalyptol arsenate is transferred to a cassia flask and hot water 
added, and the flask placed in boiling water. This decomposes the 
eucalyptol arsenate into eucalyptol. When cool, sufficient water is 
added to raise the eucalyptol to a level where it can be read. 

CHLORIDES, IODIDES AND BROMIDES. ' 

The salts of chlorides, iodides and bromides are similarly deter- 
mined. The weighed amount is placed in a 200-mil flask and dis- 
solved in 25 mils of water. 50 mils n/10 silver nitrate is added, 5 
mils of nitric acid, and sufficient water to make 200 mils. Mix 
and filter. The first 20 mils of the filtrate are rejected. 100 mils 
of the filtrate, after treating with nitric acid and iron and ammonium 
sulphate T.S. , are titrated with n/10 KCNS. 

Hydrocyanic acid and sodium cyanide are determined by the 
silver nitrate method, with potassium iodide as an indicator. To the 
HCN, KOH is added. The silver nitrate produces the double cy- 
anide of silver and potassium, which is not affected by the alkali. 
Further addition of silver causes a decomposition, the insoluble sil- 
ver cyanide separating; the silver cyanide then reacts with the 
potassium iodide, forming silver iodide, which is shown by the pro- 
duction of a yellow color. 

The silver method is also used for the determination of the 
soluble phosphates and the hypophosphites. The hypophosphites 
are first oxidized to the phosphates by nitric acid, and the methods 
then followed as under phosphoric acid. 



(To be continued.) 



122 Advances in Materia Medica and Pharmacy. { Am ^™£ ^* rm - 



QUARTERLY REVIEW ON THE ADVANCES IN MATERIA 
MEDICA AND PHARMACY. 

By John K. Thum, Ph.G., Pharmacist at the German Hospital, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Solution of Magnesium Hypochlorite. — The so-called Carrel or 
Dakin Solution, which is nothing more or less than the well-known 
Labarraque solution, considerably modified as to chlorine content, 
reduced to one fifth available chlorine, in fact, and the alkalinity 
very much decreased, is regarded by some as too unstable. Some 
surgeons seem to think that it gives up its chlorine too readily and 
consequently its antiseptic action is soon spent. To obviate this it 
has been suggested that a magnesium hypochlorite solution, because 
of its greater stability, would be eminently more desirable, besides 
being isotonic with the blood-serum. It is likewise said to be with- 
out harm to the cells, and very much less irritating. But it is also 
suggested that this solution be warmed to 95 F., before using, and 
that is the great disadvantage. To warm the solution will require 
great care, and such care is not always possible where many cases 
are dressed within a certain time, as must be the case in the great 
war zone, where the demand for antiseptic solutions is urgent and 
frequent. The use of the Carrel-Dakin Solution is becoming quite 
general at the present time in this country, and if it has any dis- 
advantages that can be avoided by using another solution, such a 
solution should be available. The magnesium hypochlorite solu- 
tion is made as follows : 

Chlorinated lime 28.0 gm. 

Magnesium sulphate 18.20 gm. 

Water 1000.0 mils. 

Put the chlorinated lime in a well-covered container with 900 mils 
of water and stir frequently for 6 hours; dissolve the magnesium 
sulphate in 100 mils of water; mix both solutions thoroughly and 
filter rapidly, taking care to conduct the operation with as little 
exposure to air and light, as possible. Only such quantities should 
be made as will be used within a short time. 

The Property in a Prescription. — While the following interest-, 
ing case was decided in a London court, yet it will undoubtedly be 
worth while to bring it to the attention of American pharmacists. In 



An M"L?ch i P 9 h i7 rm ') Advances in Materia Medica and Pharmacy. 123 

this country the question " To whom does the prescription belong?" 
has been a matter of debate since time immemorial. Anything that 
will in any manner bear on the subject and help to clear it up must 
be pertinent : " A woman consulted a physician who gave her a 
prescription which she took to a firm of pharmacists to be dispensed. 
The prescription was not returned to her, and when her husband 
asked that it should be, this was refused, the pharmacists stating 
that they had undertaken at the request of the physician not to 
return his prescriptions to patients unless they were expressly author- 
ized by him to do so. An action was brought by the husband against 
the pharmacists for the return of the prescription. In giving evi- 
dence, the physician stated that the course adopted by him with 
regard to prescriptions was taken for the protection of the public. 
He illustrated the danger of allowing prescriptions to be retained 
by the patient by saying that not infrequently a medicine ordered 
for an adult was given, without any physician being consulted, to 
an infant. He had requested pharmacists to inform him whenever 
a patient asked for the return of a prescription, and he made a prac- 
tice of writing on prescriptions which might properly be handed 
back without question the words " return to patient." The lawyer 
pointed out that the prescription was of no value to them, and that 
they were only contesting the case on the question of principle and 
in order to keep faith with the medical profession. The judge held 
that no property in the document had passed to the plaintiff, as the 
prescription had been handed to the patient only in order that it 
might be conveyed by her to the pharmacists to be made up instead 
of the medical man himself sending it. The claim, therefore, was 
dismissed with costs." (Jour. A. M. A., Nov. 25, 1916.) 

The Effect of Various Salts and Alkalis on Pepsin. — Ham- 
burger and Halphen make some interesting comments in reference 
to their experiments with pepsin and the action of salts and alkalis 
on the same. Pepsin, they state, is completely inactive when treated 
with salts. Yet they found that sodium chloride in the strength of 
a 1 to 1,000 solution markedly increases the activity of this ferment, 
although in a concentration of 1 to 400 solution it seems to have no 
effect whatever, and a 1 to 40 strength solution renders the ferment 
completely inactive. They also found that other salts of a neutral 
character gave similar results. And, as was to be expected, alkalis 
they found were much more inhibitive. Perhaps the most interest- 
ing of their observations is that free hydrochloric acid, in the propor- 



124 Advances in Materia Medica and Pharmacy. { Am j^r3i' i^""' 

tion of 7 to 1,000 up to 9 to 1,000 seems to completely arrest peptic 
activity. Further work along the last statement of results obtained 
would be of value. (Arch. Intern. Med., Chem. Abstr., 1916, 10, 

2585.) 

The Atomic Weight of Lead. — This determination was made 
from lead oxide prepared from pure lead nitrate, and the result 
showed that the atomic weight of the metal is 206.98. In 1904, the 
International Commission adopted 206.9 as the atomic weight. The 
experimenters also determined the weight of lead extracted from 
uraniferous minerals. Getting rid as far as possible of any lead 
which was not of radio-active origin, they found the atomic weight 
of radio-active lead to be 206.71, which is close to that found by 
Honigschmidt and Horowitz. (Compt. rend., 1916, 163, 514.) 

Fraudulent Drug Traffic Checked. — Fraudulent traffic in imita- 
tions of certain synthetic drugs used by physicians has been checked 
by the joint action of federal, state, and municipal officials, accord- 
ing to the report of the Chief of the Bureau of Chemistry, United 
States Department of Agriculture. Because of the high prices 
demanded for such drugs, cheap imitations, with little or none of the 
therapeutic properties of the genuine, have been put on the market 
under the names and labels of the real drugs. Shipments were 
seized, and a number of individuals were prosecuted successfully, 
under the Federal Food and Drugs Act, and indictments were pro- 
cured under the postal laws, but the traffic could not be wholly sup- 
pressed under the federal laws, nor could all offenders be reached. 
The department of agriculture thereupon laid the matter before the 
state and municipal officials, with the result that many prosecutions 
were instituted and seizures made by them. Ultimately, through 
joint action, the traffic was suppressed. (Jour. A. M. A., Jan. 13, 
1917, p. 130.) 

No Importation of (< Patent Medicines" Permitted Into Ger- 
many. — According to the Munchener Medizinische Wochenschrift 
the Imperial Government has issued an order to the effect that no 
unnecessary articles will be permitted to be brought into the country, 
and among other things, this prohibition applies to proprietary medi- 
cines. This order applies until further notice. It seems like very 
gentle irony, indeed, when the country that manufactures more 
patent medicines than any other, is forced by its government to go 
on record that this class of products is " unnecessary ! " (Jour. 
A. M. A., Jan. 13, 1917, p. 130.) 



Am jour. Pharm. \ Advances in Materia Medico and Pharmacy. I2 c 

March, 1917 } A * J 

The Administration of Deliquescent Drugs in Capsules. — Dr. N. 
G. Davis, of Chicago,, recommends the use of a mixture of one part 
of beeswax and three parts of castor oil as an excipient for giving 
salts, such as potassium iodid, sodium or potassium bromid, etc., 
in capsule. He states that he has given iodine, the element itself, by 
mixing with every two grains, at least live grains of this wax mass. 
He also recommends its use for giving guaiacol. oil of sandalwood, 
and drugs of like similarity. YVe have found, however, that the 
wax mass in the proportions of one of beeswax and three of castor 
oil does not work out. But by reversing the parts it works admir- 
ably. {Jour. A. M. A., 1 160, 1916.) 

Sulpho-Titanic Reagent to Differentiate Alpha and Beta Naph- 
thol. — Titanic anhydride gives marked color reactions with phenolic 
bodies, a fact known for some time. It has now been discovered 
that titanic anhydride (native ) heated with sulphuric acid at near 
the boiling point for several hours, and the clear solution decanted, 
as only a small quantity of the rutile is dissolved, is very useful for 
identifying alkaloids containing a phenolic group. The reagent is 
said to be permanent. Morphine gives a blood-red color : apo- 
morphine. a reddish- violet : oxydimorphine, a wine-red ; cuprein, an 
orange shade, something like that of alkali dichromate ; hordenine, 
deep orange ; tyrosine, a color something like that given by hordenine ; 
adrenalin, a reddish-brown color. Alkaloids without the phenolic 
grouping give no reaction. It was also found that this reagent is a 
particularly sensitive test for the presence of hydrogen peroxide. 
Furthermore, it was also found that this reagent is an excellent 
means for differentiating between a- and b-naphthol. A very small 
quantity shaken in a test tube with two or three mils of this reagent 
gives forth an intense green color in the case of a-naphthol, and a 
most decided blood-red color with b-naphthol. If the substance is 
first dissolved in glacial acetic acid, and the sulpho-titanic reagent 
is added to the solution, a green ring surmounted by a reddish- 
violet zone distinguishes a-naphthol : while a blood-red ring indicates 
b-naphthol. (G. Deniges, Annates Chim.; Analyst, 1916, 21, 213.) 

Mustard Seed as a Laxative. — Although not generally known, 
whole mustard seed has been used for many years as a laxative in 
some countries. In the course of a rather extensive investigation 
as to why it has this laxative action it was noticed that the odor of 
hydrogen sulphide had developed in a bottle containing the water in 
which the seed had been placed the day before. It was reasoned 



126 Advances in Materia Medica and Pharmacy. { Am j^°"f Igv?™' 

that the activity of the seed as a laxative is probably due to this 
generation of hydrogen sulphide and likely to the carbon dioxide 
which is also formed at the same time, both of which are known to 
promote peristalsis. The statement is made that this also explains 
the cyanosis in cases of poisoning by this seed. When this gas is 
readily eliminated by the lungs there is no untoward action. {Jour. 
A. M. A., 1916, 1404.) 

The Adsorption Theory in Practical Medicine. — The power of 
aluminum hydroxide and aluminum silicate to adsorb albuminous 
substances is being made use of in medicine in a practical way in the 
treatment of the various grastro-intestinal disturbances. In order 
to be effective it is necessary to give extremely large doses. So far 
as is yet known no untoward results have occurred, although some 
observers mention the fact that these drugs show a tendency to form 
concretions in the bowel and therefore may be the means of more 
or less obstruction. This power of adsorption exhibited by these 
drugs resembles in a manner the action of white bole in the treat- 
ment of cholera, and likewise the adsorption of toxins from sera. In 
view of the work done by Lloyd in this country, in connection with 
hydrous aluminum silicate and its power to separate alkaloids from 
drugs containing them, it is just possible that many of the patho- 
logical conditions produced in the gastro-intestinal tract, for which 
hydrous aluminum silicate has been used with apparent good effect, 
may be due to alkaloidal bodies, or bodies closely resembling them. 
(/. Russ. Phys. Chem., Chem. Abstr., 1916, 10, 2659.) 

Rhodoform, a New Dental Antiseptic. — The chemical name of 
this drug is methylhexamethylenetetramine thiocyanate, and is said 
to contain 37 per cent, of thiocyanic acid. It is a brown powder, 
without odor, and melts at 143 C. It is said to be of value as an 
antiseptic in stomatology. {Boll. Chim. Farm., Chem. Abstr., 1916, 
10, 2498.) 

Rapidity with which Alcohol and Sugars May Serve as Nutri- 
ment. — It is stated that alcohol commences to be burned within five 
to eleven minutes after taken on an empty stomach. Sucrose, lsevu- 
lose, begins to be burned as soon, and probably sooner. Dextrose 
and maltose are burned not quite so rapidly, taking at least from 
twenty to thirty minutes for complete combustion and utilization in 
the processes of metabolism. It is also stated that lsevulose, and 
very often galactose, has a tendency to change into fat in the body. 
And dextrose tends to change to glycogen, and is stored as such. 
{Amer. J. Physiol., Chem. Abstr., 1916, 10, 2591.) 



Am kSch i^iz™') Advances in Materia Medica and Pharmacy. i 2 y 

Influence of Methyl Salicylate on the Production of Bile. — It 
has been shown by experimentation on guinea pigs, that methyl 
salicylate, given either by mouth or hypodermatically, causes an 
increased secretion of bile, and simultaneously an increase in the 
total solids of that secretion. A number of experiments on animals 
on standard diet, and under treatment with this drug, while showing 
greater output of bile and its products, yet did not show any loss of 
body weight. (Jour. A. M. A., 1916, p. 1403.) 

■Chlorosis in Plants. — The author of this interesting paper states 
that while the commonest form of chlorosis in plants is due to 
deficiency in iron, this is not the only cause. A lack of manganese, 
magnesium, or sulphur may bring about the same condition. It is 
stated that lack of iron is generally due to large amounts of chalk 
in the soil, which has a tendency to keep back the absorption of iron. 
Chlorosis induced by a lack of iron is readily cured by the applica- 
tion of a solution of an iron salt to the soil. When caused by a 
lack of magnesium the condition is not so readily corrected. 
Chlorosis is also caused by the exudations from diseased plant cells. 
(Comptes rend. Soc. biol., Chem. Abstr., 1916, 2500 by P. Maze.) 

Incompatibility of Sodium Bicarbonate with Bismuth Salicylate, 
and Magnesium and Lithium Salicylates. — The formation of carbonic 
acid gas when dispensing a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and 
bismuth salicylate has been noticed by many workers, therefore this 
incompatibility is no new thing. It is stated that if a neutral sodium 
carbonate is used there is no effervescence. The same reactions occur 
with magnesium and lithium salicylates, and the benzoates have a 
similar reaction. (Jour. Pharm. Chim., 1916, 353.) 

Thromboplastin Solution as a Hemostatic. — This solution is a 
very fine suspension of ox-brain in physiological salt solution, pre- 
served with 0.3 per cent, of tricresol. It is said to be of great prac- 
tical value in haemorrhage but must be applied to the site of bleeding. 
It is also claimed to be of great value in cases of. true haemophilia, in 
fact, stated to be a real specific for this most distressing condition. 
If this is so, a wonderful discovery has been made, and it should be 
promptly brought to the attention of all the physicians of the world. 
(Jour. A, M. A., p. 1717, 1916.) 

A Report of the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry. — We 
cannot help but feel that the following report from the Council on 
Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American Medical Association will 
prove of interest to many pharmacists, and develop a more lively 



I2 8 Advances in Materia Medico, and Pharmacy. ( Am ; T - Tou 5- Pharm - 

1 u - March, 1917 



interest on the part of doctors in learning how to avoid writing for 
irrational combinations of drugs : 

" Glycerophosphate Comp. Ampuls, I Cc, Squibb " are claimed 
to contain, in each, sodium glycerophosphate o.i Gm., strychnine 
cacodylate 0.0005 Gm., and iron cacodylate 0.01 Gm. The Council 
refused recognition to " Glycerophosphate Comp. Ampuls, 1 Cc, 
Squibb " because the name did not indicate the potent ingredients 
and because the administration of a mixture of sodium glycerophos- 
phate, strychnine cacodylate and iron cacodylate is irrational. 

The preceding statement was submitted to E. R. Squibb and 
Sons for consideration. The firm replied : 

"... we wish to explain that there has been a small demand 
for this product, no doubt created by other manufacturers. We 
have filled hitherto this demand as far as it came to us, using the 
formula regularly supplied for years by other firms. 

" The name Glycerophosphate Comp. to cover a product contain- 
ing sodium glycerophosphate, strychnine cacodylate and iron cacody- 
late, seemed to us the best that could be devised, under the circum- 
stances. It is absolutely impossible to mention all the ingredients 
in the name, as it would give an unwieldy title. In passing, we 
might mention that the U. S. P. and X. F. cover also by the word 
' Compound ' the potent ingredients in many titles. 

" However, the finding of the Council, that the formula here in 
question is irrational, must determine our action, and we have, in 
consequence, decided to eliminate Glycerophosphate Comp. Ampuls 
from our list, dropping the article altogether." 

This cooperation in the work of the Council on Pharmacy and 
Chemistry is gratifying. In passing the Council notes that the fore- 
going criticism of many Pharmacopoeial and National Formulary 
titles is justified. Many Pharmacopoeial preparations have names 
which are not only nondescriptive but actually misleading. Such 
are compound powder of glycyrrhiza and compound syrup of figs, 
both of which owe their activity to senna, and acid camphor mixture 
and compound mixture of glycyrrhiza, which are essentially opium 
preparations. If any of these preparations possess therapeutic value 
their names should be descriptive, as otherwise they violate a funda- 
mental principle in the nomenclature of medicinal substances, a prin- 
ciple for which the Council has contended and which is supported 
by both the medical and pharmaceutical professions as well as by 
manufacturers." (Jour. A. M. A., Feb. 3, 1917.) 



Am jour. Pharm.j Advances in Materia Medica and Pharmacy. t2q 

March, 1917 J ^ ^7 

The Sale of Anhalonium to be Regulated. — The Senate passed 
a bill, on the 25th of January, to amend the Harrison Narcotic Law 
so as to include within its provisions anhalonium, also known as 
mescale or muscale buttons and as pellote. It will be remembered 
that this plant, of which the dried tops are used, belongs to the 
Cactaceae or Cactus Family. Experimentation on animals with this 
drug has shown it to be a powerful narcotic poison. These nar- 
cotic properties closely resemble those of opium. 

Anent Aspirin. — The expiration of the patent rights on this 
drug is being awaited with a great deal of interest by the medical 
and pharmaceutical world, and, as the following news item from 
one of the most prominent daily papers of the country suggests, by 
the laity as well. And well may the laity be interested. The 
propaganda carried on by the patentee in the newspapers and maga- 
zines of this country in bringing this drug to the notice of the 
laity can have only one effect and that a most pernicious one, namely, 
the encouragement to self-medication on the part of the public. 
The news item follows : 

"There are promises of lively times in pharmaceutical circles 
after February 17, when the United States patent on aspirin expires. 
This patent is held by the Bayer Company, Inc., of New York, the 
American representative of a German dye and chemical firm, and 
notice has been served that the company claims the sole right to the 
name aspirin as a registered trademark even after the patent expires. 
Legal action is hinted at in case any other concern manufactures a 
product and attempts to sell it under the name of aspirin. 

" The chemical name of aspirin is acetyl salicylic acid. Under 
the patent laws of this country the Bayer Company has held a 
monopoly on the product, no matter what name it might be called 
nor what new and improved process might be used in its manu- 
facture. In other words, during the life of the patent, the United 
States Government virtually took the position that all acetyl salicylic 
acid, no matter by whom made, was * aspirin ' and the sole right 
was vested in the Bayer Company. 

" It is no secret that there are numerous American firms ready 
to go into the aspirin business after next week. What they will 
call their product is not known, but there certainly is a disposition to 
use the name of aspirin and invite a test. One company in the 
Philadelphia district, which has up to this time been perfecting its 
phenolpthalein manufacture, is about ready to jump in on aspirin, 



130 



Correspondence. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 19 17 



and it is known that certain interests closely allied to this country 
are in favor of using the name aspirin. 

" The argument is made that aspirin is a name, and not a trade- 
mark or brand ; that the product was introduced as aspirin, and 
not as aspirin brand of acetyl salicylic acid, and that a name belongs 
to the object and not to. the inventor of a name. If a battle 
comes it is likely to be fought out largely on this point, which in- 
volves positions denied by the Bayer Company." {The Philadelphia 
Public Ledger, Saturday, Feb. 10, 1917, p. 15.) 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Prof. Henry Kraemer, Editor, 

American Journal of Pharmacy, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dear Professor Kraemer: The following has been unanimously 
adopted by the members of the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry. 

W. A. Puckner, Secretary. 

The death of Martin Inventius Wilbert, a member of the 
Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American Medical As- 
sociation since its organization, removes one of its most able and 
loyal members. He was possessed of an intellectuality and a man- 
hood which commanded the attention and respect of the members of 
both the medical and the pharmaceutical professions. He was fear- 
less, honest and unselfish. He was uncompromising in his denun- 
ciation of the evils which beset the practice of medicine and phar- 
macy, but was never ungracious either with his pen or in his speech. 
If after due deliberation he was sure that a definite policy should be 
promulgated to improve the conditions of these professions, he pro- 
claimed his view and conducted a campaign that inevitably received 
the support and recognition of those best informed. He gave a life 
of service with never a thought of reward and earned every honor 
which was bestowed on him. His knowledge of pharmacy was 
such that he could have obtained prominence in the manufacturing 
field and with it would have come a large measure of financial re- 
ward. But he chose to devote his thoughts and energies to the 
general good rather than to his own profit. His influence on medi- 
cine and pharmacy was unique. The forcefulness of his personality 



Am M J a°rc£; x P 9 h i7 rm - > Correspondence. 1 3 1 

was equaled only by his modesty and sincerity. His greatest work — 
one which will be cherished as a part of the history of the American 
Medical Association — was his devotion to the aims and objects of 
the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry and his unselfish and inde- 
fatigable labors in its behalf. 

We, the members of the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry 
of the American Medical Association, mourn the loss of one of our 
most useful associates, and one whose life may be held up to the 
younger generation of pharmacists as an example of unselfishness and 
devotion to high ideals. 

Prof. Henry Kraemer, Editor, 

American Journal of Pharmacy, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Dear Sir: At the request of the Board of Trustees of the German 
Hospital, of Philadelphia, I am enclosing a copy of the Resolutions 
on the death of Martin I. Wilbert, adopted by them at their meeting, 
December 26th, 1916. 

Very truly yours, 

Henry F. Page, 
Medical Superintendent. 

Martin Inventius Wilbert. 

Whereas, The board of trustees of the German Hospital have 
learned with profound sorrow of the death of Dr. Martin I. Wilbert, 
which occurred on November 25, 1916, at this Hospital. 

Whereas, The late Dr. Wilbert occupied the position of apothe- 
cary in this Institution from 1891 until 1908, and director of the 
x-ray and photographic department from 1899 to 1908, leaving his 
labors with us after eighteen years of splendid service to accept a 
position of wider scope in the Federal Service at Washington ; estab- 
lishing by his signal ability and indefatigible perseverance a unique 
and enviable reputation in the world of medicine and pharmacy. 

Resolved, That the board of trustees of the German Hospital 
deplore his early death at the age of fifty-one, while still in the 
prime of his life and activities. 

Resolved, That the board of trustees tender to the family of 
our deceased friend their heartfelt sympathy in the loss which they 
have sustained. 



132 Funeral Services of Martin L Wilbert. { Am ^ J a °"£ fg™ m ' 

Resolved, That a copy of this minute be sent to the members of 
the late Dr. Wilbert's family and that copies of these resolutions be 
sent to the Journal of the American Medical Association, to the 
Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association and the Ameri- 
can Journal of Pharmacy. 

G. A. Schwarz, President, 

Adolf Hellwege, Secretary. 

American Pharmaceutical Association 

Editor, American Journal of Pharmacy: The Board of Canvassers 
of the American Pharmaceutical Association met Monday evening, 
December nth and counted the ballots cast in the annual election. 
The following have received a plurality of the votes and are elected : 

President — Charles Holzhauer, Newark, N. J. 

ist Vice President — Alfred R. L. Dohme, Baltimore, Md. 

2nd Vice President — Leonard A. Seltzer, Detroit, Mich. 

3rd Vice President — Theo. J. Bradley, Boston, Mass. 

Members of the Council — Fred. J. Wulling, Minneapolis, Minn. ; 
G. M. Beringer, Camden, N. J. ; Thos. F. Main, New York City. 
Respectfully, 

(Signed) A. D. Thorburn, 

Francis E. Bibbins, 
Frank H. Carter, 
Edward W. Stucky. 



FUNERAL SERVICES OF MARTIN I. WILBERT. 

Martin Inventius Wilbert died on November 25, 1916, at the 
German Hospital, Philadelphia. His health had been poor for the 
last four years, and since childhood he had been affected with a 
heart lesion. On Saturday morning at 9.15 o'clock he suddenly fell 
back on his pillow and passed away. 

The funeral services were held at the chapel of the Mary J. 
Drexel Home, Philadelphia. This "Home" is the Motherhouse of 
the Lutheran Sisters who have charge of the nursing in the German 
Hospital and with whom Dr. Wilbert worked for so many years 
while connected with the " Hospital" as chief apothecary and di- 
rector of the x-ray laboratory. For this reason it seemed peculiarly 



An \/ ou £- Pharn M Funeral Services of Martin I. Wilbert. m 

March, 1917 J J 1 J J 

fitting that the last sad rites in connection with his passing away 
should be held here and among the friends who knew him so long 
and held him in such esteem. 

Amid the many floral tributes sent by his many friends and the 
scientific societies that claimed him as a member, lay our friend and 
fellow-worker, while the pastor of the "Motherhouse," the Rev. 
Ernest F. Bachmann, read the simple and impressive Lutheran 
service for the dead, and spoke eloquently of the many fine qualities 
of this man. The choir of the chapel, composed of Sisters, closed 
the services by singing Dr. Wilbert's favorite hymn, " Abide with 
me." 

The honorary pall-bearers were Dr. Henry F. Page, Dr. William 
T. Shoemaker, Dr. George G. Ross, Dr. A. D. Whiting, Prof. Henry 
Kraemer, and Mr. John K. Thum. 

Among the many who attended the services were Mr. Howard 
B. French, president of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
Prof. J. P. Remington, Prof. S. P. Sadtler, Dr. R. A. Hatcher, of 
New York; Dr. C. A. Weidemann, Dr. F. A. Stewart, Mr. George 
M. Beringer, Mr. Edwin M. Boring, Mr. William L. Cliffe, Dr. 
R. P. Fischelis, Mrs. Charles H. LaWall, Prof. E. G. Eberle, Mr. 
Ambrose Hunsberger, and from Washington, D. C, there were present 
the following co-workers of Dr. Wilbert in the hygienic laboratory : 
Dr. A. M. Stimson, Dr. Carl Voegtlin, Dr. Murray Gait Motter, Dr. 
George B. Roth, Dr. Albert F. Stevenson, Dr. G. A. Menge ; and 
from the same city Dr. S. L. Hilton. Mrs. John M. Maisch, wife of 
one of the great leaders of pharmacy now deceased, and a warm 
friend of Dr. Wilbert, was also present. Dr. Marie L. Bauer was 
also among the many Philadelphia friends present. 

The following is an abstract of the sermon delivered by the Rev. 
E. F. Bachmann. 

When Almighty God summoned from our midst our beloved Dr. 
Wilbert, a life of exceptional usefulness was brought to its close, 
prematurely in the opinion of many. Yet, as a recently departed 
servant of the Lord used to say, " All the ways of God lead to 
Transfiguration." Let us therefore also in this instance, humbly 
and with unshaken confidence in God's infinite love and wisdom, bow 
under His Almighty hand. We whose presence to-day is a tribute 
of our esteem and love to our departed friend and fellow- worker, 
are but a small fraction of the host of friends to whom this early 
close of his career is a distinct loss, both to their personal life and 
to his profession. 



134 



Funeral Services of Martin I. Wilbert. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 19 17 



There are some among you who still recall the day when Mr. 
Wilbert entered upon his duties as the apothecary of the German 
Hospital just twenty-five years ago. Though still a very young 
man he combined in a rare measure a scientific mind and an altruistic 
soul, high idealism and practical common sense, which together with 
his scholarly attainments and his noble simplicity of character soon 
gained for him the absolute confidence of the late Mr. John D. 
Lankenau, the great benefactor of the German Hospital, and the 
founder of our Mary J. Drexel Home & Philadelphia Motherhouse 
of Deaconnesses. Also the staff of the Hospital soon found every 
reason to trust his scientific and practical judgment, and our Dea- 
conesses found in him such a staunch friend that to this day they 
have considered him a member of our Motherhouse-family. 

His life was an example and an inspiration to all who were 
privileged to work with him.. Though since his boyhood he never 
enjoyed robust health, his indomitable will forced his body to serve 
him to the utmost. He never worked for a salary but always for 
his ideals, which he sought to make realities in accordance with his 
life long and oft expressed conviction that the Almighty has placed 
us in the world for service. His ambition, to contribute at least 
something to the advancement and the real good of humanity, has 
in a large measure been attained by him even in the judgment of 
other leaders in his profession. 

It seems providential that he was able to complete a most 
important task assigned to him by the Department just before he 
left to seek relief at the German Hospital from the attack to which 
he succumbed on Saturday morning. That he ended his career at 
that Institution in which he had begun his professional life, was 
the fulfillment of a wish repeatedly expressed to his most intimate 
friends. Though eight years ago he had accepted a call to Wash- 
ington, where a larger field of usefulness with its corresponding 
greater influence, offered him the much coveted opportunity to bring 
his ideals nearer to their realization ; and though his ability and his 
noble character gained for him there many true friends, yet he could 
never forget his " first love," the German Hospital and the 
Deaconnesses. 

His life was an inspiriation, but also his end has a peculiar message 
for us. It came so suddenly that it shocked especially those who 
had briefly called on him even within his last hour. We all were 
taken by surprise. He himself, however, had arranged all his affairs 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1917 



Laboratory Notes. 



135 



practically down to every detail. He had often said : " I am ready 
to go at any time ; " we have reason to believe that he was ready. 
Only a few of his intimate friends know that he gave some of his 
deepest thought to religion, to his relation and his responsibility to 
God. Here then is an example of real preparedness. If we heed 
the call for national preparedness against an evil day that may 
never come, is it reason to neglect preparedness for the inevitable, 
our last day, when we shall have to render our account to God? 
There is but one true preparedness, and that is found in Christ, who 
with out-stretched hands calls us to Himself with the well-known 
invitation " Come unto me all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and 
I will give you rest." In Him we find forgiveness of sin, the adop- 
tion as children of God and heirs of eternal life. He stands before 
us full of consolation and triumph when He says : " I am the resur- 
rection and the life ; he that believeth in me shall never die." Look- 
ing up to Him, our Lord and Saviour, let us go forward in our 
daily task, conscious of our responsibility to Him and of our ulti- 
mate victory in Him, consecrated in utter unselfishness to Him and 
to His cause which finds one of its best expressions in unselfish 
service to our fellowmen. 



NOTES FROM THE RESEARCH AND BIOLOGICAL 
LABORATORIES OF E. R. SQUIBB & SONS. 

The Pituitary Body in Therapeutics. 

By H. S. Adams. 

The investigations which in recent years have built up our present 
knowledge of the glands of internal secretion have yielded practical 
results along two important lines. Of these the first is the treat- 
ment of diseases finding their origin in an abnormal condition of 
the gland, involving an excess or a deficiency of secretion. A second 
and quite as important result has been the discovery that these glands 
may be the source of substances of tremendous physiological activity, 
which may be applied to the cure of conditions not definitely asso- 
ciated with a diseased condition of the gland in question. Of this 
second class the present use of our knowledge of the pituitary body 
is an eminent example. 



136 



Laboratory Notes. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 19 17 



It is true that certain diseases are definitely associated with ab- 
normalities of the pituitary, and it is perhaps along these lines that 
the greatest advances may yet be made. The dependence of growth 
and the development of sex characteristics on the anterior lobe is well 
established, as is also the connection between the posterior lobe and 
normal metabolism. The early stages of acromegaly and of giant- 
ism are definitely associated with a hyperactivity of the gland, while 
hypopituitarism leads to the syndrome known as dystrophia adiposo- 
genitalis. But the picture is extraordinarily complicated. The 
progress of acromegaly may involve first a hyperplasia and later a 
destruction of the gland, so that the symptoms of hypersecretion are 
superseded by quite the opposite ones. A further complication 
arises in that the symptoms may vary according as the anterior or 
posterior lobe is mainly involved. Moreover the abnormal func- 
tioning of the pituitary is ordinarily associated with a tumor of the 
gland, so that the symptoms incident to its presence are superim- 
posed upon the pituitary syndrome. Administration of the gland 
or its preparations has indeed given favorable results in the late 
stages of acromegaly, as well as in dystrophia adiposo genitalis. But 
it seems certain that along this line the greatest developments must 
be still to come. 

Along another line, however, the pituitary has yielded a product 
of wide therapeutic interest. If a water extract of the posterior 
lobe is made, and proteins and other inert material removed, there 
results a solution of extraordinary physiological activity. It is a 
powerful stimulant of plain muscle. It affects the blood pressure 
and heart action. It stimulates the uterus, intestines and bladder, 
and exercises a definite action on the activity of the kidneys. It is 
upon these physiological properties that the use of pituitary extract 
has in the main been based. 

Its effect on the heart and the blood vessels renders it valuable 
in cases of shock and other conditions of low blood pressure. Its 
use in the shock following operative procedure has been followed 
by strikingly good results. The improvement in blood pressure and 
heart action comes into evidence a few minutes after its intra- 
muscular injection. It has the immense advantage that the effect is 
persistent, lasting as long as from twelve to sixteen hours. More- 
over the tendency to reaction when the effect has worn off is but 
transitory, and the patient has been tided over the most trying 
period. 



Am. Jour. Pharm.j 
March, 19 17 J 



Laboratory Notes. 



137 



Its stimulating action on the uterus was one of the first proper- 
ties noted, and in obstetrics and gynecology pituitary solution has 
perhaps found its greatest use. In uterine inertia and in condi- 
tions where the rapid termination of labor has become desirable or 
imperative it has given prompt and effective results. For the con- 
trol of postpartum hemorrhage it is rapid and certain. It presents 
over ergot the advantages of stability, of uniformity secured by an 
adequate physiological assay, and of unquestionable sterility. Like 
other powerful drugs it is susceptible of abuse, and its use in labor 
with insufficient indications has been the subject of some criticism. 
In gynecology it has proved, by virtue of this stimulating action 
on the uterus muscle, an efficient hemostatic. 

The action of pituitary extract on the intestine and bladder 
muscles seems to increase in proportion as there is atony and paresis 
present. Consequently its use in the condition of loss of tone and 
distention which may follow operative procedure has led to extra- 
ordinarily good results. Its action under these circumstances has 
been so prompt and so certain as to appear almost specific. 

That pituitary solution exercises an effect on renal function is 
not to be doubted, and diuresis has been associated both experi- 
mentally and in some cases clinically with disturbances of the pitui- 
tary. But the evidence to date has curiously enough led to two 
absolutely opposite theories — one that diabetes insipidus is caused 
by hyperactivity of the pituitary gland, the other that it results from 
pituitary insufficiency. However this may be, it is certain that 
diabetes insipidus reacts readily to the injection of pituitary solu- 
tion. The output of urine is cut down to an amount approaching 
normal, and the distressing symptom of thirst altogether relieved. 
The effect persists for hours, so that two injections a day are ordi- 
narily sufficient. No untoward effects seem to follow its continued 
use. One can scarcely assume on the basis of this evidence alone 
that the pituitary gland normally controls renal function, any more 
than the fact that its extract stimulates the uterus must involve the 
conclusion that the gland is responsible for normal labor. But the 
unusual physiological activity of the extract, in these two instances 
as in others, have made it a therapeutic agent of wide possibilities. 



1*8 Minnesota Pharmaceutical Association. { Am. jour. Pharm. 

J L March, 19 17 



MINNESOTA PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 

33D Annual Convention. 
By E. L. Newcomb, Secretary. 

The thirty-third annual convention of the Minnesota Pharma- 
ceutical Association was called to order by President John F. Danek 
at 10 a.m., Tuesday, February 13. President Danek in a few well- 
chosen words introduced Governor J. A. A. Burnquist, who gave a 
stirring patriotic address in welcoming the pharmacists to the capital 
city. 

Mr. Carl W. Brenner, of Stillwater, the newly elected president 
of the Minnesota Rexall Club, responded to the address of the Gov- 
ernor. Mr. Brenner called particular attention to the efforts which 
the pharmacists are making to raise the educational standards of 
pharmacy. He pointed out that the prerequisite legislation which 
pharmacists were requesting would benefit not only the public but 
also those who are engaged in the practice of pharmacy. Legisla- 
tion to prohibit house-to-house distribution of drugs and medicines 
was approved not only on account of the demoralizing effect of 
this practice upon the practice of pharmacy, but also because it 
favors self-medication and the improper use of drugs and medicines 
by the general public. 

Mayor V. R. Irvin on behalf of the citizens of St. Paul extended 
a cordial welcome to the visiting delegates. The Mayor's address 
was enlivened by anecdotes and stories which served to impress his 
hearers with the warmth of his welcome. Max Menzel, of Pipe- 
stone, responded to Mayor Irvin, thanking him for his kindly 
remarks. 

Reception of Delegates. 

Mr. S. D. Andrews extended greetings from the National Whole- 
sale Druggists' Association and expressed the hope that the conven- 
tion would be successful in every way. Dean F. J. Wulling, as 
president of the American Pharmaceutical Association, extended 
greetings from that organization and expressed the hope that a 
much larger number of pharmacists would in the very near future 
affiliate with the American Pharmaceutical Association and derive 
the benefits therefrom. 



Am karch" i9^7 rm ') Minnesota Pharmaceutical Association. i^g 

Mr. Thomas H. Potts, secretary of the N. A. R. D., extended 
the fraternal greetings from that association and complimented the 
association on their having secured so able and capable a speaker 
as Mr. Eugene Brockmeyer, counsel for the N. A. R. D. At this 
time Dean Wulling upon the request of the president introduced 
Professor Henry Kraemer, of Philadelphia, who responded by con- 
gratulating the pharmacists of the Northwest upon the progressive 
stand which they had taken in matters pertaining to pharmacy. 

Secretary Newcomb next gave his annual report which, while 
mainly statistical, dwelt at some length on a number of the activities 
of the association. Attention was called to the fact that the active 
membership has increased during recent years to the extent that over 
sixty per cent, of all the pharmacists of Minnesota now belong to 
the association. Committee letters sent out from the secretary's 
office during the last year approximated twenty thousand. In addi- 
tion to this large amount of committee work, over eleven hundred 
personal letters were written by the secretary. 

A considerable portion of the secretary's report dealt with the 
conservation of the printed proceedings of the Minnesota and other 
state associations. The conservation of pharmaceutical journals 
was also discussed. An exhibit was arranged, consisting of bound 
volumes of pharmaceutical journals and printed proceedings, all of 
which are the property of the association and which had been bound 
at the direction of the executive committee. A total of some four 
hundred printed annual records were represented by the exhibit. 
The value of these publications was emphasized, and the report 
recommended that the association continue to preserve such mate- 
rial. The secretary stated that there were still about five hundred 
active registered pharmacists in Minnesota who do not belong to 
the association. A continuation of the membership campaign was 
urged in order that all active pharmacists might soon be brought into 
the work of the organization. 

Chairman J. P. Jelinek next presented the report of the legis- 
lative committee which dealt chiefly with prerequisite and anti-drug 
peddling legislation. The general subject of legislation to restrict 
the indiscriminate sale of drugs and medicines was then discussed. 
The Minnesota prerequisite bill was read at this time and discussed 
in order that those who were not clear on some of the provisions 
might be well informed. Those taking part in the discussion were : 
Fred Klenert, Minneapolis; Secretary Newcomb, A. J. Kline, R. J. 



140 Minnesota Pharmaceutical .Association. { Am ^°"f f^ m ' 

Messing, St. Paul ; Professor Henry Kraemer, Philadelphia, and 
others. The Minnesota Prerequisite Bill, as read, follows : 

Minnesota Prerequisite Bill — Senate File No. 378. 
A Bill 

For an Act, To Amend Section 2330 of the Revised Laws of 1905, As Amended 
by Chapter 346 Laws 1907, being Section 5032 General Statutes 1913, relating 
to qualifications entitling Pharmacists to registration. 
Be it Enacted by the Legislature of the State of Minnesota: 

Section 1. That Section 2330 of the Revised Laws of 1905, As Amended 
by Chapter 346 Laws 1907, being Section 5032 General Statutes 1913 be 
amended so as to read as follows : 

5032. — To be entitled to examination by the Board as a pharmacist, the 
applicant shall be at least twenty-one years old, shall have successfully com- 
pleted the work of two (2) college years, of not less than seven (7) months 
each, at a college or school of pharmacy which in the judgment of the Board 
maintains proper standards, as such, and shall have had at least two (2) years 
of practical experience in drug stores where physicians' prescriptions are 
usually compounded; provided however, that if the applicant shall have suc- 
cessfully completed a longer course than two (2) college years, of seven (7) 
months each, in such school or college of pharmacy, an additional year, or 
more, so successfully completed, shall be equivalent to one (1) year of such 
practical experience. 

Provided that, any person, who is, at the time of the passage of this 
amendment, actually employed in a drug store, who shall on or before the 
first of October, 1917, file with the Board a sworn statement of proof of that 
fact, or who is registered by said Board as an assistant pharmacist shall be 
exempt from the requirement of attendance at a college or school of pharmacy, 
but shall be entitled, if of the required age, to examination upon the comple- 
tion of four (4) years experience, as the same is herein defined, provided 
further; that, one (1) year of college work, as herein defined shall be equiv- 
alent to one (1) year of experience. If upon examination the Board finds 
him qualified, he shall be entitled to registration as such pharmacist. 

Section 2. This Act shall take effect and be in force from and after its 
passage. 

Commercial Section. 

The commercial section was called to order by Chairman H. C. 
Kruckeberg after the meeting had been turned over by President 
Danek. After suitable introductory remarks, Chairman Krucke- 
berg presented his annual address in which he reviewed in an illumi- 
nating way some of the difficult commercial problems of the phar- 
macist. The address was discussed by Dean Wulling and others 
who were present. 



Am klrch" i"^ 1 " 111 '} Minnesota Pharmaceutical Association. 

" Questionable Methods of Advertising " was the title of an im- 
promptu address by Mr. W. E. Arford. The speaker described in 
detail illegitimate methods being employed which have resulted in 
a number of pharmacists losing considerable sums of money. 

At this time, President Binz, of the California Pharmaceutical 
Association, was introduced and extended the privileges of the floor. 
Mr. Binz spoke at length on the subject of pharmaceutical legisla- 
tion. He stated that he had become convinced during the past year 
that prerequisite pharmaceutical legislation was most essential if 
pharmacists are to secure other measures which are urgently needed. 
Mr. Binz extended greetings from the California Association and 
expressed his appreciation for the cordial reception he had received 
in Minnesota. 

National Legislation. 

Mr. Charles H. Huhn presented the report of the committee on 
national legislation. The report included a consideration of the 
present status of price maintenance, narcotic legislation, anti-coupon 
legislation, and other measures of direct importance to pharmacists. 

Mr. W. S. Parker, secretary of the North Dakota Board, was 
next introduced, and spoke upon prerequisite and patent medicine 
legislation. Sunday closing, Mr. Parker stated, was quite generally 
observed in North Dakota. 

Scientific Section. 

Following the address by Attorney Brockmeyer, President Danek 
turned the meeting over to Dean F. J. Wulling as chairman of the 
scientific section. Dean Wulling introduced Professor Chas. H. 
Rogers, who has recently been appointed a member of the faculty 
of the College of Pharmacy of the University of Minnesota. Pro- 
fessor Rogers brought greetings from the West Virginia Pharma- 
ceutical Association and stated that he hoped to do his share of the 
work of the University in turning out well-trained pharmacists. 

The Northwestern Branch of the American Pharmaceutical As- 
sociation met jointly with the scientific and practical section, and 
the following program was carried out : 

1. A Symposium on the U. S. P. — IX. Opened and closed by Mr. 

C. H. Bollinger, and on the N. F. — IV, opened and closed by 
Mr. F. A. Upsher Smith. 

2. Prescription Pricing, by Mr. Robert L. Morland. 

3. Duty of the Public to the Pharmacist, by R. J. Messing. 



IA2 Minnesota Pharmaceutical Association. { Am ; T Jou ^- pharm - 

T" l March, 1917 



4. Prescriptions and Prescription Compounding, by Mr. H. Martin 

Johnson. 

5. Report of the Committee on Adulteration, by Professor Gustav 

Bachman. 

6. Fractional Percolation, by Mr. O. J. Blosmo. 

7. (a) The 1916 Results of Medicinal Plant Cultivation for Educa- 

cational Purposes at the College of Pharmacy, Univer- 
sity of Minnesota. 

(b) A New Source of Supply for Ergot. 

(c) Some Notes on Digitalis with Special Reference to Digitalis 

hitea. 

(d) The Journal and the Year Book of the American Pharma- 

ceutical Association, by E. L. Newcomb. 

8. Report of Committee on College of Pharmacy, by Chairman A. J. 

Kline. 

In addition to the above, a paper on " The Prescription Counter," 
by Mr. R. Bartelson, was read at the Thursday morning session, at 
which time the usual historical paper by Dean Wulling, of the Col- 
lege of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, was also presented. 

The report of the committee on adulteration by Professor Gustav 
Bachman elicited favorable comment. The report showed that the 
general quality of the drugs and medicines reported upon was some- 
what higher than the reports heretofore indicated. 

The paper on "A New Source of Supply for Ergot," by Secre- 
tary Newcomb, was accompanied by an exhibit consisting of differ- 
ent samples of waste cereals containing from seventeen to eighteen 
per cent, of select ergot. This ergot, the speaker stated, was the 
equal in pharmaceutical quality to that which is imported from 
Spain and Russia. It has not come into general use on account of 
the difficulty in mechanically separating it from the cereal. Me- 
chanical processes have been used so as to concentrate the mixture 
to nearly fifty per cent, ergot strength. 

New Officers for 1917-18. 

The following officers, having been duly nominated, were elected 
to serve the association for the coming year: Louis J. Aberwald, 
president; Charles MacGregor, Detroit, vice-president; Edward A. 
Grochau, Duluth, second vice-president; W. C. Haney, Marshall, 
third vice-president; E. L. Newcomb, secretary; R. J. Messing, 
treasurer ; J. F. Danek, member of the executive committee. 



Am kl?ch' fw™ ') Minnesota Pharmaceutical Association. 

The following were duly nominated as candidates for appoint- 
ment to the Minnesota State Board of Pharmacy : Max Menzel, 
Pipestone ; Arthur von Rohr, Winona ; R. J. Messing, St. Paul ; M. 
G. Johnson, Fulda ; and R. E. Desmond, Minneapolis. 

Report of Committee on Resolutions. 

To the Officers and Members of the Minnesota State Pharma- 
ceutical Association, your committee begs leave to report as follows : 

The committee on resolutions has carefully gone over the Presi- 
dent's address and approves the following resolutions : 

1. That publicity work be continued for the ensuing year on the same 

plan as during the past year. 

2. That the work of the Legislative Committee be commended and 

approved. 

3. In view of the anti-drug- vending measure now being formulated 

by our Legislative Committee, your Resolutions Committee 
recommends that no action be taken at this time on recommen- 
dation No. 3 (of the President). 

4. That we reaffirm a strong conviction in the justice of price main- 

tenance and pledge ourselves to aid any effort of legislation in 
that direction. 

5. That we urge closer cooperation between pharmacists and physi- 

cians. 

6. That we continue our affiliation with the N. A. R. D. 

7. We recommend that a scholarship be established to provide for 

the tuition for one year for one student at the College of Phar- 
macy of the University of Minnesota, same to be accredited to 
the student completing the second year with the highest rating, 
and being a citizen of the United States and a resident of the 
State at least five years. 

8. That our association again voice its strong disapproval of the use 

of trading stamps and coupons, in merchandising. 

9. We recommend that early closing be dealt with by individual com- 

munities. 

Your committee recommends that publicity work be continued, 
as outlined in the report of the committee. 

We recommend that the report of the Legislative Committee be 
adopted as presented and urge all members to cooperate in support 
of the bills now pending in the Legislature. 



i a a Minnesota Pharmaceutical Association. { Am ; J° u , r - P ha ™i. 

■ t" <• March, 19 17 

After careful consideration of the secretary's report, we recom- 
mend that same be adopted, and we further recommend that a 
hearty vote of thanks be extended to those who have contributed to 
the completion of the files of pharmaceutical proceedings in the 
various states. We also recommend that the association extend a 
rising vote of thanks to our secretary for his untiring efforts in 
establishing a complete set of proceedings and recommend the con- 
tinuance of same. 

We further recommend that the secretary prepare a yearly in- 
ventory of the visible assets of the association to be incorporated in 
his annual report. 

We commend the efficient manner in which the financial and 
business affairs of the association have been conducted during the 
past year. 

Considering the recommendation of scholarship, your committee 
feels that the matter is well covered for the present, by the recom- 
mendation as noted above. 

We recommend that the purchase and. selection of a permanent 
badge or button be left to the discretion of the executive committee. 

Your committee commends the efficient and statistical report of 
the committee on dispensing by physicians. 

It being clearly shown that the logical solution of the evil lies 
with the druggist in his respective locality, we recommend that the 
druggists be urged to supply physicians in their respective localities 
with the N. A. R. D. therapeutic topics. 

Your committee on resolutions recommend that the work of the 
Publicity Committee be continued along the lines followed during 
the past year ; that an appropriation of $300 again be made for 
stenographic assistance ; that the committee make an effort to issue 
one bulletin per month during the coming year ; that the pharma- 
ceutical journals be thanked for their cooperation. 

We recommend that Professor Henry Kraemer, of Philadelphia, 
be elected an honorary member of this association. 

We urge a rising vote of thanks to be extended to Mr. Eugene 
Brockmeyer, Professor Henry Kraemer and Thos. H. Potts for 
their presence, their interesting and valuable addresses and the com- 
mendable efforts which they have made for pharmacy. 

Your committee further recommends a hearty vote of thanks to 
W. E. Burke for his untiring efforts in promoting the success of 
this meeting. 



Am karch' FgiY" 1 '^ Minnesota Pharmaceutical Association. 145 

Your committee desires to express its appreciation of and thanks 
for the help in contributing toward the success of this meeting, by 
the Travelers' Auxiliary, the Northwestern Druggist, the faculty 
of the State University, the officers and members of the various 
committees and to Mr. Haueter for his splendid work in securing 
new members. 

The committee also desires to express its appreciation to Dr. 
Newcomb for his services during the past year. 

We wish to thank the press and the managers of the Saint Paul 
Hotel for the splendid accommodations and service rendered the 
association during the meeting. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Committee: J. P. Jelinek, R. J. Messing, W. A. Abbett, Max 

Menzel, Henry Rauch. 
Owing to the short amount of time available to your committee, 
we recommend that the secretary ' prepare suitable memorials ex- 
pressing the sympathy of the association on the demise of the fol- 
lowing: A. D. Thompson, Wm. Melendy, H. H. Meyer, Martin 
I. Wilbert, Dr. E. K. Ogden, Dr. W. G. Brede and Edwin F. 
Warren. 

The report of the Resolutions Committee was adopted in its 
entirety. 

Chairman Jelinek of the Legislative Committee presented at this 
time the preliminary draft of the anti-drug-vending bill. The bill 
provides for the absolute prohibition of the sale of drugs and medi- 
cines by the itinerant vendor. After some discussion the measure 
was tentatively adopted and referred to the Legislative Committee 
for re-drafting and introduction. 

Scientific Section {continued). 

President Danek requested Dean Wulling to preside during the 
completion of the scientific section program. Dean Wulling intro- 
duced Professor Henry Kraemer, of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy, who delivered an illustrated lecture on " Pharmacog- 
nosy in its Relation to the Practice of Pharmacy." Professor 
Kraemer gave his personal views as to the subject matter of prac- 
tical pharmacognosy in its relation to the retail druggist. He dwelt 
upon its relation to the study of the raw materials and products 
manufactured from them. He pointed out clearly the difference 
between pharmacognosy and materia medica, both in the subjective 



146 



Minnesota Pharmaceutical Association. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 19 17 



treatment and the objects to be attained in the respective sciences. 
Emphasis was laid upon the fact that pharmacognosy is an active 
discipline and is concerned with the solution of every-day problems 
and the producing of tangible results. In the subsequent illustrated 
lecture many opportunities were indicated to show how the retail 
pharmacist could apply his professional knowledge and thereby 
make himself more valuable to the public and to himself. Professor 
Kraemer said : With Josh Billings we say, " It is better to know a 
few things right than many things that are not so." In the teach- 
ing of pharmacognosy he said : " I continually say to my classes 
that they only know what they can do. As a student, you may state 
a fact, but it is yours only when you can demonstrate it." The 
essential practicability of the science of pharmacognosy was em- 
phasized, and in that connection it was pointed out how essential 
the science is to the pharmacist, because he deals with so many 
crude drugs and other raw materials, and hence is vitally concerned 
with their identity and quality. Professor Kraemer's wonderful 
collection of slides was divided into two classes : ( i ) Those dealing 
with the identification and determination of the quality of commer- 
cial drugs and allied products; (2) those dealing with the determi- 
nation of the composition of complex commercial products. In con- 
nection with the latter, -many valuable suggestions were given as to 
the opportunity of the pharmacist in the manufacturing line. The 
lecturer showed a series of about 150 magnificent lantern slides, 
many of them having been colored by Professor Kraemer himself. 

OBITUARY. 

William C. Alpers, dean and professor of pharmacy at the 
School of Pharmacy of Western Reserve University, Cleveland, 
Ohio, died on February 22, 1917. Professor Alpers was born at 
Hanover, Germany, July 7th, 185 1. After the close of the Franco- 
German war, in which he took part, he came to America. Later 
he attended the New York College of Pharmacy and the University 
of New York, receiving the degree of doctor of science in chemistry 
from the latter institution. Dr. Alpers was always prominent in 
organized pharmacy, being at one time the president of both the 
New Jersey and the American Pharmaceutical Associations. Dr. 
Alpers's funeral took place in New York and was largely attended. 



THE AMEKICAN 



JOURNAL OF PH 



By O. A. Farwell and 



DIGITALIS THAPSI LIN^ 



APRIL, IQ17 ly> 




Late in 1916, samples of a new drug were offered in America 
under the name of Spanish digitalis. It has no general resemblance 
to the official digitalis ; indeed, at first glance, it looks more like 
mullein than anything else, being yellowish gray or yellowish green 
in color. 

It has been thought advisable to investigate the histological and 
pharmacological aspects of the drug and the following papers are 
the result. Each author is responsible for his own section of the 
work. 



The drug consists of broken fragments of leaf (Fig. 4), stems 
(Fig. 3), and capsules (Fig. 5). Stems slender, terete or somewhat 
angular, green or purplish, densely covered with gland-tipped, 3-7 
celled hairs (Figs. 1 and 2), y 2 a millimeter or less in length, velvety 
not rough. Bases of alternate leaves show a slight, decurrent line 
(Fig. 3) on the stem; leaves in fragments, rarely entire, 2-3 cm. 
wide by 3-15 in length narrowly oblong or oblong-lanceolate, grad- 
ually tapering to a broad sessile base, margin coarsely denticulate; 
on the lower surface the midvein is prominent with 4-6 inconspicu- 
ous pairs of veins, rugose ; both upper and lower surfaces are cov- 
ered with glandular hairs but they are not so long as those found 
upon the stem, soft velvety, not rough. Flowers occasional, cylin- 
drical, upper parts purplish, slightly pubescent externally ; when ex- 
panded, cylindrical below, contracted just above the ovary and then 



HISTOLOGY. 



By Oliver Atkins Farwell. 



(147) 



148 



Digitalis Thapsi Lin. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 19 1 7. 



abruptly expanded into a tube much longer than the usually 5-lobed, 
slightly 2-lipped limb ; stamens 4, didynamous, attached low down on 
the tube, included; calyx present, glandular, 5 -parted, about f/5 the 
length of the corolla, segments lanceolate. Capsules ovoid, about 15 
Mm. in length, greenish and more or less glandular, to pale brownish 
or yellowish green, with only traces of the glandular indument, with 
fragments of the calyx at the base, on a slender pedicle, 3 Cm. or 
less in length, which is clavate under the capsule ; fruit partially sep- 
arating into two, one-celled, many-seeded sections, opening at the 
apex on the inner surface by a large pore. Odor, slight; taste, 
bitter and slightly acrid. This drug is not the official Digitalis pur- 
purea Lin. as the leaves are sessile, somewhat decurrent, and of the 
same color on both sides. It may be the closely related D. Thapsi 
Lin. A cross-section of the upper portion of a stem, 2^2 Mm. 
thick, shows a pith 1 Mm. in diameter surrounded by a circle of 
wood (Fig. 6, D), 0.3 Mm. wide and a bark about .5 Mm. The 
outer bark shows epidermal cells that are small (12-20 microns) 
with rather thick outer walls covered with a strongly papillate cuticle 
(Fig. 7, A) ; immediately under the epidermis is a layer (130 
microns) of unlignified hypodermal cells 5-8 tiers in depth (Fig. 7, 
B) ; internally to this is a layer of parenchyma (Fig. 8), of equal 
depth but composed of fewer, 4-6 tiers of cells ; the inner bark (Fig. 
6) is made up of a continuous circle of bast (A) 130 microns deep 
and a narrower layer of sieve tissue (B) . The cells of the pith (E) 
often reach a size of 70 microns in diameter, are slightly lignified 
or cutinized and non-porous. The stomata (Fig. 9) on the leaf 
occur in the ratio of about 8 to an area of 150 microns square. 
The epidermis is essentially the same as for the green bark of the 
stem. The palisade tissue is one cell in depth; the cells of the 
sponge tissue are well filled with oil. No crystals were detected. 
The midrib (Fig. 10) forms a very prominent keel on the dorsal 
(lower) surface of the leaf. The vascular strand is rather broadly 
ovate in outline, the phloem passing almost completely around the 
xylem. On the ventral side there are several layers of collenchyma 
and on the dorsal side the greater part of the tissue consists of the 
water-storage-cells with a layer or two of collenchyma between it 
and the epidermis. 




Figs. 1-5. Digitalis Thapsi Lin., showing leaf fragments, a capsule and 
gland-tipped hairs. 




Fig. 6. Transverse section through por- 
tion of stem of Digitalis Thapsi Lin. A, 
bast fibers; B, sieve tissue; C, cambium; 
D, woody tissues ; E, pith. 




Figs. 7-9. Digitalis Thapsi Lin., showing structure of stem and stomata on 

leaf. 




Fig. 10. Cross-section through midrib of leaf of Digitalis Thapsi Lin. 



Digitalis Thapsi Lin. i<ji 

PHARMACOLOGIC ACTION. 

By Herbert C. Hamilton. 

A preliminary investigation of Digitalis Thapsi to determine 
whether it possessed any of the therapeutic properties of the official 
drug was carried out on frogs by the M. L. D. method for stand- 
ardization. 1 The drug in tincture form was properly diluted and 
injected into frogs in gradually decreasing doses until the minimum 
was found which was sufficiently toxic to kill. 

This dose was just one third that of a similar tincture from an 
average sample of official drug as shown below. Data of final tests 
only are here recorded. 



Standard Tr. Digitalis. 

Wt. of frog. Dose per gm. Total dose. 

20 009 18 alive 

20 010 20 dead 

19 010 19 dead 

21 on 23 dead 

22 on 23 dead 

Tincture from Thapsi Drug. 

18 0025 23 alive 

20 0030 30 alive 

20 0035 35 dead 

21 0040 42 dead 

22 0045 49 dead 

Dilution 1 in 5. 



The above are the final tests showing the comparative toxicities 
as determined by the minimum lethal doses of the two tinctures 
which are : 

Standard Tinct. Digitalis 0.010 

Tinct. Digitalis Thapsi 0.0035 

That the drug belongs to the digitalis series of heart tonics is 
shown by the fact that in every case the heart was found to have 
stopped in systole, i. e., with the apex of the heart strongly con- 
tracted. 

A qualitative test further to confirm the action of the drug was 
made by dropping the diluted tinctures on the laid-bare frog's heart. 
The two tinctures were compared as before. 

1 Houghton and Hamilton, Amer. Jour, of Pharm., October, 1909. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
April, 19 1 7. * 



152 Digitalis Thapsi Lin. { Am l™{{ 

First Experiment. 
Frog pithed and stretched out on board. 

Normal heart rate. 
9: 15 20 beats in 20 seconds. 

9: 16 1 drop tinct. thapsi drug dropped on the laid-bare heart. 

9 : 20 20 beats in 22 seconds. 

9:21 20 beats in 23 seconds. 

9: 24 20 beats in 26 seconds. 

9:25 2 drops, same solution. 

9: 28 20 beats in 30 seconds. 

9 : 30 20 beat's in 40 seconds. 

9:35 Beats irregular and indistinct. 

9:40 Stopped in systole. 

Second Experiment. 
Frog pithed and fastened to board. 

Normal heart rate. 

10: 30 20 beats in 24 seconds. 

10: 35 2 drops tr. digitalis U.S. P. 

10 : 37 20 beats in 28 seconds. 

10: 39 20 beats in 30 seconds. 

10:45 20 beat's in 30 seconds. 

10:46 2 drops, same solution. 

10: 50 20 beats in 35 seconds. 

10: 55 20 beats in 40 seconds. 

11 : 00 2 drops, same solution. 

11 : 05 20 beats in 50 seconds. 

11 : 10 20 beats in 55 seconds. 

Irregular beat's and final stoppage in systole. 

Third Experiment. 

Normal heart rate. 
1 : 35 20 beats in 20 seconds. 

1 : 40 2 drops thapsi drug diluted, 1 in 3 from the tincture. 

1 : 45 20 beats in 22 seconds. 

1 : 47 20 beats in 23 seconds. 

2 drops, same solution. 

1 : 50 20 beats in 28 seconds, very powerful. 

1 : 54 20 beats in 30 seconds. 

1 : 55 2 drops, same solution. 

1 : 57 20 beats in 33 seconds. 

2:00 20 beats in 50 seconds. 

Very irregular. 
2: 15 20 beats in 200 seconds, stopped in systole. 



Am "iprii" ^9i7 m ' } Milk Sugar in Headache Powders. 



153 



These experiments show the typical action of the drug in slowing 
and strengthening the heart beat to be identical with that of the U. 
S. P. digitalis. The powerful ventricular contractions were espe- 
cially noticeable. 

The other typical heart-tonic action of digitalis, namely, its 
pressor effect on the circulatory system, is observed best on an an- 
esthetized dog. The dog is anesthetized with chloreton 2 which af- 
fects the system only slightly. These experiments failed to discover 
this typical effect when thapsi drug was administered while the trac- 
ings obtained after injection of the official drug almost invariably 
show a distinct rise in blood pressure followed, unless the dose be 
too large, by a return approximately to normal. 

The two drugs were injected one following the other into two dogs. 
The first dog received first 0.2 Cc. of the tincture (freed from 
alcohol) of the thapsi drug. The rate was lowered, but no increase 
of blood pressure could be detected. After the action of the drug 
was apparently over, about one hour after first injection, 0.5 Cc. tr. 
digitalis, U.S. P. was administered followed shortly by the charac- 
teristic effects of the drug, including a distinct increase in blood 
pressure. The heart-beats soon became irregular and the dog died. 

In another dog the order of dosing was reversed, the official 
tincture being administered first followed by an equivalent dose of 
the thapsi tincture. The effects observed from the first experiment 
were duplicated in the second, but reversed. The official tincture 
raised the blood pressure while the thapsi tincture had no effect on 
the blood pressure, but slowed the heart and the experiment ended by 
the irregular heart beats and final death of the animal. 

While the experiments detailed above are more or less prelim- 
inary to a more exhaustive examination of the pharmacologic prop- 
erties of this variety of digitalis, they are sufficient to show that it 
possesses at least two of the valuable properties of Digitalis pur- 
purea, namely, the effects on the rate and amplitude of the heart 
beat. They show also that it more nearly resembles strophanthus 
in having no effect or at least very slight action on the blood pres- 
sure 3 — a property which in many cases is a distinct advantage. 

The observed activity of the drug — a toxicity three times as great 
as that of the average official variety — is not to be taken as repre- 

2 Rowe, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 
9, 1916. 

3 Cushney, " Pharmacology and Therapeutics." 



1 54 Milk Sugar in Headache Powders. { Am *^Jg- 

senting the activity of this variety. It represents that of only one 
sample and does not exceed that of occasional samples of Amer- 
ican grown Digitalis purpurea. Further work and a number of 
samples would be required to determine its average activity. 

That this drug may become a valuable adjunct to the repertoire 
of heart tonics is evident from its similarity in action both to the offi- 
cial variety of digitalis and to strophanthus, which latter is becom- 
ing more and more generally used in therapy. 

A more extended pharmacologic research is planned for the near 
future. 

Departments of Botany and 

Pharmacology, Parke, Davis & Co., 
Detroit, Mich. 



RAPID APPROXIMATE DETERMINATION OF MILK 
SUGAR IN HEADACHE POWDERS. 

By Reginald Miller. 

This method depends upon the fact that milk sugar when heated 
with ammonium hydroxide gives a yellow to red color 1 the intensity 
of which is used as a measure of the amount present. 

Take a weighed portion of the powder (about I g.), transfer to a 
small beaker and extract 2 repeatedly with a mixture 3 of chloroform 
and absolute alcohol, by pouring about 12 mils of the mixture upon 
the powder, stirring with a glass rod, allowing to settle and then de- 
canting the solution through a small filter paper, after the extraction 

1 The color produced is yellow when about .005 g. is present, and pinkish 
red in the presence of about .025 g. of milk sugar. On the addition of water 
(making volume up to 50 mils) the pinkish color fades to yellow after stand- 
ing for five minutes. 

A color similar to that obtained from .025 g. of milk sugar is produced by 
maltose, while dextrose and levulose produce a dark yellow, mannose a light 
yellow, and with cane sugar the solution remains colorless. Upon dilution to 
50 mils with water, and after standing five minutes the depth of color corre- 
sponding to that obtained from .005 g. of milk sugar is produced by about 
.005 g. of maltose ; .020 g. of dextrose or levulose or .050 g. of mannose. 

2 About six extractions are generally sufficient; in many cases the method 
may be applied directly by treating one gram of the powder with sufficient 

« water to make 100 mils and then making the determination. Sodium bicar- 
bonate does not interfere with the determination. 

3 This mixture consists of two volumes of chloroform and one volume of 
absolute alcohol, and is used to remove acetanilid, phenacetin, salol, etc. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1917. 



Determination of Phenacetin. 



155 



is complete, transfer the filter paper and residue to the beaker, add 
25 mils of hot distilled water to dissolve the milk sugar; transfer 
this solution to a 100 mil volumetric flask, wash the filter paper and 
beaker with more water until the collected washings total 100 mils. 
Cool to room temperature and add water to the 100 mil mark. 

Portions of this aqueous solution corresponding in volume to the 
amounts used in the standard tubes are measured into Nessler tubes 
and treated exactly like the standards. 

Standards are prepared as follows : 

Dissolve .500 g. of milk sugar in sufficient water to make 100 
mils ; one mil of this solution contains .005 g. of milk sugar. 

Tube 4 A — 1 mil of st. sol. = (.005 g. milk sugar) +4 mils of water -j- 10 
mils of cone, ammonium hydroxide. 

Tube B-\-2 mils of st. sol. = (.010 g. milk sugar) -f- 3 mils of water -|- 10 
mils of cone, ammonium hydroxide. 

Tube C-f-3 mils of st. sol. = (.015 g. milk sugar) -j- 2 mils of water + 10 
mils of cone, ammonium hydroxide. 

Tube D-f-4 mils of st. sol. = (.020 g. milk sugar) 1 mil of water + 10 
mils of cone, ammonium hydroxide. 

Tube E 5 mils of st. sol. = (.025 g. milk sugar) -[- 10 mils of cone, ammo- 
nium hydroxide. 

These tubes as well as those containing the unknown are placed 
in a water bath and heated to about 95 C. for about half hour, the 
volume in each tube is then made to 50 mils and allowed to stand 5 
minutes. The depth of color produced in the tubes containing the 
sample is compared with the standards until two are found (one 
standard and one unknown) that correspond. Computations are then 
made from the standard tube. 

Chemical Laboratory, 

Department of Health, City of New York. 



APPROXIMATE DETERMINATION OF NOVASPIRIN, 
ALONE OR WHEN MIXED WITH ASPIRIN. 

By Reginald Miller. 

This method depends upon the fact that sodium hydrate produces 
a yellow color with novaspirin but remains colorless with aspirin. 1 

4 Nessler tubes holding 100 mils are used. 

1 The aspirin must not be present in a greater proportion than two parts 
of aspirin to one part of novaspirin, if present in a larger amount, it inter- 
feres with the production of the yellow color. 



1^6 Determination of Phenacetin. { Am 'IpSi ^iT™' 

The intensity of color produced is used as the measure of the quan- 
tity of novaspirin present. 

Dissolve from .200 g. to .500 g. of powder (containing novaspirin 
or a mixture of novaspirin and aspirin) in 25 mils of 95 per cent, 
alcohol ; add sufficient water to make 50 mils. Measure portions of 
this solution into Nessler tubes and treat as directed below in prep- 
aration of standards. 

Standards are prepared in Nessler tubes as follows : A solution is 
made by dissolving .100 g. of novaspirin in 25 mils of alcohol and 
then adding sufficient water to make 50 mils. 

One mil of this solution contains .002 g. of novaspirin. 

Tube 2 A — 1 mil of st. sol. + 25 mils of water-}- 2 mils of N/5 sodium 

hydroxide = .002 g. novaspirin. 
Tube B — 2 mils of st. sol. -f 25 mils of water + 2. mils of N/s sodium 

hydroxide = .004 g. novaspirin. 
Tube C — 3 mils of st. sol. +25 mils of water + 2 mils of N/5 sodium 

hydroxide = .006 g. novaspirin. 
Tube D — 4 mils of st. sol. + 25 mils of water + 2 mils of N/5 sodium 

hydroxide = .008 g. novaspirin. 

After the addition of the water and sodium hydroxide, more 
water is added to each tube, making a volume of 50 mils. 

The tubes containing the standards are compared after an elapse 
of 5 minutes with those containing the samples until two are found 
which correspond in depth of color (one standard tube and one con- 
taining the sample). Computations are then made using the stand- 
ard tube as a basis. 3 

Chemical Laboratory, 

Department of Health, City of New York. 



RAPID APPROXIMATE DETERMINATION OF PHE- 
NACETIN WHEN MIXED WITH ACETANILID. 

By Reginald Miller. 

This method is based upon the well-known nitric acid 1 test for 
phenacetin, which gives an intense yellow to orange-red color, and 

2 More satisfactory results are obtained by following the procedure out- 
lined in this table. A more staple color is produced this way. 

3 The readings should be made after an elapse of about five minutes but 
before an elapse of fifteen minutes when the color gradually fades and is 
untrustworthy. 

1 Autenreith-Hinsberg Test, Archiv der Pharmacie, Band 229,456 (1891). 



Am April* fgijr" 11 " ) Determination of Phenacetin. 157 

also upon the facts that phenacetin is soluble in methyl alcohol and 
the addition of nitric acid to such a solution properly diluted gives a 
yellow color, the intensity of which is used as a measure of the 
phenacetin present by comparison in Nessler tubes with standards. 

Standards are prepared as follows : A standard solution is made 
by dissolving .500 g. of phenacetin in sufficient methyl alcohol 2 to 
make 100 mils ; one mil of this solution then contains .005 g. of 
phenacetin. 

Tube A — 1 mil of st. sol. -f- 4 mils methyl alcohol = .005 g, phenacetin 
Tube B — 2 mils of st. sol. + 3 mils methyl alcohol = .010 g. phenacetin 
Tube C — 3 mils of st. sol. -f- 2 mils methyl alcohol = .015 g. phenacetin 
Tube D — 4 mils of st. sol. -f- 1 mil methyl alcohol = .020 g. phenacetin 
Tube E — 5 mils of st. sol. + methyl alcohol = .025 g. phenacetin 

To each tube except the last, methyl alcohol is added as indi- 
cated, in order to have an equal amount in each tube, 3 then 5 mils of 
water and 3 mils of concentrated nitric acid is added to each tube. 4 

A qualitative test is made on the sample and this gives an idea 
as to the amount of phenacetin present. A definite amount of the 
sample is dissolved in methyl alcohol, so that one mil of the solution 
will contain between .005 g. and .025 g. of phenacetin. Portions of 
this solution are then measured into Nessler tubes and treated the 
same as the standards all of which must be made at the same time. 
After an elapse of 5 minutes make up the volume in each tube to 50 
or 100 mils and compare the intensity of color in the tubes containing 
the sample, with the color produced in the tubes containing the stand- 
ards until two are found (one standard and one unknown) that 
correspond. Computations are then made using the standard tube as 
a basis. 

Chemical Laboratory, 

Department of Health, City of New York. 

2 Pure methyl alcohol is used (reagent) . 

3 This is necessary because the methyl alcohol decreases the intensity of 
color produced. 

4 It is preferable to use a burette to measure the nitric acid. 



ic8 Chemical Reactions of Diphtheria Antitoxin. { Am. jour. Pharm. 



April, 1917. 



SOME EXPERIMENTS ON THE CHEMICAL REACTIONS 
OF DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN. 

By Albert C. Crawford and Carlton L. Andrus. 1 

Many of us expect to find that future advances in rational thera- 
peutics will be made along chemotherapeutic lines and by following 
the methods used by nature, i. e., by the use of antitoxins, etc. 
Hence it is essential to know something as to the chemistry of the 
antitoxins. From this point of view, we recently reviewed the lit- 
erature on the chemistry of diphtheria antitoxin. 2 As a result of 
this summary, it becomes evident that there are two views ; one is, 
that the antitoxin is not necessarily a globulin, but is carried down 
with them on precipitation ; the other view, held by most workers, 
is that diphtheria antitoxin is a globulin, and some uncorroborated 
work even suggests that ordinary egg globulin could be converted 
into diphtheria antitoxin. 

We have been carrying on experiments to determine the reaction 
of diphtheria antitoxin to various reagents, and assuming it were not 
a globulin, to find whether it could be separated from the globulins. 
No doubt the response to reagents will vary, according to the solu- 
tion in which the antitoxin occurs. 

For part of this work we have used unconcentrated preparations 
obtained through the courtesy of the Cutter Laboratory at Berkeley. 
The first preparation contained over 500 antitoxic units to 1 Cc. It 
was prepared by heating a mixture of 70 parts of diluted antitoxic 
serum with 30 parts of saturated ammonium sulphate solution, i. e., 
Banzhaf's method. The second preparation was simply a solution 
of the precipitate from antitoxic serum by from 30 to 50 per cent, 
saturation of ammonium sulphate. It contained 450 units to 1 Cc. 
The third preparation was a concentrated globulin solution (40,000 
units in about 13.5 Cc). This was prepared by a' modified Banzhaf 
method and was given us by Parke Davis & Co. The fourth, was 
a globulin preparation from the Cutter Laboratory and contained 
250 units per 1 Cc. 

1 The expense of this work was partly covered by a grant from the Com- 
mittee on Therapeutic Research of the Council of Pharmacy and Chemistry 
of the American Medical Association. 

2 Crawford, A. C, and Foster, M. G., Biochem. Bull., 1917, vol. 6, p. 1. 



Am ' Ip%' ^gi7 m ' J Chemical Reactions of Diphtheria Antitoxin. 

The determinations of the antitoxic values were made by the 
firms from which the preparations were obtained and controlled, 
when any variation was suspected. The toxin was made by the Cut- 
ter Laboratory and its L + dose determined there, but was checked 
with standard antitoxin obtained from Dr. G. McCoy of the Hy- 
gienic Laboratory. 

In these experiments usually only three guinea pigs were used 
for each test. The injections were made subcutaneously in the mid- 
abdominal region and each injection had a volume of 4.5 Cc. 3 All 
evaporations were done in vacuo between 50 and 55 C, and prep- 
arations which were not used immediately were usually kept in an 
ice box. Instead of filtering, solutions were obtained by centrif- 
ugalizing at 4,000 revolutions a minute. 

The guinea pigs weighed about 250 Gm., although owing to diffi- 
culty in obtaining a proper supply, guinea pigs below 250 Gm. were 
often used. At the autopsy of those dying after the injections, en- 
largement and hemorrhages into the suprarenal glands, hemorrhages 
in the gastric mucosa and signs of local irritation were the only 
macroscopic changes looked for and found No histological exami- 
nations were made. 

Some of globulin preparation IV was evaporated to dryness 
in vacuo, and the flask jarred with a vibrator for varying intervals 
of time from July 20 to July 31, 191 4, then put aside till February, 
1917, but no signs of crystallization have appeared. 

Fifteen Cc. of globulin II were shaken with 400 Mg. cholesterin 
and centrifugalized. The fluid retained its full antitoxic value. 

After precipitation of antitoxin with aluminium hydroxide 4 the 
filtrate of globulin preparation IV became inactive. 

Five Cc. of globulin preparation I were evaporated to dryness 
and then twice extracted at room temperature with 20 Cc. acetic 
ether c.p. The undissolved portion possessed about the antitoxic 
value of the original, showing the antitoxin to be insoluble in acetic 
ether. 

Five Cc. of globulin preparation I were evaporated to dryness 
then extracted with 20 Cc. n/10 NaOH and after a few minutes 
neutralized with 20 Cc. n/10 HC1. Even 3 times the theoretical 
amount which should neutralize one L -f- dose failed to protect. 
Evidently n/10 NaOH injures this antitoxin. 

The same amount of this globulin was evaporated and treated 

3 Rosenau, M. J., Hyg. Lab. Bull. 21, 1905. 
4 Joum. Amer. Chem. Soc, 1913, p. 820. 



160 Chemical Reactions of Diphtheria Antitoxin. { Am v ^ m ' 

with 20 Cc. of n/ I0 ° NaOH, and after 10 minutes was neutralized 
with 20 Cc. of HQ n/ioo. This solution retained the full anti- 
toxic value of the original, i. e., short contact with n/ioo NaOH 
does not injure antitoxin. No attempt was made to find if pro- 
longed contact would injure it. 

Five Cc. of globulin I were treated with 5 Cc. NaOH n/10, then 
neutralized with 5 Cc. HC1 n/10. This was diluted to 150 Cc. 2 
Cc. of this solution protected against one L + dose of the toxin. 
Apparently there was some slight loss in activity. 

Five Cc. globulin II was diluted with 5 Cc. NaCl (0.85 per cent.), 
treated with 10 Cc. NaOH n/10 and neutralized with 10 Cc. HC1 
n/10. This had about the full antitoxic value, i. e., n/20 NaOH 
does not injure the antitoxin, at least in this preparation. 

Ten Cc. globulin preparation II were treated with 10 Cc. NaOH 
n/10 and shaken with benzol. The benzol residue was shaken with 
25 Cc. NaCl (0.85 per cent.) Even 3 Cc. did not protect against one 
L -f- dose of the toxin. The mother fluid contained the full antitoxic 
value, showing that n/20 NaOH did not injure this antitoxin, and 
that it would not shake into alkaline benzol. 

Ten Cc. of globulin II were treated with 5 Cc. NaOH n/10 and 
shaken with ether. The ether residue contained no antitoxin, while 
the mother fluid had its full value, i. e., antitoxin is not soluble in 
alkaline ether. 

Five Cc. of globulin preparation I were evaporated to dryness in 
vacuo and extracted twice with 20 Cc. of methyl alcohol (Merck). 
This alcohol was evaporated and the residue left by its evaporation 
was extracted with 10 Cc. normal NaCl. Even 3 Cc. of this did not 
protect from one L -f- dose of the toxin. Presumably no antitoxin 
was present. 

The residue after methyl extraction was dissolved with 20 Cc. 
of NaCl (0.85 per cent.) and 10 Cc. n/10 NaOH. It did not dis- 
solve in NaCl. It was then neutralized with 10 Cc. n/10 HC1. 
This solution had the full antitoxic value of the original solution. 
The diphtheria antitoxin as present in this preparation is insoluble 
in methyl alcohol. 

The same amount of preparation II was evaporated to dryness 
and treated with methyl alcohol containing the same amount of 
NaOH as used in the above test, but as very small amounts seemed 
to be dissolved, no tests were made on animals. 

Five Cc. of preparation II were treated with 5 Cc. of n/10 NaOH 



I on ?: pharm - } Chemical Reactions of Diphtheria Antitoxin. 161 

April, 1917* 

and 40 Cc. methyl alcohol (Merck), and after standing about 20 to 
30 minutes were centrifugalized. The precipitate was dissolved 
in 25 Cc. n/100 NaOH and then neutralized with the same amount 
of n/100 HQ. This gave a solution much the color of the original 
globulin preparation, although the precipitate was only slightly col- 
ored. This solution was slightly less active than the original prep- 
aration, perhaps due to standing, as several days elapsed before we 
were able to test this preparation. 

10 Cc. of globulin preparation I were diluted with 10 Cc. of NaCl 
(0.85 per cent.) and precipitated with a solution of lead subacetate, 
drop by drop, from a burette. The preparation was then centrif- 
ugalized and the supernatant fluid precipitated with sodium hydrogen 
phosphate, centrifugalized and then diluted to 150 Cc. Even 3 
Cc. did not protect against one L -f- dose of the toxin. 

Several other attempts were made to free antitoxin from pro- 
teins by means of lead subacetate solution, but in most cases the fil- 
trate when freed from lead was inactive. In one case it possessed 
slight antitoxic value, but in this case a possible excess of the alka- 
line lead solution may explain the result, i. e., solubility of antitoxin 
or globulin in weak alkali. In this latter case the lead filtrate con- 
tained a few antitoxic units, yet produced no anaphylactic reaction 
in a guinea pig. 

10 Cc. of globulin preparation I were diluted with 10 Cc. of 
sodium chloride (0.85 per cent.) and precipitated with a cold sat- 
urated aqueous solution of picrolonic acid by means of a burette, 
then centrifugalized. The centrifugalized fluid was shaken with 
acetic ether to remove picrolonic acid, at least partly, although acetic 
ether did not seem to us as suitable for this purpose as isobutyl 
alcohol. After separating the undissolved acetic ether, the solution 
was diluted to an arbitrary amount (250 Cc.) Even 3 Cc. of this 
solution failed to protect against one L + dose of the toxin. The 
precipitate was shaken with NaCl .85 per cent, and made into a col- 
loidal suspension of 250 Cc. Only 1 to 3 Cc. were tested. 1 Cc. of 
this suspension protected against one L+ dose of the toxin, show- 
ing that most and perhaps all of the antitoxin was in the picrolonic 
acid precipitate. 

A similar preparation was also precipitated with picrolonic acid. 
The precipitate was shaken into a colloidal solution or suspension 
with distilled water. This was centrifugalized and the sediment 
shaken with NaCl (0.85 per cent.). The H 2 solution was diluted 



S 



1 62 Chemical Reactions of Diphtheria Antitoxin. { Am - Jgjr- 

to 250 Cc. One to three Cc. were tested. One Cc. protected against 
one L -f- dose. Presumably the neutralizing power was even greater 
than shown. The colloidal solution obtained with 0.85 per cent. 
NaCl was diluted to 350 Cc. Even one Cc. protected against one 
L + dose of the toxin. Some antitoxin went into both preparations. 

Three Cc. of globulin preparation III were precipitated over night 
with a saturated aqueous solution of picrolonic acid. After centrif- 
ugalizing the clear solution was shaken several times with iso-butyl 
alcohol. The alcohol gave no precipitate. The colorless solution 
was made up to 250 Cc. Even 3 Cc. of this did not protect against 
one L + dose of the toxin. Evidently the filtrate, i. e., the centrif- 
ugalized solution after picrolonic acid contained no antitoxic units. 
This highly concentrated globulin corresponded in its reaction to 
picrolonic acid to preparation I which was of a lesser concentration. 

The precipitate from picrolonic acid was shaken with NaCl (0.85 
per cent.) and made into a suspension. This was shaken several 
times with iso-butyl alcohol to remove picrolonic acid. The isobutyl 
alcohol precipitated a gelatinous mass, which after centrifugalizing 
became colorless on further shaking with iso-butyl alcohol. This 
white gelatinous material was dissolved in NaCl (0.85 per cent.) by 
the addition of NaOH n/10 and the corresponding amount of n/io 
HC1 was then added. This colloidal solution was made up to 500 
Cc. with NaCl (0.85 per cent.). This solution had antitoxic value, 
but did not correspond to the full number of units used. This may 
perhaps have been due to the long contact with iso-butyl alcohol. 

The centrifugalized solution after iso-butyl alcohol precipitation 
was made up to 100 Cc. but even 3 Cc. did not protect against one 
L -\- dose, so that it contained few if any antitoxic units. Evidently 
iso-butyl alcohol precipitates antitoxin at least from this prepara- 
tion. 

Two Cc. of preparation III (8,000 antitoxic units) were precipi- 
tated with a saturated aqueous solution of picrolonic acid and the 
precipitate was shaken several times with NaCl (0.85 per cent.) cen- 
trifugalized, then the precipitate shaken again, then filtered through 
filter paper. The filtrate was then made up to 750 Cc. Even 3 Cc. 
did not protect from one L -f- dose of the toxin. The loss of activity 
may have been due to the filtering through filter paper, or to the 
preparation having stood several days, but it was thought, as there 
was picrolonic acid present, that this should preserve it. 

10 Cc. globulin preparation I, diluted with an equal volume of 



Am ApSi' igiT™' ^ Chemical Reactions of Diphtheria Antitoxin. 

NaCl (0.85 per cent.), was precipitated with a saturated aqueous 
solution of uranium acetate c.p., then centrifugalized. The precipi- 
tate was dissolved in normal salt solution by the addition of a few 
drops of n/10 NaOH. The uranium was precipitated by Na 2 HP0 4 
and centrifugalized. This solution was diluted to 250 Cc, an arbi- 
trary amount. It was found that one Cc. protected from one L -f- 
dose. Less was not tried. This solution gave a precipitate with 
picrolonic acid, gold chloride, platinum chloride, copper acetate and 
alcohol. The filtrate after precipitation with Na 2 HP0 4 and centri- 
fugalizing was diluted to 250 Cc. Even 3 Cc. of this solution did 
not protect from one L + dose. Uranium acetate precipitates an- 
titoxin. 

Globulin preparation I, diluted with an equal volume of normal 
NaCl, was cautiously precipitated with uranium acetate solution, 
then centrifugalized. The precipitate was treated with 15 Cc. 
NaCl (0.85 per cent.) and 15.6 Cc. n/10 NaOH. This formed 
an emulsion. The emulsion was precipitated with Na 2 HP0 4 , then 
precipitated with picrolonic acid. The precipitate was suspended 
in NaCl (0.85 per cent.) and shaken with isobutyl alcohol (Merck) 
to remove the picrolonic acid. The solution was diluted to 250 Cc. 
Even 3 Cc. did not protect from one L + dose. 

The iso-butyl alcohol gave a white precipitate which was made 
into a colloidal solution with 250 Cc. NaCl (0.85 per cent.). 2 Cc. 
of this solution protected against one L + dose of the toxin. 

Five Cc. of preparation II (2,250 units) were precipitated with 
platinum chloride (10 per cent.) aqueous solution. The precipitate 
was shaken with n/100 NaOH as well as with NaCl (0.85 per 
cent.) centrifugalized, neutralized and diluted to 350 Cc. Even 3 
Cc. of this solution did not protect against one L -f- dose of the 
toxin. A second sample was likewise precipitated with the same 
platinum chloride solution and the precipitate stirred with distilled 
water, then with NaCl (0.85 per cent.) and then centrifugalized. 
The washings from the precipitate and the centrifugalized solution 
from the platinum were added together and warmed on a bath to 
65 C. ; then, while warm, were saturated with H 2 S and the gas 
boiled off in vacuo. In this case the platinum sulphide separated 
nicely giving practically a colorless solution. There is some diffi- 
culty in obtaining a colorless solution in every test. The solution 
was filtered through filter paper and diluted to 100 Cc. One Cc. 
protected against one L -f- dose. After standing two days, one Cc. of 



164 Chemical Reactions of Diphtheria Antitoxin. { Am 'l°rn ^7™' 

this solution was diluted to 22 Cc. Three Cc. of this dilution did 
not protect against one L -f- dose of the toxin. 

The 100 Cc. solution gave no precipitate with uranium acetate 
c.p., gold chloride, mercuric chloride, or one half saturation with 
ammonium sulphate, but gave a slight precipitate with picrolonic 
acid. Picric acid gave no precipitate. This concentration gave 
no biuret reaction and no test for tryptophane with magnesium gly- 
oxalate and sulphuric acid. 

To see if the last dilution was inactive owing to deterioration, no 
extra-preservative having been added, the original 100 Cc. was tested 
4 days after its preparation and 1 Cc. still protected against one L -f- 
dose of the toxin. 

A similar precipitation was made with a freshly prepared solu- 
tion of platinum chloride (10 per cent.) and the precipitate was 
washed with NaCl solution instead of with distilled water as in the 
preceding case. The washings and centrifugalized solution could 
not be freed from platinum by H 2 S alone, even on adding an excess 
of platinum, but cleared with H 2 S when 1 Cc. of HC1 n/10 was 
added to the solution (111 Cc). After dilution to 150 Cc. it was 
found that even 2 Cc. did not protect against one L + dose of the 
toxin. 

Five Cc. of the same antitoxin was precipitated with a solution 
of platinum chloride made 2 days previously. The precipitate 
settling on centrifugalizing was washed with distilled water as in 
the first experiment and after passing H 2 S became colorless save 
for a minute trace of golden color. This was diluted to 150 Cc 
Even 1 Cc. protected against one L + dose of the toxin. 

From these experiments it is evident that NaCl interferes with 
the precipitation of platinum unless acid is added. 

There are several ways of interpreting the activity of the plati- 
num filtrate ; first, that it contained the antitoxin free from; globulin 
or that the acidity, which resulted from passing H 2 S, weakened the 
toxin, or that a trace of colloidal platinum sulphide remained in 
solution and weakened the toxin. 

The acidity of the first platinum preparation corresponded to 0.3 
Cc. n/10 HC1 to each Cc. The second, in which much NaCl had 
been used and which was inactive, reacted for 0.55 Cc. n/10 HC1 
for each Cc. The third preparation which contained about as many 
antitoxic units as the first platinum preparation, reacted for 0.2 Cc. 
n/10 HC1 to each Cc. 



Am * April' ^J" 111 ' } Chemical Reaction of Diphtheria Antitoxin. 165 

The L -f- dose of the toxin (0.42 Cc.) was treated with 0.42 n/10 
HC1 and let stand in the thermostat for T / 2 hour, then neutralized 
with 0.42 n/10 NaOH. This preparation killed a guinea pig in 24 
hours, the same time as the untreated toxin. Evidently weakening 
of the toxin by acid was not the cause of the survival of the guinea 
pigs after injection of the toxin mixed with platinum nitrate from 
the globulin preparation. 

To see if an excess of acidity was the cause of the inactivity of 
the second test, 1 Cc. of preparation II was mixed with 1 Cc. HC1 
n/10 placed in an incubator for Yi hour, then neutralized with 
NaOH. This was then diluted to 20 Cc, i. e., to theoretically cor- 
respond to the dilution in the second platinum experiment. One 
Cc. of this solution protected against one L-j- dose of the toxin, 
thus showing that this amount of acid did not destroy the anti- 
toxin. 

As a control test, 7.5 Cc. of platinum chloride (10 per cent.) 
were diluted to 100 Cc. with distilled water and while warm were 
saturated with H 2 S. On filtering this gave a solution perhaps darker 
in color than the preceding active platinum filtrate. This color 
was due to the presence of a trace of platinum- sulphide, Injections 
were made of 1 Cc, 2 Cc, and 3 Cc but these did not kill, or even 
sicken, the guinea pigs. Of this solution, 1 Cc. and 2 Cc. were each 
mixed with one L-f dose of the toxin diluted as usual, and placed 
in the incubator for one half hour. Even 1 Cc protected against 
one L + dose of the toxin, showing that the protection was due to 
the small amount of platinum present and that the antitoxin had not 
been freed. This action must presumably have been due to some 
catalytic action of the platinum as the concentration was presumably 
too weak to precipitate any of the toxin. These results may sug- 
gest a therapeutic use for platinum compounds. 

From our review of the literature and from our own work at 
present we find no chemical proof that a separation of antitoxin and 
globulin can be made, although Banzhaf 's work and that of Hurwitz 
and Meyer might suggest it. 

Note. — Several of the guinea pigs on which the platinum ex- 
periments were made developed abscesses. 



1 66 Assay Processes. { ^ vJ «gf * rm - 



ASSAY PROCESSES OF THE U. S. P. IX. 
By Philip Asher, Ph.G., M.D. 
(Concluded from page 121.) 
IODOMETRY. 

Iodometric methods are followed in quite a number of U. S. P. 
assays. These may be divided into two classes. First, those in 
which direct addition of n/10 iodine forms with the substance under 
examination a definite compound, and the completion of the reaction 
is shown by the production of a blue color with starch. Secondly, 
those in which either an excess of iodine is added, or iodine is 
liberated by the addition of potassium iodide, and the liberated 
iodine titrated with sodium thiosulphate. 

To class one belong the assays of tartar emetic, arsenic trioxide 
and sodium thiosulphate. 

Antimony and potassium tartrate. .5 Gm. of the salt is dis- 
solved in 30 mils of water, to which are added 25 mils cold saturated 
sodium bicarbonate solution, and starch as an indicator. This is 
immediately titrated with n/10 iodine. 

2KSbO(C 4 H 4 O e ) + I 4 + 8NaHCO s 

Tartar Emetic Iodine Sodium 
Bicarbonate 

= 2NaSbO s + 4NaI + 2KNaC 4 H 4 6 + 8C0 2 + 5H.O. 

Sodium Sodium Potassium 
Meta Antimonate Iodine Sodium Tartrate 

Arsenic trioxide. .2 Gm. arsenic oxide accurately weighed is 
dissolved in 20 mils of hot water by the gradual addition of NaOH 
T. S. This is neutralized with dilute sulphuric acid. To the cooled 
solution, sodium bicarbonate is added and titrated with iodine. 

As 2 O s + H 2 + 4I + 4NaOH = 2H 3 As0 4 + 4NaI. 

Arsenic Trioxide Iodine Sodium Arsenic Sodium 
Hydroxide Acid Iodide 

In the second class are the assays of the ferric salts, crude cal- 
cium sulphide, chromium trioxide, iodine, acetone, sodium bisul- 
phite and arsenate, phenols, thymol iodide, mercury salicylate, and 
mercurous iodide and chloride. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 19 1 7. 



Assay Processes. 



167 



The assay of crude calcium sulphide introduces a new method. 
To the salt, water is added and ammonium chloride solution, and 
allowed to stand for a short time. Then cadmium chloride is 
added, and after agitating, some acetic acid is added and the whole 
heated for 15 minutes. The supernatant liquid is decanted through 
a filter, and the precipitated cadmium sulphide agitated with acetic 
acid, and the precipitate is washed with acetic acid. The precipi- 
tate is returned to the flask, iodine solution added, and HQ. The 
flask is stoppered, and the excess titrated with sodium thiosulphate. 

Acetone. In this assay the acetone is treated with KOH and 
iodine solution, and HC1, and titrated with sodium thiosulphate. 
The iodine converts the acetone into tri-iodoacetone and hydriodic 
acid: 

CH 3 COCH 3 + 1 6 = CI 3 COCH 3 + 3HL 

Acetone Iodine Tri-iodo- Hydriodic 
acetone Acid 

The tri-iodoacetone is then acted upon by the KOH, being converted 
into iodoform and potassium acetate, and the hydriodic acid neu- 
tralized by the KOH : 

CI 3 COCH 3 + 3HI + 4KOH 

Tri-iodo- Hydriodic Potassium 

acetone Acid Hydroxide 

= CHI, + 3KI + H 2 + CH 3 COOK. 

Iodoform Potassium Potassium 
Iodide acetate 

The excess of iodine forms with the alkali potassium iodide and 
iodate, and these are decomposed by the HC1 into iodine. The ex- 
cess of iodine used is determined by sodium thiosulphate. 

Phenols are assayed by adding to them n/10 to bromine solution 
and HQ, allowing to stand 15 minutes, and quickly adding potas- 
sium iodide, care being taken to avoid loss of bromine or iodine by 
keeping the flask tightly stoppered. After standing for some time, 
I mil chloroform is added, shaken, and excess of iodine titrated. 
This assay takes place in three stages. In the first, the bromine 
combines with the phenol, forming tribromphenol : 

C 6 H 5 OH + Br 6 = C e H 2 Br 3 OH + 3HBr. 
Phenol Bromine Tribromphenol Hydrobromic 

Acid 



Assay Processes. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1917. 



The next step is the liberation of iodine by the free bromine: 

2KI + Br 2 = 2KBr + I 2 . 

Potassium Bromine Potassium Iodine 

Iodide Bromide 

In the last stage, the decolorization of the iodine by the sodium thio- 
sulphate : 

2Na 2 S 2 O s + I 2 = 2NaI + Na 2 S 4 6 . 

Sodium Iodine Sodium Sodium 

Thiosulphate Iodide Tetrathionate 

Thymol iodide, C 20 H 24 O 2 I 2 . The assay of this compound differs 
from general methods. The thymol iodide is mixed with sodium 
carbonate and heated in a crucible until carbonized. The residue is 
extracted with water and washed on a filter until an opalescence is 
no longer formed with silver nitrate. The solution is heated and 
treated with potassium permanganate until a faint pink color re- 
mains. Sufficient alcohol is added to remove the pink tint, and the 
solution cooled. Water is added to make 200 mils. It is mixed 
and filtered. To 100 mils of the nitrate, potassium iodide is added, 
and an excess of sulphuric acid, and the liberated iodine is titrated. 
The principles underlying the above are the following: The iodine 
of the thymol is converted into sodium iodide when heated with the 
sodium carbonate. The mixture is converted into sodium iodate by 
the potassium permanganate. The action of the sulphuric upon the 
sodium iodate and potassium iodide results in the formation of 
hydriodic acid and iodic acid, and these reacting upon each other 
liberate iodine. 

Sodium arsenate. A weighed amount of the salt is dissolved 
in water, and heated to 8o° C. HQ is added and potassium iodide. 
After standing for some time, the liberated iodine is titrated. In 
this assay the following reactions take place : The HC1 decomposes 
the salts, forming their respective acids : 

2KI + Na 2 HAs0 4 + 4HCI == 2KCI + 2NaCl + 2HI + H 3 As0 4 . 

Potassium Sodium Hydrochloric Potassium Sodium Hydriodic Arsenic 
Iodide Arsenate Acid Chloride Chloride Acid Acid 

The acids then react upon each other: 

2HI + H 3 As0 4 = I 2 + H 3 As0 3 + H 2 0. 
Hydriodic Arsenic Iodine Arsenous 

Acid Acid Acid 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
April, 19 1 7. ■> 



Assay Processes. 



169 



In the assays of mercurous chloride and iodide, an interesting 
phase is introduced. The salt is mixed in a flask with water, iodine 
solution is added, and potassium iodide, and the mixture allowed to 
stand, with occasional agitation, until complete solution has taken 
place, and the excess of iodine is titrated. With mercurous chloride 
the potassium iodide converts it into mercurous iodide, and it is sub- 
sequently changed into mercuric iodide- by the oxidation of the 
iodine : 

HgCl + KI = Hgl + KC1. 

Mercurous Potassium Mercurous Potassium 

Chloride Iodide Iodide Chloride 

Then 

Hgl + I = Hgl 2 , 

Mercurous Iodine Mercuric Iodide 
Iodide 

which is soluble in potassium iodide. 

In the assay of mercury salicylate, the above method is also fol- 
lowed, but a preliminary reduction to mercurous chloride is made. 
The salt is first treated with sulphuric and nitric acids and digested 
on a water bath until dissolved. This produces mercuric sulphate 
and nitration products of salicylic acid. The solution is diluted with 
water and hydrogen peroxide added to oxidize anything that may 
have a tendency to reduce the mercury to a metallic condition. The 
solution is then treated with hypophosphorous acid, followed by 
sodium chloride. The hypophosphorous acid reduces the salt to the 
mercurous state, and the sodium chloride then converts it into mer- 
curous chloride. The precipitate is thoroughly washed, and the 
precipitate and filter are returned to the flask, and the method is 
then followed as under mercuric chloride. 

POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE METHOD. 
There are quite a number of the official compounds, the strengths 
of which are ascertained by titration with n/10 potassium permanga- 
nate. Some of these are by direct titration or by an excess of the 
permanganate, and titrating such excess with oxalic acid. Others 
are first converted into oxalate by the addition of an excess of 
oxalic acid, and this excess is subsequently titrated with perman- 
ganate, or by conversion of soluble salts into oxalates by means of 
ammonium oxalate. To the first class belong the ferric salts, hy- 
drogen peroxide, sodium nitrite and perborate. In the latter class 



170 



Assay Processes. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1917. 



are calcium carbonate and oxide, solution lead subacetate, lead ace- 
tate and oxide and manganese dioxide. For example, calcium car- 
bonate is first converted into the chloride by HC1. To this, oxalic 
acid is added, and sufficient ammonia water to make alkaline. After 
standing over night, the solution is filtered, washed, acidified with 
sulphuric acid, and the excess of oxalic acid titrated with permanga- 
nate. 

In the assay of potassium chlorate several new features are in- 
troduced. .1 Gm. of potassium chlorate is dissolved in 10 mils of 
water, to which is added 25 mils acidulated ferrous sulphate T.S. 
The solution is placed in a flask with a valve stopper, made by cut- 
ting a longitudinal strip 15 Mm. long in a rubber tube and closing 
the end with a glass rod. This allows for the escape of gases with- 
out permitting the air to return to the flask. The solution is boiled 
10 minutes, cooled, and 10 mils manganese sulphate solution added, 
and the excess of ferrous sulphate titrated with potassium perman- 
ganate. A parallel is run without potassium chlorate. The result 
of the former is subtracted from that of the latter. The reactions 
involved are as follows: 

KCIO3 + 6(FeS0 4 -7H 2 0) + 3H 2 S0 4 

Potassium Ferrous Sulphuric 

Chlorate Sulphate Acid 

= 3 Fe 2 S0 4 ) 3 + KC1 + 45H 2 0. 

Ferric Potassium 
Sulphate Chloride 

2KMn0 4 + io(FeS0 4 -7H 2 0) + 8H 2 S0 4 

Potassium Ferrous Sulphuric 

Permanganate Sulphate Acid 

= 5Fe 2 (S0 4 ) 3 + K 2 S0 4 + 2MnS0 4 + 8H 2 G. 

Ferric Potassium Manganese Sulphate 

Sulphate Sulphate 

The assay of sodium peroxide presents nothing of special mo- 
ment, except the fact that when it is dissolved in water, it decom- 
poses into H 2 2 and sodium metaborate. The assay is conducted 
by adding to the weighed salt dissolved in water, sulphuric acid, 
and titrating with potassium permanganate. 

NaB0 3 -4H 2 + H 2 = H 2 2 + NaB0 2 + 4H 2 0. 

Sodium Perborate Hydrogen Sodium 

Dioxide Metaboratt 

5H 2 2 + 2KMn0 4 + 3H 2 S0 4 

Hydrogen Potassium Sulphuric 
Dioxide Permanganate Acid 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 19 1 7. 



Assay Processes. 



= 20 5 + K 2 S0 4 + MnS0 4 + 8H 2 0. 

Potassium Manganese 
Sulphate Sulphate 

There is only one assay in which potassium dichromate is used, 
saccharated ferrous carbonate. The salt is dissolved in diluted sul- 
phuric acid, and immediately titrated with potassium dichromate, 
potassium f erricyanide being used as an indicator : 

6FeS0 4 + K 2 Cr 2 7 + 7H 2 S0 4 

Ferrous Potassium Sulphuric 

Sulphate Dichromate Acid 

= 3 Fe 2 (SOJ 3 + K 2 S0 4 + Cr 2 (S0 4 ) 3 + 7H 2 0. 

Ferric Sulphate Potassium Chromium 
Sulphate Sulphate 

There are but few of the compounds and preparations of the 
U. S. P. in which potassium sulphocyanide is used : silver nitrate, 
solution arsenic and mercury iodide, mass of mercury, mercury and 
chalk and mercuric oxide. 

In the assay of mercuric oxide the mercuric compound is treated 
with nitric acid, whereby it is converted into mercuric nitrate. This 
is diluted with water, ferric alum added as an indicator, and titrated 
with sulphocyanide of potassium. In this process, the mercury is 
precipitated by the sulphocyanide as the insoluble mercuric sulpho- 
cyanide, the completion of the reaction is shown by the formation of 
a yellowish-red color. 

The mercury of solution of arsenic and mercury iodide, is deter- 
mined by adding to the solution KOH and then formaldehyde, by 
which the mercury is reduced to the metallic condition. The mer- 
cury is washed by decantation, and dissolved by nitric acid. The 
same process is followed as under the oxide. 

In determining mass of mercury, the substance is treated with 
sulphuric and nitric acids whereby mercuric nitrate is formed, and 
the organic matter is destroyed. Potassium permanganate is also 
added until a pink tint is produced, making certain that no organic 
matter remains, and the color discharged by oxalic acid T.S. The 
sulphocyanide method is then followed. 

GASOMETRIC METHODS. 

But three substances of the Pharmacopoeia are assayed gaso- 
metrically : oxygen, amyl nitrite, and spirits ethyl nitrite. The de- 
termination of the two latter is carried out in a nitrometer, supplied 



172 



Assay Processes. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1917. 



with control tubes. The nitrometer is completely filled with sat- 
urated salt solution, care being taken that no air is present. When 
ready the control tube is placed at a low level. The substance to 
be assayed is first prepared by adding to it potassium bicarbonate, 
to remove any acid that may be present. The quantity of material 
to be assayed is added to the nitrometer, followed by potassium 
iodide and sulphuric acid. The whole is shaken, and after the reac- 
tion has ceased, the equilibrium tube is raised to the level of the 
liquid in the nitrometer and the reading taken. Temperature and 
barometric pressure should also be considered. 

C 2 H 5 N0 2 + KI + H 2 S0 4 = C 2 H 5 OH + KHS0 4 + I + NO. 

Ethyl Potassium Sulphuric Alcohol Potassium Iodine Nitric 
Nitrite Iodide Acid Bisulphate Oxide 

The purity of oxygen is determined by placing fifty mils of it 
into an accurately calibrated tube, with 10 mils of alkaline pyro- 
gallol solution; not less than 95 per cent, by volume should be ab- 
sorbed. 

MISCELLANEOUS ASSAYS. 

The refractometer is directed to be used in determining the 
purity of several of the volatile oils. 

The polariscope is used principally in the testing of volatile oils. 
Its use is also directed in the assay of spirits and liniment of 
camphor. 

The assay is conducted by taking the mean of 4 polariscopic 
readings of the spirit in a 200 Mm. tube. Correction to be made 
for temperature. 60 mils of the spirits is also evaporated on a 
water bath, and when the camphor begins to solidify, it is stirred 
until dry. The camphor is then placed on a watch crystal, covered 
with an inverted funnel, and heated by a Bunsen burner to sublime 
the camphor. 2.5 Gm. of the sublimate are dissolved in sufficient 
95 per cent, alcohol to make exactly 25 mils, and the mean of four 
polariscopic readings are taken. The minutes of rotation of the 
spirits divided by the minutes of rotation of control, multiplied by 
10 gives the grams of camphor in a hundred mils of the spirit. 

SAPONIFICATION. 

Saponification methods are used in the U. S. P. in assaying fats, 
resins, wax, and volatile oils. The saponification value indicates 
the number of Mgs. of KOH required to saponify one gram of 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
April, 19 1 7. 



Assay Processes. 



173 



the oil. The acid number for resins implies the number of Mgs, 
KOH required to neutralize one gram of the resin. 

One compound of the U. S. P., liquid petrolatum, contains a 
viscosity test. It is conducted by placing a mark at 2 Cm. below the 
bulb of a 50 mil pipette, filling with distilled water to the upper 
level, and noting the time in seconds required for the level of the 
water to reach the lower mark. The liquid to be tested, is then 
drawn to the upper mark of the pipette, and the time in seconds it 
requires to reach the lower level, divided by the number of seconds 
taken by the water, indicates its viscosity. 

Under each drug is given the percentage of the limit of ash it 
should contain. 

Some of the zinc and mercury compounds are tested electro- 
lytically. 

Amylolytic and proteolytic methods are also included among the 
U. S. P. assay methods; the former for pancreatin, diastase and 
malt ; the latter for pepsin. 

In addition to the chemical methods of assay, several of the 
drugs are directed to be assayed biologically : aconite, digitalis, stro- 
phantus and squills. The biological method is also used in con- 
nection with biological substances now included in the Pharma- 
copoeia : suprarenal gland, dried hypophysis, serums, etc. 

ALKALOID AL ASSAYS. 

The active constituents of a large number of the vegetable drugs 
reside in alkaloids. Time will not permit of detailing these methods. 
With but one or two exceptions the alkaloids are determined vol- 
umetrically. The drug is macerated with a mixture of one volume 
of chloroform and two of ether. After standing a short time am- 
monia water is added, and shaken vigorously every ten minutes for 
two hours. Some water is added, and the whole allowed to settle. 
The liquid is decanted, and an aliquot part filtered through cotton 
into a separator. The alkaloids are extracted by shaking out with 
weak sulphuric acid. The acid washings are made alkaline with 
ammonia water and are extracted by repeated shakings with chloro- 
form. The chloroform solution is evaporated and dissolved in an 
excess of n/10 sulphuric acid, and the excess of acid used is ti- 
trated with w/50 alkali, cochineal being used as an indicator. From 
the number of mils of acid consumed, the per cent, of alkali is de- 
termined by multiplying by its coefficient, and dividing by the 



174 



Assay Processes. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1917- 



amount of drug used. Preparations containing alkaloids are simi- 
larly treated. They are first evaporated to a small bulk and then 
the extraction is carried out as above outlined. 

Cantharides. 

Cantharides is assayed by macerating 15 Gm. of the drug with 
150 mils of a mixture of 2 volumes of benzene and 1 volume of 
benzine to which has been added 2 mils of HQ. It is allowed to 
stand 10 hours then warmed to 40 C. and maintained at this tem- 
perature and frequently agitated for three hours and cooled. 100 
mils are decanted and evaporated to about 5 mils. To the evap- 
orated solution are added 5 mils of chloroform and set aside. Af- 
ter the solvent has evaporated an equal volume of 10 mils of de- 
hydrated alcohol and benzine saturated with cantharidin, are added 
to the crystals and allowed to stand 15 minutes. The liquid is de- 
canted through a pellet of cotton and the crystals washed with suc- 
cessive portions of the saturated cantharidin solution to remove fat 
and coloring matter and the washings passed through the cotton. 
The cotton is then washed with warm chloroform and the washings 
added to the beaker containing the crystals and the solvent evapo- 
rated by a blast of air and the crystals are dried at 6o° C. and 
weighed. The official requirement is that cantharides should con- 
tain not less than .6 per cent, of cantharidin. 

Assays Needed. 

The revisers of the U. S. P. have performed an excellent piece 
of work, but the assays for a large number of preparations are just 
as essential as the assays of the substances from which they are 
made, and these should have been included. While it is true that 
the articles entering into the composition of these preparations may 
be up to the official requirements, what assurance is there that the 
preparations made therefrom are of standard strength? While 
these standards will hold in check the manufacturers of chemicals 
and the jobbers selling the official drugs, etc., there is nothing in 
the official requirements to hold a pharmacist who may attempt to 
make his preparations deficient in strength. 

The following preparations should have included an assay 
method: Emulsions of asafcetida and cod liver oil; especially a test 
for the former to show that it had not been prepared from the tinc- 
ture. The glycerites, boroglycerite and tannin ; the spirits should 



^ 'IpS' r 9 h i a 7 rm ' ) Technical Education and Metrics. 175 

have an assay method, particularly to show the amount of the vola- 
tile oils present. Also the following: Solution cresol compound, 
liniments of Belladonna and chloroform; ointments of belladonna, 
tannic acid, boracic acid, mercury, ammoniated mercury, mercury 
nitrate, iodine, iodoform, stramonium, sulphur and zinc oxide ; mer- 
cury oleate; pulv, ipecac and opium and cerate cantharides. 



TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND METRICS. 
By H. V. Arny, Ph.D. 

It is a great privilege to bring to the National Association of 
Manufacturers of Medicinal Products the greetings of the American 
Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties. 

This organization, over which I had the honor of presiding last 
year, consisting of 42 of the best schools of pharmacy in this country, 
was organized in 1900 for the purpose of promoting the cause of 
pharmaceutical education. It has performed its work well in the 
past. It has a greater mission for the future, and this mission is of 
personal interest to every member of the Association of Manufac- 
turers. 

In the past much of our work has been the very important task 
of fitting young men for retail pharmacy in a course of instruction 
covering two years. This always has been and always will be a 
vital function of the College of Pharmacy. Of scarcely less im- 
portance, however, is the training of young men for technical posi- 
tions in your manufacturing plants in a course covering four years. 
Are we, the colleges of the conferences, doing our duty to you in 
this direction? If we are not, you practical and energetic business 
men should cooperate with us in making courses in technical phar- 
macy what they should be. 

There are three ways in which the pharmaceutical industries 
should cooperate with the colleges in making these four year tech- 
nical courses a success. 

Two of the three ways are already in vogue to a certain extent. 
These are: (a) Permitting experts from your plants to give one or 
more special lectures in the courses on chemical technology given in 
our colleges; (b) permitting our technical students to visit your 
plants. 



176 



Technical Education and Metrics. { Am. jour. Pharm. 

<- April, 19 17. 



The third and most important type of cooperation is one, 
which, as explained at some length by the writer in a special article 
on the subject, is based on the establishment of industrial fellowships 
in pharmacy along the lines instituted by the late Robert Kennedy 
Duncan and now seen in its fulness at the Mellon Institute at Pitts- 
burgh. 

Reduced to its simplest terms, the idea is this : You manufac- 
turers turn to the colleges for young men to break in for service 
your plants ; you manufacturers have problems requiring research 
that some of us teachers might aid you solve. Why would it not be 
feasible to turn such problems over to those of our colleges of phar- 
macy providing suitable technical courses ? Let the proposition take 
the shape of an industrial fellowship; that is, let the teacher select 
some likely graduate to carry out the laboratory work under his su- 
pervision. The expense of the research to be borne by the interested 
manufacturer. Such an Industrial Fellowship would perform the 
triple service of (a) encouraging research, (b) trying out for you 
a likely employee without wasting the time of your own force in the 
experiment, (c) training the aforesaid likely employee in the very lines 
in that he would be of most service to you. If Duncan's industrial 
fellowship idea has proven of distinct value in the chemical industry, 
there is no reason why the same idea could not be applied with great 
success in a true cooperation between the Association of Manufac- 
turers and the Colleges. 

I am present with you this morning not merely to convey the 
greetings of the Conferences of Faculties, but also as a representa- 
tive of the newly organized American Metric Association. This 
Association was formed on December 27, last, and the best proof of 
your interest was shown in the appointment by your executive board 
of Mr. George Simon to represent the Association of Manufacturers 
on that occasion. Nor do I need to take much of your time in tell- 
ing you the advantages of the metric system. From the days when 
Dr. Squibb marketed his pharmaceutical products in metric pack- 
ages, to the present time, when many of you prepare metric price 
lists for export business, manufacturing pharmacy has been far- 
sighted enough to see that the sooner we become a metric country 
the better. 

At this time I wish to thank the representatives of the Associa- 
tion of Manufacturers in the Drug Trade Conference for their coop- 
eration in securing the endorsement of the new A. M. A. by that 
body. 



Am. jour, pharm. j Information on Detained 

April, 1917- J J 



177 



I wish also to mention how splendidly pharmacy was represented 
at the organization meeting of our metric association : a represen- 
tation so appreciated by the others that two druggists — Dr. Wm. J. 
Schieffelin and the speaker — were placed on the list of those selected 
to conduct the affairs of the Association. The list of officers should 
be mentioned to show the type of business men now interested in 
metrics. They are : President, George F. Kunz of New York, gem 
expert and chairman of the metric committee of the American Insti- 
tute of Mining Engineers. First Vice-President, Wm. Jay S chief - 
felin, of New York, wholesale druggist and member of the metric 
committee of the N. W. D. A. Second Vice-President, Emil P. 
Albrecht, secretary of the Philadelphia Bourse. Third Vice-Presi- 
dent, Orrin E. Stanley, of Portland, Oregon, civil engineer and secre- 
tary of the Society for the Promotion of the Metric System. Sec- 
retary, Howard Richards, Jr., of New York, electrical engineer and 
founder of the Metric Association of China. Treasurer, Arthur P. 
Williams, of New York, wholesale grocer and chairman of the trade 
committee of the National Wholesale Grocers Association. Execu- 
tive Committee, H. V. Amy, New York, chemist; F. R. Drake, 
Easton, Pa., wholesale grocer ; 5. L. Stratton, Bureau of Standards, 
Washington, D. C. ; W. P. Wilson, director Phil. Commercial Mu- 
seum; A. E. Kennelly, Cambridge, Mass., electrical engineer. At 
present, the only paid official is the assistant secretary, a young man, 
doing our stenographic work. But we hope to soon be in a position 
to employ an executive secretary for field work. 

Noteworthy is the interest of the Wholesale Grocers and the 
Canners in the Metric Association. Their interest is not purely 
academic as their use of metric quantities on the " net weight " state- 
ments on their labels clearly show. 

As to membership the Association provides three classes : 

1. Individual members, with dues of not less than $2 a year. 

2. Firms, with dues of not less than $5 a year. 

3. Associations, with dues of not less than $10 a year. 

Each member of the Association is permitted five (5) delegates at 
our annual convention. 

I dare to express the hope that each person in this room will be- 
come an individual member, and that many of you will see that your 
firms take out membership also. 

As to the Association of Manufacturers itself, the fact that this 
body had representation at the organization meeting of the Metric 



iyS Information on Detained Imports. { Am '_lp^\'f 9 h ^ m ' 

Association leads the officers of that body to count upon you as a 
part of us; and I hope that at this meeting your organization may 
see fit to become a member of the Metric Association. We want 
you with us. We have placed organization membership at a low 
figure ($10 per annum) to show that we primarily wish the moral 
support of friendly organizations. In passing, I might point out 
that some organizations — The National Wholesale Grocers Associa- 
tion, and the Philadelphia Bourse, for instance, have gone further 
than mere membership, each of these bodies giving us a $50 dona- 
tion. 

And now I think I hear some of you saying : " But what's behind 
the whole thing? " In answer I will say that the organization of the 
Metric Association is a tangible expression of the opinion of prac- 
tical men — engineers, chemists, grocers, druggists, merchants and a 
sprinkling of those "theoretical fellers," the teachers — that now is 
the psychological moment to throw over the archaic standards with 
which we have been wrestling all these years and to turn to the inter- 
national language of commerce, The Metric System. We, who ap- 
preciate the value of the metric system, must educate our business 
friends, who do not yet understand its time-saving and its trade- 
getting qualities ; and when these qualities are understood the tran- 
sition from the old units to the new will be easily accomplished. 

The officers of the Metric Association are a unit in the opinion 
that metric education must precede metric legislation. But they 
also believe that their metric propaganda plus the international calls 
of to-day will surely result in bringing all practical Americans to a 
realization of the fact that it is high time for this country of ours to 
throw off the shackles of an Elizabethan set of standards and to add 
our 110,000,000 people to the 437,000,000 already using the metric 
system. 



PUBLICATION OF INFORMATION ON DETAINED 
IMPORTS OF FOOD AND DRUGS AT PORTS 
OF ENTRY. 

The Bureau of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture, gave a 
public hearing in the building of the Bureau of Chemistry at Wash- 
ington, D. C, on Tuesday, March 20, 1917, at 10 a.m., to consider 
the question of publishing data on the detention of food and drugs 
offered for import at ports of entry. Dr. Carl L. Alsberg presided. 



Am Apdi," f 9 h i a 7 rm ' ) Production of Lemon-Grass Oil. l79 

What the department wished particularly to ascertain was the 
opinion of the trade upon the desirability of publishing such in- 
formation, and the form of such publication, and also, as to whether 
or not such publication would injure a consignee importing goods 
from abroad who has had no opportunity of inspecting the same 
prior to their arrival and detention at ports of entry. 

Representatives were present from the National Wholesale 
Druggists Association, the Philadelphia Drug Exchange, the Drug 
Trade Section of the New York Board of Trade and Transporta- 
tion, the National Association of Retail Druggists, and a number of 
national food organizations. Briefs from various trade bodies were 
filed, also. 

After an extended discussion of the subject from many angles, 
the consensus of opinion expressed seemed to be : 

(i) That it was undesirable to publish information relative to 
detained shipments unless the shipments gave evidence of intentional 
and wilful violations of the law, when the facts should be made 
public, (2) that the Bureau of Chemistry should cooperate with a 
Committee on Standards to be named by the various national food 
and drug interests with the view of framing tentative standards and 
tests for imported food and drugs. It was shown that there was 
precedent for such cooperation in Government work, e. g., Seed De- 
partment of Bureau of Plant Industry, (3) that all the methods and 
tests used by the Bureau of Chemistry should be made public so that 
importers could know in advance of ordering goods what standards 
to specify, (4) that the sampling and methods of examination of 
drugs should be made uniform at all the ports of entry, (5) that the 
Bureau of Chemistry cooperate with the food and drug trade in 
securing an amendment of the Federal Food and Drugs Act giving 
the 'importers the right of appeal to a court, preferably the Board 
of General Appraisers. 

If practicable standards are framed and proper publicity is given 
them so that the foreign exporter and the domestic importer shall 
have full knowledge of the same, it was felt that better conditions 
would result and that there would be little or no necessity for pub- 
lishing information relative to detained shipments. 

Dr. Carl Alsberg, chief of the Bureau of Chemistry, would not, of 
course, commit himself as to the attitude of his department on these 
suggestions, but stated that he would give them careful considera- 
tion, and that he wanted the assistance and cooperation of the trade 



180 Production of Lemon-Grass Oil. { Am '2^\fgi7 Tm 



represented by the food and drug industries. He will decide later 
what can be done. 

J. W. England. 



POSSIBILITY OF THE COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION OF 
LEMON-GRASS OIL IN THE UNITED STATES. 1 

By S. C. Hood, Scientific Assistant, Drug-Plant and Poisonous-Plant 

Investigations. 

Lemon-grass oil is the volatile oil distilled from the plant known 
botanically as Cymbopogon citratus DC. and commonly called lemon 
grass. It is lemon yellow to brownish in color, with a strong odor 
resembling that of the lemon verbena, and for many years has oc- 
cupied a prominent place in the perfume industry. The value of 
this oil depends almost entirely upon its content of citral, which is 
used in the manufacture of ionone, or artificial violet. Considerable 
use is also found for the oil in the soap industry. 

The principal regions where lemon-grass oil is produced are the 
Travancore Province and Madras Presidency of India and the island 
of Ceylon. Small quantities are regularly produced in other parts 
of the East Indies, and from time to time in many other parts of 
the world. 

Exact figures are not available regarding the consumption of 
lemon-grass oil in the United States, but estimates place it at about 
100,000 pounds annually. 

For the past eight years the Bureau of Plant Industry has been 
conducting experiments in the growing of lemon grass in central 
Florida, and during the course of the experiments field tests have 
been made with 13 varieties secured from eight different parts of 
the world. 

SOIL AND CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS OF LEMON GRASS. 

The best results with lemon grass have been obtained on well- 
drained sandy loam, but this plant also does well on light sand, such 
as the high pine lands of the Florida peninsula. Newly cleared sandy 
pine land without the previous application of lime has also given 
good results. Soil which is poorly drained or underlain by hardpan 

1 Reprinted from Bulletin No. 442, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture. 



Am. jour. phmm. | Production of Lemon-Grass Oil. 181 

April, 1917. > 1 AUA 

within 3 feet of the surface should not be planted to lemon grass. 
Field tests have not been made on heavy clay lands, but the success- 
ful cultivation of the crop on that type of soil is regarded as 
doubtful. 

The climatic requirements of lemon grass are subtropical. A 
winter temperature of 28 F. has killed the plants to the ground, 
while 24 has killed the roots. However, the crop may be planted 
with safety where the temperature does not fall below 25 F., and 
under certain conditions even a slightly lower temperature may not 
cause serious damage. 

PROPAGATION. 

Lemon grass does not produce seed in this country, although 
occasionally an abortive flower spike may be found on old, neglected 
plants. Propagation, therefore, is effected by division of the clumps. 
From each clump 25 to 50 divisions may be separated easily by 
tearing them off from the base of the mature plant. This should be 
accomplished by a sidewise pull, so that a few root fibers will be 
retained on each division. In case the old plants are to remain in 
their places the required number of divisions can be secured by 
pulling them off from the outer edge of the old clump. With a 
little practice these may be removed without loss of root fibers. 

Before planting, the tops of the divisions should be cut back to 
about 3 inches. The plants should be set in the early spring in rows 
3 feet apart and about 18 inches apart in the row. This work should 
be done just after a rain or at a time when the soil is sufficiently 
moist not to require artificial watering. 

FERTILIZERS AND CULTIVATION. 

The results obtained from experimental fertilizer plats seem to 
indicate that on the sandy Florida soils rather more potash is re- 
quired by lemon grass than by most grasses. Analysis shows a 
considerable variation in the percentage of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, 
and potash present in the plants of the different varieties tested. 
The results secured with one variety, which may be taken as a type, 
show that 5 tons of lemon grass contain 20.32 pounds of nitrogen, 
33.20 pounds of potash, and 18.75 pounds of phosphoric acid. In 
the fertilizer tests a better growth was secured when the potash was 
applied in the form of the sulphate, and the results were more satis- 
factory when part of the nitrogen was applied in organic form. In 
the tests which have been made a fertilizer having 4 per cent. 



182 



Production of Lemon-Grass Oil. { Am. jour, pharm. 

J 1 April, 1917. 



nitrogen, 5 per cent, potash, and 8 per cent, phosphoric acid, applied 
at the rate of 600 pounds to the acre, has given the best results with 
the least cost. On soils of higher fertility a smaller quantity could 
be used. Although the use of larger quantities of fertilizers will 
give a heavier growth, it is by no means certain that the additional 
cost will be met by the increase in the crop. 

As soon as the plants have become well established in the field 
the fertilizer should be given as a side application and well worked in 
at the first cultivation. Cultivation should be frequent throughout 
the spring, to conserve the soil moisture, and throughout the summer 
all weeds should be kept down, as a few ill-smelling weeds in the 
crop at harvest time will greatly injure the odor of the oil. After 
the first year, only slight cultivation is needed, since after it is well 
established lemon grass tends to retard weed growth. 

HARVESTING. 

The first cutting should be made four or five months after 
planting, at which time the plants should be from 2.y 2 to 3 feet high 
and the bunches from 8 to 10 inches in diameter. Although the 
plants will continue to grow throughout the summer, it has been 
found that after a certain size has been reached the increase in 
weight is less rapid ; hence, it is more profitable to harvest the crop 
at the time stated and allow a new growth to develop. In the early 
fall of the first year a second cutting can be secured. After the first 
year the growth in the spring is more rapid and three harvests a 
year can be obtained. Harvesting can be accomplished by the use 
of a mowing machine so adjusted as to cut the plants about 8 inches 
above the ground. The cut material can be raked up with a horse- 
rake run crosswise of the rows. 

In order to determine the proper stage and height at which the 
plants should be cut to produce the best yield and quality of oil, a 
number of tests were made, covering several years. In 1908 the 
plants were cut when they were 2 feet high. They were then tied 
in bundles, the bundles cut into three 8-inch lengths, and each portion 
distilled separately. The yield of oil obtained from each portion, 
together with the citral content of the oils, is shown in Table I. 

From these results, which are borne out by additional data ob- 
tained in succeeding years, the conclusion is evident that close cutting 
will not be profitable, because of the low oil content in the lower 
portion of the plant. 



Am April",' 1^7™' ? Production of Lemon-Grass Oil. ig^ 



Table I. 

Yield and Citral Content of Lemon-grass Oils Distilled from Plants 2 Feet 

High. 

Citral Content of 
Yield of Oil. the Oil.* 

Upper third 0.46 70 

Middle third . .. .24 78 

Lowest third 10 82 



For the purpose of determining whether the hauling cost could 
be reduced by drying the plants before taking them to the still, the 
following test was made : A quantity of fresh plants was collected, 
well mixed, and divided into three portions. The first portion was 
distilled green, the second portion was exposed to the sun for several 
hours until the blades were nearly dry, and the third portion was 
dried in a loft for several hours at no° F. The two dried portions 
were then distilled separately and the yield of oil calculated on the 
original green weight of the material. The results secured, together 
with the citral content of the oils, are given in Table II. 

These results show that there was considerable loss of oil by 



Table II. 

Yield and Citral Content of Lemon-grass Oils Distilled from Green and from 

Dried Plants. 



Condition of Material. 


Weight of 
Material 
(Green). 


Weight of 
Material 
(Dried). 


Yield of Oil 
(Based on Green 
Weight of 
Material). 


Citral Content 
of the Oil. 




Pounds. 


Pounds. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


Fresh 


78.1 




0-37 


78 




93-1 


58.3 


•31 


78 




100.3 


62.7 


•32 


79 



drying the plants. In the case of the sun-dried plants the loss on a 
4-ton crop would be 4.8 pounds of oil, or, at the prices prevailing for 
191 5, a loss of $3.84, which would more than pay for the extra 
hauling charge. Drying the plants seems to have no effect on the 
citral content of the oil, but on storing it was found that the solubility 
of the oil in alcohol diminished more rapidly in the oils from the 
dried material. 

2 The citral content throughout all the experiments was determined by the 
sodium-sulphite method. 



Production of Lemon-Grass Oil. { Am. jour, pharm. 

J 1 April, 1917. 



DISTILLATION. 

The apparatus required for the distillation of lemon-grass oil 
does not differ from that in general use for the distillation of other 
volatile oils. Before distilling the plants it has been found advis- 
able to run them through a fodder cutter, in order to permit closer 
packing in the retort. From the data at hand it is estimated that if 
the plants are cut into 2-inch lengths a retort will hold 100 pounds of 
material for every 6 cubic feet of space, but if the plants are put in 
whole the quantity which the retort can hold will be somewhat less. 
The closer packing, however, in no way facilitates distillation. 

In a retort having a capacity of 30 cubic feet a charge of 3,000 
pounds can be distilled in 2 to 2 J / 2 hours by the steam which may be 
readily generated in a small farm boiler, and by the use of a larger 
volume of steam the time can be much reduced. 

In this connection it is interesting to note that distillation under 
20 pounds pressure in the retort increased the yield of oil, but gave 
an oil of very dark color and with lower citral content. 

After the oil has been distilled it should be freed from water so 
far as possible in a separatory funnel, then dried by shaking with 
anhydrous calcium chlorid, and filtered. It should be stored in well- 
filled air-tight containers in as cold a place as possible until ready 
to be shipped to market. The shipping can be done in new and 
clean tin cans without injury to the product. 

In order to determine whether any appreciable quantity of oil 
would be lost by discarding the distilled water coming over with the 
oil, a series of tests was made in 191 5. The water from a number 
of charges of several pounds each was retained and each lot sepa- 
rately redistilled. In the apparatus used in the experiments about 1 
gallon of water was secured for each 22 pounds of herb in the 
charge. The average of the results secured by the redistillation of 
this water showed that 1.2 gram of oil was dissolved in each gallon 
of water, a quantity too small to make its recovery profitable. Ex- 
amination of this recovered oil showed its characteristics to be prac- 
tically identical with the oil distilled directly from the herb. 

VARIETIES. 

During the many years that lemon grass has been cultivated a 
great variety of forms of the plant has been developed. Some years 
ago an attempt was made to divide the old species into two separate 
species, basing the descriptions partially on the character of the oil 



Am. jour. Pharm. ) Production of Lemon-Grass Oil. 

April, 1917. } J 



secured from the two sorts. In the essential-oil trade it long has 
been recognized that there is a wide difference in the characteristics 
of lemon-grass oils from different regions. It is not the purpose 
of this paper, however, to discuss any questions of systematic rela- 
tionship or nomenclature of the plant, but since a wide difference 
has been found in the commercial value of the strains under experi- 
mental cultivation, a brief discussion of these will be of interest to 
the prospective grower. 

During the course of the experiments, plants were obtained from 
a number of sources, and altogether 13 different strains have been 
tested. Following are the sources of the various strains : 

1. Secured from a nursery in Florida. The original stock was from 

Havana. 

2. A local form sold in the Florida nursery trade. 

3. Isle of Pines. 

4. Porto Rico. 

5. Cochin China. 

6. Ceylon. 

7. Mexico. 

8. India. 

9. India. 

10, 11, and 12. Origin unknown. 
13. Ceylon. 

These 13 strains fall into the following classes as regards growth 
characteristics : 

(1) The West Indian type, represented by Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4. The 
plants are 2 l / 2 to 3 feet high, with lax, drooping leaves and of light color. 

(2) The East Indian type, represented by Nos. 5, 8, and 9. The plants 
are 3^ to 4 feet high and erect. The leaves are rather erect and more 
scabrous than the West Indian form. 

(3) The Mexican form, represented by No. 7. This is a weak form, 
very drooping in habit, with lax leaves and very light in color. 

No. 6 has the typical West Indian appearance, but is markedly 
different in oil yield. No. 13 has the typical East Indian appearance, 
except the color, which is very light, almost yellowish. Nos. 10, 11, 
and 12 are of the approved East Indian type. 

Table III shows the variations in the yield of oil and the citral 
content of the oil from these various types for the season of 191 5. 

It has been found year by year that there is considerable varia- 
tion in both the yield of oil and the citral content, yet the figures 
given in Table III may be taken as representative of the varieties 



i86 



Production of Lemon-Grass Oil. { Am. jour, pharm. 

J ^ April, 19 1 7. 



mentioned. It will be noted that the Ceylon forms, Nos. 6 and 13, 
are very low in oil yield, and the same is true of No. 8, from India. 

Both the yield of oil and the citral content of the oil have been 
found to be affected to a considerable degree by the type of soil on 

Table III. 

Yield and Citral Content of Lemon-grass Oils Distilled from the Various 
Plants under Cultivation in 1915. 



Variety. 



Yield of 
Oil. 


Citral Con- 
tent of the 
Oil. 


Variety. 


Yield of 
Oil. 


Citral Con- 
tent of the 
Oil. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 






Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


0.24 


80 


No. 


9 


0.20 


76 


.27 


70 


No. 




•23 


80 


.16 


73 


No. 


11 


.28 


80 


.23 


72 


No. 


12 


.29 


81 


•15 


79 


No. 


13 


.12 


85 



which the plants are grown. Therefore, before selecting a variety 
for commercial planting, tests should be made to determine which 
variety will give the highest yield of oil per acre and the highest 
citral content on the land to be used. The vigor of the plants should 
also be considered, since there seems to be a difference in soil re- 
quirements among the varieties tested. 

FACTORS AFFECTING THE YIELD OF LEMON-GRASS OIL. 

Soil Conditions. — In order to determine the effect of soil condi- 
tions on the yield of lemon-grass oil, tests were made in 1908 with 
the West Indian variety, No. 1, on soils containing various degrees 
of moisture. On light sandy soil of the high hammock type the 
yield of oil was 0.31 per cent, and on moinst bottom land 0.27 per 
cent. Another test on sandy high pine land in a different location 
gave an oil yield of 0.35 per cent., and on moist land near the lake 
0.28 per cent. Further tests with this variety under other conditions 
of soil moisture gave results which were also much in favor of the 
sandier and better drained land. In 191 5 the plat devoted to the 
Ceylon variety, No. 6, showed a higher yield of oil from the plants 
grown on the high, well-drained, sandy soil than from the part of the 
plat which contained slightly more moisture, 0.16 per cent, being 
obtained from the former and only 0.11 per cent, from the latter. 
Similar results were secured in 191 4 with varieties Nos. 5, 8 and 9. 

The evidence thus far available indicates that for all the forms 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 19 1 7. 



} Production of Lemon-Grass Oil. 



187 



of lemon grass tested, a heavy growth of herb with high oil content 
is to be expected on light, well-drained soil of the high pine type. 

Time of Harvest. — Since lemon grass is a perennial crop and two 
or three cuttings can be made each year, it is of interest to note the 
difference in yield of oil secured from the plants at each harvest. In 
Table IV are given the results obtained from each of two harvests 
for various years. 

Table IV. 

Yield of Lemon-grass Oil Distilled from Plants Harvested at Two Different 

Times of the Year. 



Year and Plants 



Harvested. 


First 


Second 




Harvest. 


Harvest. 


1908. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 




31 


0-33 




.40 


.48 


Third plat 


.20 


•35 


1912. 






No. 1 


.40 


.36 


No. 8 


.28 


.46 


1914. 






No. 1 


•37 


• 50 


No. 5 


•34 


•35 


No. 6 


.16 


.20 



Yield of Oil 



Year and Plants 
Harvested. 



1914 — Continued 

No. 8 

No. 9 

I9I5- 

No. 1 

No. 8 

No. 9 

No. 10 

No. 11 

No. 12 

No. 13 



Yield of Oil. 



First Second 
Harvest. Harvest. 



Per Cent. 
0.12 
.24 

.27 
.11 
.19 
•23 
.28 
.29 
.12 



Per Cent 
0.38 
.36 

.26 
.11 
.17 
•47 
.40 

•31 
.27 



These results show that in general the percentage of oil is higher 
in the second cutting. In the first year of planting, however, the 
quantity of herb obtained in the second cutting is much less than 
that from the first cutting ; consequently, the acre yield of oil in the 
first year would be greater from the first cutting rather than from 
the second. 



FACTORS AFFECTING THE CITRAL CONTENT OF LEMON- 
GRASS OIL. 

Closeness of Cutting the Plants. — Experiments conducted with 
variety No. 1, grown on very light sandy soil, showed that the citral 
content was highest in the part of the plant nearest the ground. 
Large plants divided into three portions yielded, on distillation, oil 
with citral content as follows : Upper portion, 70 per cent. ; middle 
portion, 78 per cent. ; and lowest portion, 82 per cent. A similar 
test made with variety No. 5 divided into only two portions yielded 
oil with citral content in favor of the lower portion, as follows : 



188 



Production of Lemon-Grass Oil. { Am '2££h ?w. m ' 



Upper portion, 74 per cent. ; lower portion, 76 per cent. These 
results show that the closest cutting which gives a profitable yield 
of oil also produces a better quality of oil. 

Soil Moisture. — Plants of variety No. 1, grown on soils having 
varying degrees of moisture, yielded oil with citral content as 
follows : On dry sandy soil, 75 per cent, citral ; on slightly moist 
sandy loam, 68 per cent. ; and on moist loam near the lake, 66 per 
cent. Further tests with other varieties on different types of soil 
have given similar results. This would indicate that high citral 
content can be secured only from plants grown on very well drained 
soil. 

Time of Harvest. — Although the citral content of the oil does 
not appear to be greatly affected by the time of harvest, the results 
indicate that of the two harvests each year the oil distilled from 
plants of the first harvest contains the greater quantity of citral. 
Data covering a number of years are given in Table V. 



Table V. 

Citral Content of Lemon-grass Oil Distilled from Plants Harvested at Two 
Different Times of the Year. 



Citral Content of Oil. 



First 
Harvest. 



Per Cent. 
72 
74 
75 

76 
78 

78 
78 
77 



Second 
Harvest. 



Per Cent. 

74 
72 
72 

78 
76 



76 
79 



Year and Plants 
Harvested. 



1914 — Continued 

No. 8 

No. 9 

1915. 

No. 5 

No. 6 

No. 8 

No. 9 

No. 10 

No. 11 

No. 12 

No. 13 



Citral Content of Oil. 



First 
Harvest. 



Per Cent. 
81 
75 

70 
73 
77 
78 
80 
80 
81 
85 



SOLUBILITY OF LEMON-GRASS OIL IN ALCOHOL. 

For many years it was considered that good lemon-grass oil 
should be soluble in clear solution in three volumes of 70 per cent, 
alcohol, and this was the test applied before the method of citral 
determination was in general use. It served a useful purpose, how- 
ever, inasmuch as certain adulterations which had become quite 



Am. jour, pharm. \ Production of Lemon-Grass Oil. 

April, 1917. J J 



189 



general could thus be detected, but at the present time, when the 
valuation of the oil is entirely on the basis of the citral content, it 
is difficult to understand the reason for the continued use of the 
solubility test. It has been shown repeatedly that in many parts of 
the world pure lemon-grass oil does not pass the solubility test, 
especially after it has been stored for several months. This has 
been true of most of the samples of the oils produced in the Western 
Hemisphere, so that West Indian lemon-grass oil has come to be a 
synonym for insoluble oil. This discrimination has kept out of the 
market many West Indian oils of very high citral content. 

There has been much discussion regarding the factors which 
affect the solubility of the oil, it having been contended that the 
length of time of distillation is the controlling factor. In order to 
secure data upon this point the following tests were made: In 1914, 
158 pounds of the freshly cut plants were distilled with steam and 
the oil drawn off in fractions at intervals of 45 and 60 minutes, re- 
spectively. The first fraction represented a yield of oil of 0.28 per 
cent., the citral content of the oil being 80 per cent., while the second 
fraction represented a yield of 0.04 per cent, of oil, with a citral 
content of 85 per cent. When first distilled the first fraction gave 
a slightly cloudy solution with three volumes of 70 per cent, alcohol, 
but after two months it gave a very cloudy solution in all volumes 
of 70 per cent, alcohol. The second fraction was soluble with clear 
solution in three volumes of 70 per cent, alcohol, showing no sign 



Table VI. 

Citral Content and Solubility in 70 Per Cent. Alcohol of Various Fractions 

of Lemon-grass Oil. 



Fractions. 


Yield of 
Oil. 


Citral 
Content of 
Oil. 


Solubility in 70 Per^Cent Alcohol. 




Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 




First 15 minutes . . . 


0.21 


39 


Soluble with very cloudy solution in two 








volumes and over. 


15 to 30 minutes. . . 


.21 


74 


Soluble in clear solution in two volumes 








and over. 


30 to 50 minutes. . . 


•05 


82 


Do. 


50 to 90 minutes. . . 


.01 


80 


Do. 



of change after two months. Another sample of 203 pounds of the 
fresh plants distilled with steam and the oil drawn off in fractions 
at intervals of 15, 30, 50, and 90 minutes, respectively, gave the 
results shown in Table VI. 



iqo Production of Lemon-Grass Oil. { Am. jour. Pharm. 

x y J <- April, 1917. 

From the results shown in Table VI it is evident that complete 
extraction of the oil gives a product of greater solubility and higher 
citral content. 

The oils produced in Florida from all varieties of the plant have 
passed the solubility test when first distilled, but after storing for 
three months all have become insoluble. At the present time there 
is a decided tendency to disregard the solubility test, and no difficulty 
has been encountered in selling the Florida oils at a good price when 
the citral content was 70 per cent, or more. 

COMMERCIAL POSSIBILITIES. 

The consumption of lemon-grass oil in the United States for the 
manufacture of ionone and for perfumery purposes is continually 
increasing, and it is believed that the demand is sufficient to warrant 
an attempt to grow the plant for the commercial production of the 
oil in such parts of the country as possess the proper climatic re- 
quirements. Tests on acre plats have been made to determine the 
cost of production, the best methods of distilling the oil, and the 
quality of the product. Samples of the oil produced have been 
sold on the market at the prices prevailing for the better grades of 
imported oil, and it seems possible to produce the oil commercially 
at a fair profit. 

From the experiments made thus far the following estimates are 
given of the cost of production and the returns that may be expected 
for this crop under average conditions : 



Expenditures. 

First year (per acre) : 

Preparing the land $ 3.00 

Planting 2.00 

Fertilizers 8.00 

Cultivation 2.00 

Harvesting and distilling ' 5°0 

Total expenditures, first year 20.00 



Succeeding years (per acre) : 

Cultivation $ 1.00 

Fertilizers 8.00 

Harvesting and distilling 8.00 

Total expenditures, second year and succeeding years . . 17.00 



Am Aprif," ? 9 h i7 m ' ) The Philadelphia Drug Exchange. I9I 

Returns. 

First year : 25 pounds of oil per acre, at 80 cents $20.00 

Succeeding years : 35 pounds of oil per acre, at 80 cents 28.00 

In these statements no allowance is made for such charges as 
taxes, insurance, interest, or depreciation of outfit. It is doubtful 
whether the production of lemon-grass oil would be profitable if all 
overhead charges were placed against this crop alone, since the dis- 
tilling plant would be in use only a few weeks in a year. However, 
if grown in connection with other volatile-oil plants, so that a long 
distilling season would be secured, it is believed that this crop will 
yield returns comparing favorably with other crops grown on the 
same type of land. 



THE PHILADELPHIA DRUG EXCHANGE. 

The annual meeting of the Philadelphia Drug Exchange was 
held on Tuesday, January 23, 191 7, in its rooms in the Bourse 
Building and the work of the year reviewed. Mr. Clayton F. Shoe- 
maker, Chairman of the Committee on Legislation, presented on 
behalf of the Board of Directors, the fifty-sixth annual report de- 
tailing the general conditions of business with special reference to 
the interests of the drug and chemical trade and the rapid growth in 
exports by reason of war conditions. Treasurer Anthony M. Hance 
presented the financial report for the year. 

The following officers were elected for 1917: President, John 
Fergusson ; Vice-President, Harry B. French ; Secretary, Joseph 
W. England; Treasurer, Anthony M. Hance; Directors: Charles 
E. Hires, A. Robinson Mcllvaine, Dr. Adolph W. Miller, Harry K. 
Mulford, Adam Pfromm, Clayton F. Shoemaker, Richard M. Shoe- 
maker and Walter V. Smith, 

Addresses were made by Mr. Adam Pfromm, Mr. Walter V. 
Smith and Mr. Geo. E. Bartol, President of the Philadelphia Bourse. 
Mr. Alexander C. Ferguson, formerly of Fergusson Bros., who has 
been actively identified with the drug brokerage and commission busi- 
ness of Philadelphia for more than fifty years, and for a number of 
years was Secretary of the Drug Exchange, made an address re- 
plete with interesting incidents of the development of the Exchange 
since its organization in 1861. By recent action, the Board of Di- 
rectors decided against a propaganda for the adoption of the metric 



192 



Obituary— Prof. C. Lewis Diehl. { Am -^f; f£™ m ' 



system at this time, by reason of the existing war conditions, urging 
that action be postponed until the business conditions of the country 
have again become normal. 

The annual dinner was held on Thursday evening, January 25, 
1917, at the Bellevue Stratford Hotel, 150 members and guests 
being present. Mr. Clayton F. Shoemaker acted as toastmaster. 
The Committee on Entertainment, Mr. Walter V. Smith, Chairman, 
presented a most enjoyable vocal and instrumental program, while 
the addresses were of an unusually high character. The speakers 
were : Dr. John G. Wilson, Superintendent of the Northwest Dis- 
trict, Philadelphia Conference, M. E. Church ; Mr. Thomas A. Daly, 
Author of Tom Daly's Column of the Philadelphia Ledger, Mr. 
Ernest T. Trigg, the recently elected President of the Philadelphia 
Chamber of Commerce, and Dr. William E. Hughes in an address 
of " Japan of To-day," illustrated by lantern slides. 

At the Annual meeting the death of Ernst T. Fritzsche, senior 
member of Schimmel & Co., distillers of essential oils and manufac- 
turers of fine chemicals, died on December 21st, at Leipsig, Ger- 
many. Mr. Fritzsche was in his sixty-sixth year. Details regarding 
the life of Mr. Fritzsche are not available, owing to the unusual 
conditions resulting from the war. 



OBITUARY. 

Prof. C. Lewis Diehl. 

Though the failing health of Professor Diehl had been a matter 
of concern for several months, his many friends and associates were 
shocked when the news came of his death on Sunday, March 25th, 
and thus left another gap in the ranks of the " Old Guard " of Phar- 
macy's brilliant lights. His long association with the profession and 
his sincere and continued interest in all matters pertaining thereto, 
gave him not only a national but an international reputation, and his 
presence will be missed at the Annual Meetings of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association and the Kentucky Pharmaceutical As- 
sociation, where for years his familiar figure was unfailingly in evi- 
dence. 



Am Ap°rii r ' i^i7 rm ' ^ Obituary — Prof. C. Lewis DiehL 



193 



C. Lewis Diehl was born at Neustadt, Rhenish Bavaria, Aug. 3, 
1840; his father was chief executive in one of the revolutionary dis- 
tricts, and owing to political conditions, was forced to take refuge 
in France in 1848, from where he emigrated to America in 1849; 
his wife and three children following him in 1851. The family 
took up their lives in the New World upon a farm near St. Louis, 
Mo., where the wife and mother died in 1852 and the farm was 
abandoned. Young C. Lewis was sent to Oakfield Academy at St. 
Louis, where he remained for two years, leaving to join his father 
in Philadelphia, Pa. 

At the age of fourteen, he secured his first position with Messrs. 
R. & G. A. Wright, Perfumers, remaining with them for three 
years, then going to Chicago. The financial panic of that year 
(1857) compelled young Diehl to resort to various means of liveli- 
hood, but he remained in Chicago until the following year, when he 
again returned to Philadelphia and became apprenticed to John R. 
Agney, Spruce and Fifth Sts., Philadelphia ; here he laid the foun- 
dation of that life's work, to which he gave so much enthusiasm 
and energy in all his remaining years. 

Graduating from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in 
March, 1862, he entered the employ of Messrs. John Wyeth & Bro., 
assuming charge of their new and extensive manufacturing labora- 
tory. His unflagging energy and unusual attainments were largely 
instrumental in making the venture successful from the start. 

The call of his adopted country was answered by his enlistment 
in the famous Anderson Cavalry and he remained in the service until 
the battle of Stone River, where he was severely wounded and was 
given his discharge. 

Joining his father, in Chicago, he remained with him for several 
months, recuperating from his wounds, only again to enter the Gov- 
ernment service, as Assistant Chemist in the United States Army 
Laboratory at Philadelphia, which position he secured through the 
recommendations of Messrs. Wyeth & Bro. and the late Prof. John 
M. Maisch. 

The termination of the war being evident, on January 1st, 1865, 
Mr. Diehl resigned his position and desiring to locate permanently, 
he went to Chicago with the intention of purchasing a store, but on 
receiving an offer from the firm of Bender, Mahle & Co. (after- 
ward Mahle & Chappel), he entered their employ only to remain 
until the following July ; leaving to accept the management and re- 



194 



Obituary — Prof. C. Lewis Diehl. { Am '^°^' f^ Tm ' 



organization of the Louisville Chemical Works at Louisville, Ky., 
a concern originated by Dr. E. R. Squibb and Prof. J. Lawrence 
Smith, but at that time operated in the interest of Messrs. Wilson, 
Peter & Co. 

The first store owned and operated under his own name was pur- 
chased by Mr. Diehl in June, 1869, and was located at First and 
Walnut Sts., Louisville, Ky., moving in 1874 to Third and Broad- 
way, where he continued in business until his retirement to private 
life (1904). 

Joining the American Pharmaceutical Association in 1863 at 
the Baltimore meeting, he attended his first meeting at Detroit in 
1866, when he was elected Chairman of the Committee on Progress 
of Pharmacy, a position to which he was re-elected in 1867. In 

1871 Professor Diehl was elected First Vice President of the Asso- 
ciation and at the Louisville meeting in 1874 he became its President. 

A volunteer report on the Progress of Pharmacy submitted in 

1872 met with so much approbation and commendation that the 
Association elected him to the newly created office Reporter on 
Progress of Pharmacy, a position which he occupied almost con- 
tinuously until the San Francisco meeting of 191 5, when failing 
health rendered his retirement necessary. 

The Louisville College of Pharmacy owes its organization to 
Professor Diehl and others whom he interested in it ; he was its first 
President and from 1870 to 1881 continued to preside over its 
destinies; he also occupied the chair of Pharmacy until 1886, with 
the exception of the sessions of 1881-2 and 1882-3; resigning on 
account of a throat affection. 

His Alma Mater, the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, con- 
ferred the richly merited degree Master in Pharmacy upon him in 
1887. 

The organization of the Kentucky Board of Pharmacy was 
largely owing to his unfailing energy, and he was a member of 
that body for the first six years of its existence and afterward at 
frequent intervals until the time of his death. 

His Chairmanship of the National Formulary Revision Commit- 
tee, his association on the U. S, P. Revision Committee and other 
pharmaceutical honors would fill more space than is allotted in this 
brief sketch, but it is to be hoped that a complete list of his pub- 
lished works will be searched out and tabulated. 



THE AMEEICAE" 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



MAY, 1 91 7 



CONCERNING THE U. S. P. STANDARD FQR PITUITARY 
EXTRACT (LIQUOR HYPOPHYSIS)'. ' 

By Charles R. Eckler. 

The United States Pharmacopoeia places a physiological stand- 
ard requirement for pituitary extract (liquor hypophysis) which 
reads as follows : 

" One mil of solution of hypophysis, diluted 20,000 times, has the 
same activity on the isolated uterus of the virgin guinea pig as a 
1 : 20,000,000 solution of beta-imidazolylethylamine hydrochloride 
when tested as directed by the United States Hygienic Laboratory." 

Attention has been called to the fact that this is an exceedingly 
low requirement, but the correctness of the figures in the statement 
have not been questioned. The results of my work in the subject 
are so utterly at variance with the pharmacopceial statement that I 
am prompted to question whether or not the requirement as stated 
is correct. My question is this : should the equivalent of 1 : 20,000,- 
000 B-imid be 1 : 20,000 or 1 : 200,000 ? In order to show my 
grounds for raising this question, I wish to briefly describe my 
apparatus (a detailed description of which will appear in another 
paper), to give in detail the method and procedure of making the 
dilutions, together with my results in general as to the relative ac- 
tivity of the two substances in causing contractions of the isolated 
guinea pig uterus. 

Apparatus. 

The apparatus used is similar to, and was fashioned after, that 
described by Dale and Laidlaw (1), and is in principle essentially 
like that used by Roth (2). In consists of an amber-glass, 100 Cc. 
graduated chamber for holding Locke's solution, in which the uterus 

(-95) 



196 Tablets Contains Salol and Quinine Sulphate. { Am- M°ay r " f 9 h i a 7 rm ' 

is immersed, surrounded by a water bath kept warm by an immersed, 
painted-black, carbon lamp. From an elevated container Locke's 
solution is passed down through a coil in the water bath (thereby 
warming it as needed) and up into the amber chamber, filling the 
chamber from the bottom, at which place there is also an outlet. 
Warmed air (warmed by passing through another coil in the bath) 
is made to gently bubble through the Locke's solution, thereby keep- 
ing it aerated and circulating. The water in the outer bath is also 
kept circulating by a current of air in order to maintain an even 
temperature throughout the bath. The amber chamber bears a cork 
stopper at the top carrying a thermometer, and the tube conveying 
the air and to which the uterus is attached. The stopper has two 
holes, one for the thread to the writing lever, and one through which 
to inject the pituitary solution. In this all-glass apparatus light is 
practically excluded from the uterus, except for that which passes 
through the amber glass, and at the same time all the contents may 
be readily observed, rendering easier the control of dilutions, tem- 
perature, emptying of the chamber, rate of air flow, and so on. 

Material. 

The uteri of virgin guinea pigs weighing from 175 to 250 grams 
have been commonly used. Larger pigs, up to 300 grams, have 
usually furnished less satisfactory uteri. 

Method and Procedure. 

The animal is killed by instantaneous decapitation. The whole 
uterus, with a small section of vagina but without ovaries, is removed 
and placed in a fold of cotton saturated with warm Locke's solution 
until a horn can be separated, attached to the tube, and placed in 
the chamber. . The vaginal end of the horn is tied to a little post on 
the air tube by means of a silk thread, which is sewn into the peri- 
toneal covering on the side of the broad ligament. The ovarian 
end of the horn is attached to the thread running to the writing 
lever by a small pin hook which is passed through the Fallopian 
tube, or, if the horn is unusually long, a part of the ovarian end is 
removed and the hook is passed through the peritoneal fold as be- 
fore. The tube bearing the uterus is then placed in the chamber, 
the thread attached to the writing lever, the uterus weighted down 
with from 1 to 4 grams (usually i T / 2 to 3), the writing lever brought 



Am 'M°ay r " fcjl*""' ) ^ • P- Standard for Pituitary Extract. 197 



i. 



^ V3 0*090* D$$i 



t 

t 



• 1 . 
V \ 



\ X 



\ \ 1 



\A\\ I 




\ 



w ■ 

11 1 n 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 I II 1 M W i 1 1 i n li 1111 1 1 h i 1 1 1 111 11 1 1 1 1 : ;. ■ 'I n . T mi [?| 



Fig. 1. Kymographic tracings comparing a standard pituitary extract with 

commercial extracts. 



iq8 U. S. P. Standard for Pituitary Extract ( Am. jour. Pharm. 

y " May, 19 17. 

to the drum, and the air tubes connected, the temperature having 
been previously adjusted to between 37.5 and 39.5 C. 



IV 



Fig. 2. Kymographic tracings of an unknown pituitary extract compared 
with a standard solution. 



After spontaneous movements have appeared, usually after about 
half an hour, the application of pituitary extract dilutions are begun 



Am M°ay!' fgi a 7 rm ' ) U ' S - P - Standard for Pituitary Extract. IQ9 

and are repeated every twenty to thirty minutes, depending upon 
the time required for relaxation by the given organ, approximately 
the same period of application being maintained for each uterus 
throughout the experiment. A dilution of the pituitary solution is 
sought which will produce contractions equal to those recorded 
under the standard. 



Manner of Making Dilutions. 

It should be understood that when " pituitary extract " is men- 
tioned in this paper the commercial solution is referred to. The 
dilutions are made as follows: .1 Cc. of the pituitary extract or 
solution is drawn from the ampoule by means of a narrow pipette 
and diluted with distilled water to 100 Cc. in a volumetric flask. 
This makes a I : 1,000 dilution. I use distilled water in this place, 
believing that the dilution so made will not lose strength materially 
during the experiment of five or six hours. The deterioration of 
pituitary extract in Locke's solution has been mentioned by Fenger 
(3). When it is desired to apply say a 1:200,000 dilution to the 
uterus, .5 Cc. of this 1 : 1,000 dilution is drawn off and added to the 
100 Cc. chamber. The Locke's solution in the chamber is kept at 
such a height that when the pituitary dilution is added, the 100 Cc. 
mark will have been approximately reached. If a trifle more 
Locke's solution is needed, it is allowed to flow gently into the cham- 
ber from the reservoir. The dilutions of pituitary extract are meas- 
ured out with a narrow pipette into a small, conical, glass cup and 
diluted with enough Locke's solution to make about 1 Cc. From 
this glass the dilution is taken up with a " Record " syringe having 
a long needle, and introduced into the chamber, the glass and 
syringe being afterward rinsed with another 1 Cc. of Locke's so- 
lution. 

The beta-imidazolylethylamine hydrochloride was supplied by 
the Hoffman-La Roche .Co. .05 gram of this substance taken 
from the 1 gram vials as supplied, without desiccating (being appar- 
ently dry), is placed in a sterile 500 Cc. volumetric .flask and dis- 
solved in freshly boiled and cooled distilled water containing a small 
amount of acetof orm and made up to mark. This 1 : 10,000 dilution 
is sealed in ampoules and kept in a refrigerator in the dark. It 
seems to keep, thus, for many months without noticeable deteriora- 
tion. For use 10 Cc. are diluted to 100 Cc. in a volumetric flask. 



200 



U. S. P. Standard for Pituitary Extract. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 19 17. 



as? 



a; * , 




O -m 

t4 rt 



V* CO J 1 



o ft 



ft w 



$8? V 



rt O 
bfl S 
T O 



Of this 1 : 100,000 dilution .2, .25, .4, or .5 Cc. are added to the 
100 Cc. chamber containing the uterus when a dilution of 1 : 50,000,- 
000, 1 : 40,000,000, 1 : 25,000,000, or 1 : 20,000,000 respectively is 
desired. 



Am -fey r *^ m ' } U. S. P. Standard for Pituitary Extract. 2 oi 

Comparative Activity. 

During the past three years I have made over 500 kymographic 
tracings of the isolated uterus in testing pituitary glands, solutions, 
and finished commercial extracts made in this laboratory and also 
in others, and during this experience I have never found it necessary 
to apply as low a dilution as 1:20,000 of any commercial extract 
within the age limit. Indeed, it is rare that I ever apply a 1 : 100,000 
dilution. The uteri on the average have required dilutions of from 
1 : 160,000 to 1 : 600,000, occasionally 1 : 800,000 to 1 : 1,000,000, and 
rarely 1 : 2,000,000. This fact by itself is not of much importance, 
since some uteri are extremely sensitive, but it is significant in con- 
nection with the fact that my dilutions of B-imid effective on these 
same uteri have been about that directed in the pharmacopoeia, that 
is, usually from 1:16,000,000 to 1:40,000,000. Occasionally a 
greater dilution of B-imid has been necessary but rarely a lesser. 
My experience with first-class pituitary extracts has led me to adopt 
as a standard requirement that a 1 : 250,000 dilution should equal 
1:20,000,000 B-imid. (This dilution of the extract has no refer- 
ence to the amount of gland contained, but means 1 part of finished 
extract as drawn from the ampoule to 250,000 parts of Locke's 
solution.) In order to illustrate this relationship, a few self- 
explanatory tracings are reproduced at the end. As evidence that 
this is about what one would expect of a carefully prepared pitui- 
tary extract, let us consider the following : 

Fenger (3), in testing fresh posterior lobes from full grown 
cattle and calves, found the following dilutions of a 5 per cent, solu- 
tion to be equivalent to 1 : 20,000,000 B-imid solution : 

Full-grown cattle 1 : 38,000 

Calves 1 : 40.000 

Let us use the 1 : 40,000 dilution for convenience. Since 1 part of 
a 5 per cent, solution of fresh posterior lobe diluted 40,000 times is 
equivalent to 1 : 20,000,000 B-imid, then the fresh lobe itself would 
be equivalent to this standard in a dilution twenty times as great, or 
1 : 800,000. Now if a commercial extract were made from such 
material, without loss of activity, so as to represent .2 to .3 grams 
of fresh lobe per 1 Cc. (which is about what commercial prepara- 
tions represent), then we should expect such an extract to be equiva- 
lent to the standard in two tenths to three tenths as great a dilution, 
or 1 : 160,000 to 1 : 240,000. 



202 U. S. P. Standard for Pituitary Extract. { Am - J°£ r - v**™- 

Roth (4) gives a table in which he states that a 1 : 1,000,000 dilu- 
tion of fresh posterior lobe from a steer is equivalent to 1 120,000,000 
B-imid. (Although he says in his heading " Concentration of Ex- 
tract," it is assumed that he actually means concentration of fresh 
posterior lobe, since in a previous paragraph he states " the amounts 
mentioned in the following tables are in terms of fresh material.") 
Reasoning from these figures, if a commercial extract were made 
from such material as the steer's lobe here mentioned, without loss 
of activity, so as to represent .2 to .3 gram per 1 Cc, then we 
should expect such an extract to be equivalent to the standard in 
two tenths to three tenths as great a dilution, or 1 : 200,000 to 
1 : 300,000. It may be noticed that these figures compare favorably 
with those I have obtained in testing first-class commercial extracts. 
If finished commercial extracts are equivalent to the standard in 
dilutions of only 1 : 20,000, as stated in the U. S. P., what is the 
explanation of this great difference? Are manufacturers suffer- 
ing a loss in activity amounting to 90 per cent, or more, due to their 
manufacturing processes? Why is it that extemporaneous prepa- 
rations as made by Roth and Fenger will show ten to fifteen times as 
great activity as is shown by carefully made commercial prepara- 
tions ? Is this, in truth, the case, or is the standard as stated at 
fault? From my experience I would say that the pharmacopoeial 
standard for liquor hypophysis is about one tenth that of average 
commercial pituitary extracts. These pituitary extracts have been 
on the market for several years and have been used by physicians 
everywhere, who have become familiar with their degree of activity 
and have become accustomed to giving certain doses. It seems 
advisable, therefore, that instead of lowering the activity of pituitary 
extracts to meet the U. S. P. requirement, the U. S. P. requirement 
should be raised so as to compare favorably with these preparations 
which have become so well known. 

Finally, I wish to express my obligation to Dr. A. L. Walters, 
under whose supervision this work has been carried out. 

Literature Cited. 

1. Jr. Pharm. and Exp. Therapeutics, 1912-13, Xo. 4, p. 75. 

2. Hygienic Laboratory Bulletin Xo. 100. 

3. Jr. Biological Chem., 1916, vol. 25, p. 417. 

4. Hygienic Laboratory Bulletin Xo. 109. (Table 9.). 

Department of Experimental Medicine, 
Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Indiana. 



Am 'M°ay r " i P Q h i a 7 rm " ') Germination of Belladonna Seed. 203 



FURTHER NOTES ON THE GERMINATION OF BELLA- 
DONNA SEED. 1 

By A. F. Sievers, Chemical Biologist, Office of Drug-Plant and Poisonous- 
Plant Investigations, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Department 
of Agriculture. 

Several years ago 2 the writer made a study of the germination 
of belladonna seed with the object of determining the causes of the 
numerous difficulties encountered in germinating this seed. The 
conclusions drawn from that investigation may, for the sake of con- 
venience, be briefly summarized as follows : ( 1 ) Freezing accelerates 
germination; (2) there is no apparent relationship between the size 
of the seed and its germinating power; (3) heavy seed germinates 
much better than light seed; (4) color is no criterion of the value 
of the seed; (5) treatment with sulphuric acid, while it has a slight 
accelerating effect, does not increase the percentage of germination ; 
(6) treatment with hydrogen peroxide was found to be of material 
benefit; (7) scratching the seed coats by mechanical means is only 
of little value. 

The great increase in the domestic cultivation of belladonna in 
the last few years has naturally brought the problem of securing 
sufficient good seed into prominence. Questions regarding the time 
of seed collections, the methods of handling the seed after picking, 
and the effect of such methods on the vitality of the seed are of 
prime importance. The belladonna plant presents special problems 
in this respect in that the seed is borne in succulent berries which, if 
gathered in the fresh state, require a long time to dry. This raises 
the question as to whether the seed is best collected when the berries 
are ripe and fresh or when they have dried on the plant. With a 
view toward throwing some light on these questions the following 
experiments were performed. 

Collection of the Seed. 

Four typical first-year belladonna plants were staked and labelled 
as Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4. When the majority of the berries were ripe 

1 Published by permission of the Secretary of Agriculture. 

2 The Germination of Belladonna Seed. This Journal, November, 1914, 
P- 483. 




Fig. I. Germination of Lot A. 



a portion of them was picked separately from each of the four plants 
and each portion divided into two parts, A and B. At a later date, 
when the berries had all dried on the plants and the plants had been 
killed by frost, another portion was picked from each individual. 
This constitutes Lot C. 



Am. 



(our. Pharm. 
>Iay, 19 17. 



} Germination of Belladonna Seed. 



205 




Methods of Treating the Seed. 

Lot A was brought into the laboratory and the seed washed out 
of the pulp by rubbing the berries on a No. 10 sieve. The seed 




Fig. 3. Germination of Lot C. 



passes through this sieve while most of the pulp and all the skins 
remain behind. After passing through such a sieve several times 
with the use of water the seed is practically clean. The seed was 



Am ' May r ' 1917™' ) Germination of Belladonna Seed. 207 



19 17. 

60 



7o 



60 



So 



40 



30 



20 



/o 



1 x// 



/ /V 

/ / v 



/ / / 



1 / / 
/ / / 

/ / / 



^ r 

«v< *i «!i 



Fig. 4. Average germination of the three lots. 

then placed in a Gooch crucible and by means of suction were dried 
in a very short time. 

Lot B was placed in flat dishes and allowed to stand in the labo- 
ratory for several weeks. The berries became much decomposed 
and developed a considerable growth of mold. When in this con- 
dition the seed was separated in a way similar to that described 
under Lot A. 



2 o8 Germination of Belladonna Seed. {^^^fg^J 11 ' 

The seed in Lot C was readily separated from the pulp and skins 
by crushing the dry fruit and rubbing the seed through a sieve. It 
was further cleaned by fanning and further sifting. 

Relative Weight of the Seed. 

The opinion has been expressed that seed allowed to remain on 
the plant until the fruit has dried is larger than that removed sooner. 
Whether such is the case the writer is not prepared to say. It was 
shown, however, in the previous investigation that size of the seed 
has no apparent influence on the germination, although it may have 
some effect on the quality of the plant produced. The same investi- 
gation established the fact, however, that the weight of the seed is 
an important factor in its germination. Since it is a difficult matter 
to determine the relative size of several portions of seed, and since 
as a general rule greater size is indicative of greater weight, an at- 
tempt was made to determine the relative weight of these various 
lots of seed. This was done by weighing five portions of 100 seeds 
each and multiplying the average by 10 to determine the weight of 
1,000 seed. In the following table the results are tabulated. 

Table I. 

Table Showing the Relative Weight of Seed from the Individual Plants 

from Each Lot. 



Lot. 


Treatment. 


Num- 
ber of 
individ- 
ual 
plant. 


Weight of seed (grams). 


Average 
weight 
of 1,000. 


Average 
weight 
of 1,000 
seed 
from 
whole 
lot. 


First 

IOO. 


Second 
100. 


Third 
100. 


Fourth 
100. 


Fifth 
100. 


Aver- 
age. 


A . . 


Picked when 


I 


0.1028 


0.I0I9 


O.IO36 


0.1009 


O.IO36 


0.1025 


1.025 






berries were 


2 


.1044 


.1026 


.1034 


•1037 


.1017 


.1031 


1. 03 1 






fresh and 


3 


.1038 


.1076 


•1057 


.1029 


.1031 


.1046 


I.O46 






seed washed 


4 


.1012 


.1027 


.1054 


.1013 


•0993 


.IOI9 


1. 019 






out at once 


















1.030 


B . . 


Picked when 


I 


.0971 


.0986 


.0940 


.0987 


•IO33 


.0983 


.983 






berries were 


2 


.0920 


.0923 


.0897 


.0924 


.0921 


.0917 


.917 






fresh and al- 


3 


.0978 


.0993 


.1003 


•0953 


.0949 


•0975 


•975 






lowed to 


4 


•0934 


.0971 


.0971 


.0952 


.0958 


.0947 


•947 






mould 


















•952 






I 


•0943 


.0976 


.0994 


.0994 


•0973 


.0972 


•972 




C. . 


Picked when 


2 


.0936 


.0933 


.0942 


.0922 


.0913 


.0929 


.929 






berries were 




.0903 


.0876 


.0890 


•0935 


.0889 


.0898 


.898 






ripe 


\ 


.0878 


.0948 


.0923 


.0871 


•0933 


.0910 


.910 
























.928 




Fig. 5. Average germination of seed from the four plants in all three lots. 



It is evident from the above tabulation that the seed from Lot 
A was the heaviest and that from Lot C was the lightest. It is be- 
lieved that this condition is due to the fact that when the dried ber- 
ries are picked it is impossible to distinguish at all times between 



210 Germination of Belladonna Seed. { Am 'M° a y r ' f 9 h : a 7 rm ' 

fully matured berries and those only partially matured, since all of 
them are dried and shrivelled. Consequently a slight percentage of 
immature and light seed is likely to be mixed with the good seed and 
this would naturally reduce the weight on the average. 

Color of the Seed. 

The different treatment of the seed has a distinct effect on the 
color. Lot A had by far the best appearance, the seed being of a 
uniform silver gray color with a fine luster. The treatment used 
with Lot B resulted in a nut-brown color with no luster whatever. 
This seed had a very poor appearance. Seed from Lot C had the 
appearance of the usual commercial seed, and consisted of both 
brown and gray seed having only little luster. 

Germination Tests. 

To test the germination of seed a total of 1,200 from each lot, 
i. e. } 300 from each of the four individual plants, were planted in 
flats on December 8, 19 16. The first germination was noted on Jan- 
uary 3, 191 7, and on January 9 the first count was made. There- 
after the seedlings were counted at convenient intervals and after 
each count removed from the flat. In Table II are given the number 
of germinated seed at each period. 



Table II. 

Table Showing the Number of Seed Germinated in the Intervals between the 
Days on which the Counts were Made. 





Number of 


Nu 


mber of seeds germinated during intervals between following dates. 


Lot. 


individual 










































plant. 


Jan. 9* 


Jan. 13. 


Jan. 18. 


Jan. 23. 


Jan. 30. 


Feb. 6. 


Feb. 15. 


Feb. 24. 


Mar. 7. 


A 


I 


2 


5 


3 


6 


23 


24 


84 


54 


12 




2 


9 


23 


25 


28 


6l 


44 


43 


15 


4 




3 


6 


10 


1 1 


17 


30 


12 


45 


22 


9 




4 


11 


15 


15 


19 


37 


53 


56 


31 


3 


B 


1 





3 


6 


10 


27 


22 


38 


14 


5 




2 


1 


2 


2 


6 


16 


21 


64 


44 


8 




3 


23 


68 


45 


27 


18 


11 


12 


1 







4 








3 


16 


35 


53 


78 


38 


5 


C 


1 


14 


24 


14 


11 


22 


18 


23 


45 


5 




2 


12 


24 


11 


14 


28 


9 


20 


38 


5 




3 





3 


1 


1 


10 


19 


25 


39 


11 




4 


2 


4 


3 


13 


38 


25 


58 


76 


6 



* Seed planted December 8, 1916. First count made thirty-two days after 
planting. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 19 17. 



} Germination of Belladonna Seed. 



211 



One of the interesting points brought out by this table is the 
germination of the seed from the seed from plant No. 3. This seed 
in Lot B showed the greatest germination of any up to January 23. 
Seed from the same plant in Lot C showed the least germination 
during that period. During the remainder of the time the germina- 
tion of this seed decreased rapidly in Lot B and increased in Lot C. 
No explanation for this peculiar behavior of the seed has become 
apparent. 

In Table III the total germination at the end of each period is 
given. 

Table III. 

Table Showing the Total Number of Seed Germinated at the End of Each 
Period of Observation. 



Lot. 


No. of 


Total number of seed germinated at the end of each period. 


individual 






















plant. 


Jan. 9. 


Jan. 13. 


Jan. 18. 


Jan. 23. 


Jan. 30. 


Feb. 6. 


Feb. 15. 


Feb. 24 


Mar. 7. 


A .... 


I 


2 


7 


10 


16 


39 


63 


147 


201 


213 




2 


9 


32 


57 


85 


147 


191 


234 


249 


253 




3 


6 


16 


27 


44 


74 


86 


131 


153 


162 




4 


11 


26 


41 


60 


97 


150 


206 


237 


240 


B. 


1 





3 


9 


19 


46 


68 


106 


120 


125 






1 


3 


5 


11 


27 


48 


112 


156 


164 




3 


23 




136 


163 


181 


192 


204 


205 


205 




4 








3 


19 


54 


107 


185 


223 


228 


C. 


r 


14 


38 


52 


63 


85 


103 


126 


171 


176 




2 


12 


36 


47 


61 


89 


98 


Il8 


156 


l6l 








3 


4 


5 


15 


34 


59 


98 


109 




3 4 


2 


6 


9 


22 


55 


80 


138 


214 


220 



While the preceding table shows the actual number of seed germi- 
nated, Table IV following shows the total percentages germinated. 

The data in Table IV is presented graphically in Figs. 1 to 4. A 
study of these charts leads to the conclusion that the seed from Lot 
A showed the best germination, both from the standpoint of total 
percentage of germination obtained and acceleration of the germi- 
nation. Thus, on January 30 the average percentage germinated in 
Lot A was 29.8 per cent., in Lot B 25.6 per cent., and in Lot C 20.3 
per cent., and after this date Lot A continued to show the greatest 
total germination. Seed from Lot C seemed to be inferior to either 
of the other lots but especially inferior to that from Lot A. 

It is a significant fact that in point of vitality the seeds from the 
various lots rank the same as they do regarding color and weight. 



212 



Germination of Belladonna Seed. { Am. jour. Phan 

1 <• May, 19 17. 



Table IV. 

Table Showing the Total Percentage of Seed Germinated at Each Period 

of Observation. 





IS umber of 




Total percentage of seed germinated at the end of each period. 




Lot. 


individual 












































plant. 


Jan. 9. 


Jan. 13. 


Jan. 18. 


Jan. 23. 


Jan. 30. 


Feb. 6. 


Feb. 15. 


Feb. 24. 


Mar. 7. 


A . 


I 


0.6 


2.3 


3-3 


5-3 


13.0 


2 1 


49 


(\i 
0/ 


71 




2 


3 


10. 




20.3 


49 


63-7 


7o 


°3 


84-3 




3 


2 


5-3 


9 


14-6 


24-6 


2 o.O 


47 


5 1 


54 




4 


36 


8.6 


13-6 


20 


32.5 




68.6 


79 


80 




Average. . 


2-3 


8.2 


II-3 


12.5 


29.8 


40.8 


60.6 


70 


72.3 


B 


1 





1 


3 


6.3 


15-3 


22.6 


35-5 


40 


41.6 




2 


0.3 


1 


1.6 


3-6 


9 


12 


37-3 


52 


54-6 




3 


7.6 


30.3 


45-3 


54-5 


60.3 


64 


68 


68.1 


68.3 




4 








1 


6.3 


18 


35-6 


61.6 


74-3 


76 




Average. . 


2 


8.1 


12.7 


17.7 


25.6 


33-5 


50.6 


58.6 


60.1 


C 


1 


4.6 


12.6 


17-3 


21 


28.3 


34-3 


42 


57 


58.6 




2 


4 


12 


15.6 


20.3 


29.6 


32-6 


39-3 


52 


53-6 




3 





1 


1-3 


1.6 


5 


11.3 


19.6 


32.6 


36.3 




4 


0.6 


2 


3 


7.3 


18.3 


26.6 


46 


7i-3 


73-3 




Average . . 


2.3 


6.9 


9-3 


12.5 


20.3 


26.2 


36.7 


53.1 


55-4 



We have here then a plain indication that the best seed from a physi- 
cal standpoint is the most desirable for planting. From this it would 
appear that the method of gathering the seed followed in Lot A is 
the logical one to use. Another conclusion to be drawn from the 
data is that the molding and decomposing of the berries, while it 
detracts from the appearance of the seed does not very greatly affect 
its vitality. As a matter of practice, however, screening, washing, 
and drying the seed immediately after picking the berries is more 
convenient than to allow the latter to stand around in trays. Atten- 
tion is again called to the probability of picking immature seed if the 
berries are allowed to dry on the plant. The probable presence of 
such seed in Lot C is indicated by the data on germination. 



Variation in the Germination of Seed from Individual 

Plants. 

The foregoing data furnish some information regarding the 
variation in the germination of seed from individual plants. To 
show this more plainly a table of average is submitted. 

A study of this table and Chart 5, which shows the data arranged 
graphically, will reveal the fact that seed from plant No. 4 showed a 
50 per cent, greater germination than seed from plant No. 3. Since 



Am ' May F igi7 m ' ) Germination of Belladonna Seed. 213 

Table V. 

Table Showing the Average Total Germination at the End of Each Period of 
the Seed from Each Individual Plant in all Three Lots. 



Number of 



Percentage of total germination at the end of each period. 



plant. 


Jan. 9. 


Jan. 13. 


Jan. 18. 


Jan. 23. 


Jan. 30. 


Feb. 6. 


Feb. 15. 


Feb. 24. 


Mar. 7. 


I 


i-7 


5-3 


7-9 


IO.9 


18.9 


25-9 


42.I 


54-6 


57-1 


2 


2-43 


9.9 


12. 1 


17.4 


29.2 


i36.i 


51-5 


62.5 


64.I 


3 


3-2 


12.2 


18. s 


23-5 


30 


34-6 


44.8 


I50.6 


52.8 


4 


11.4 


3-5 


5-9 


11. 2 


22.9 


B7-4 


58.7 


74-8 


76.4 



all the seed was handled under like conditions it would appear that 
the vitality of belladonna seed is influenced not only by such factors 
as time of picking and method of drying but is dependent to a cer- 
tain extent on the characteristic of the individual plant which bears it. 

Conclusions. 

The following three methods of gathering belladonna seed were 
used: {A) The berries were picked when ripe and succulent, the 
seed was at once removed from the pulp by washing it through a 
sieve, after which it was dried; (B) the berries were picked at the 
same stage as in (A) but allowed" to dry spontaneously, which re- 
sulted in much molding and partial decomposition; (C) the berries 
were allowed to remain on the plant until they were dry. 

As regards weight of seed method A produced the heaviest, and 
method C the lightest seed. The latter method is likely to result in 
the admixture of some immature seed, owing to the difficulty of dis- 
tinguishing between ripe and unripe berries when both are dry. 

Method A also produced seed of the best uniform color, while 
method B resulted in seed of very poor color. Seed obtained by 
method A showed the highest percentage of germination, while seed 
from method C was the poorest in this respect. 

Seed from different individual plants varies considerably in 
vitality. 



2i4 Analysis of Rhinitis Tablets. { Am 'M°ay r ' jw™' 



ANALYSIS OF RHINITIS TABLETS. 

By Reginald Miller. 

Camphor. — Weigh 100 tablets, powder eleven and take a weight 
of the powder corresponding to 10 tablets, add an equal volume of 
clean sand, extract with ethyl ether 1 (using a small beaker to hold 
the mixture of powder and sand) and decant through a small filter 
paper. Collect the filtrate in a weighed glass dish and evaporate to 
about 5 mils at a temperature around 6o° C, allowing an electric 
fan to blow a current of air over the dish to hasten evaporation and 
to maintain a low temperature. The remaining 5 mils are evaporated 
spontaneously. 

Weigh the dish and residue immediately upon drying 2 and call 
this weight A. The dish with residue after weighing is heated at 
ioo° C. until the odor of camphor is no longer perceptible, cool, 
weigh, subtract this weight from weight (A). The difference rep- 
resents the camphor in ten tablets. (A correction may be neces- 
sary, due to volatilization of camphor.) 2 

Quinine Sulphate. — The powder remaining in the beaker is ex- 
tracted with a mixture of chloroform and absolute alcohol, 3 decant 
through the filter paper used in the camphor determination, collect 
filtrate in a weighed glass dish, evaporate the solvent and dry at 
no° C. until a constant weight is obtained. 4 From this weight com- 

1 Use portions of ether of about 10 mils each and make about 5 or 6 
extractions, always allowing the powder to settle before decantation. 

2 The camphor is quite volatile, hence the immediate weighing. The loss 
should be determined by treating a weighed portion of camphor under the 
same conditions on the steam bath alongside of the sample, and then making 
corrections accordingly. 

3 The mixture consists of two volumes of chloroform and one volume of 
absolute alcohol. About 5 or 6 extractions of 10 mils each will suffice. 

4 The U. S. P. (9th edition) allows for a loss of 16.2 per cent, in weight, 
whereas the actual amount of water present is 1445 per cent. It therefore 
is necessary to compute the quinine sulphate on both bases, and accept the 
figure which is nearer the amount supposed to be present. Calculate as 
follows : 

(100 — 16.2) : 100 :: wt. of residue: x — x = U. S. P. quinine sulphate allow- 
ing a loss of 16.2 per cent. 

(100 — 14.5) : 100 :: wt. of residue: x — ,f = U. S. P. quinine sulphate allow- 
ing a loss of 14.45 P er cent. 



Am " May' fji"" 1 " } Tablets Contains Salol and Quinine Sulphate. 215 

pute the quantity of U. S. P. quinine sulphate, after making tests 
upon the residue to prove that it is quinine sulphate. 

Fluid Extract Belladonna. 5 — Powder 50 weighed tablets, add 3 
mils of 3% sulphuric acid 6 and 12 mils of distilled water, warm 
for about one hour at about 40 C, filter, make filtrate neutral to 
litmus paper by addition of -f^ sodium hydroxide. 

To .9 of a mil of the neutralized filtrate add .1 of a mil of salt 
solution. 7 

Introduce two drops of this solution into a cat's eye 8 every five 
minutes until a total of six drops have been introduced. 

The pupil of the cat's eye should show a dilation after an elapse 
of one hour if the sample contains fluid extract of belladonna. 9 If, 
however, there is no dilation of the pupil noticeable after an elapse 
of one hour, it is advisable to try another cat, and introduce a total 
of eight drops over a period of twenty minutes. The cat's eye should 
be observed every half hour until an elapse of about five hours. 

Chemical Laboratory, 

Department of Health, 
New York City. 



ANALYSIS OF TABLETS CONTAINING SALOL AND 
QUININE SULPHATE. 

By Reginald Miller. 

Salol. — Weigh twenty-five tablets and powder them, take of the 
well-mixed powder a portion corresponding to the average weight 
of one tablet. Transfer to a small beaker, add an equal volume of 
clean sand. 1 

5 This is detected by qualitative test. 

6 There must be a slight excess of acid present; test with litmus paper 
and if not acid, add more until it is. 

7 The salt solution is made by, dissolving one G. of sodium chloride in 100 
mils of distilled water. 

8 After each introduction of the solution in the cat's eye, the membrane 
surrounding the eye should be gently closed and opened in order to aid the 
absorption. Care must also be taken that none of the fluid gets into the cat's 
mouth or nose. 

9 The dilation begins in about forty-five minutes and is very pronounced 
after an elapse of one hour. 

1 Sand seems to facilitate the extraction. 



216 Tablets Contains Salol and Quinine Sulphate. { Am - ^° a u £ f££ m - 

Add petroleum ether 2 to the mixture in the beaker, using 10 
mil portions (making about five or six extractions), decant through 
a dry filter paper, collecting the filtrate in a weighed glass dish. 

Evaporate the solvent on a water bath, allowing a current of air 
from an electric fan to assist the evaporation. When the solvent is 
nearly volatilized remove the dish from the water bath and allow 
the remainder of the solvent to evaporate spontaneously, using the 
current of air from the fan. Weigh residue immediately upon the 
absence of petroleum ether odor. 3 If the determination is made as 
above directed the loss due to the volatilization of the salol is 
negligible. 

The residue, if salol, will give the following tests : 
The distinctive odor of salol. 
Melting point 41 to 43 C. 
Cone, nitric acid — colorless. 

Froede's reagent — deep purple, gradually to an olive green. 
Formaldehyde sulphuric acid — pink to a very deep pinkish red. 
Selenous sulphuric acid — colorless to a faint yellow. 
Ferric chloride — no change in color. 

Salol is saponified by sodium hydroxide, and if an excess of 
hydrochloric acid is then added, salicylic acid will be precipitated 
(if sufficient salol is taken) and phenol liberated which can be rec- 
ognized by its distinctive odor. Both of these liberated products 
can be removed by ethyl ether, and tested with ferric chloride, which 
gives a violet coloration. 

Quinine Sulphate. 4 — The residue in the beaker is repeatedly ex- 
tracted with 10 mil portions of a mixture of chloroform and abso- 
lute alcohol, 5 making about six to eight extractions. Decant through 
the filter paper used in the determination of salol, and collect filtrate 
in a weighed glass dish, evaporate to dryness and heat at no° C. 
until a constant weight is obtained. 

2 Merck's benzin (petroleum ether) reagent is used. The quinine sulphate 
is practically insoluble in benzin. 

3 If the dish containing the salol is allowed to remain on the steam bath 
for one half hour, a correction of about 5 per cent, must be made, due to loss 
of salol by volatilization. This factor, however, must be determined by run- 
ning a known sample of salol in parallel with the unknown under the same 
conditions. It is advisable to determine the salol roughly at first, and then 
use this figure as an index of the amount of authentic salol required for the 
control determination. 



Am jour, pharm. ] Cultivation of Castor Oil Plant. 217 

May, 19 17. J J I 

This weight represents anhydrous quinine sulphate, and from it 
U. S. P. quinine sulphate is calculated. 6 

The residue 7 should respond to the following tests : A portion 
dissolved in water by the aid of sulphuric acid (about 1 per cent.) 
gives a vivid blue fluorescence which disappears upon the addition 
of hydrochloric acid. 

Barium chloride 53 added to an aqueous solution of quinine sul- 
phate containing concentrated hydrochloric acid gives a white pre- 
cipitate. 

Dissolve some of the quinine in very dilute acetic acid, add a few 
drops of bromine water, and an excess of ammonium hydroxide, a 
green color results. 

To an aqueous solution add one drop of hydrogen peroxide and 
one drop of copper sulphate, heat, a red coloration is obtained. 

Chemical Laboratory, 

Department of Health, 
New York City. 

4 The quinine may be extracted as the alkaloid and then computed to 
quinine sulphate. It may be determined, by transferring the residue in the 
beaker and filter paper (used in salol determination) to a separatory funnel, 
using dilute sulphuric acid (about 1 per cent.), then adding a slight excess 
of ammonium hydroxide, and extracting repeatedly with ethyl ether, collect- 
ing the ether in a weighed dish (pour ether through a dry filter paper), evap- 
orate, and dry to constant weight at ioo° C. and compute to U. S. P. quinine 
sulphate. 

5 Two volumes of chloroform and one volume of absolute alcohol. 

6 When calculating U. S. P. quinine sulphate, two proportions can be 
made: (A) in accordance with maximum loss permitted by U. S. P. on heat- 
ing to no C, namely, 16.2 per cent, by weight; (B) the actual water content 
in U. S. P. quinine sulphate, namely, 14.45 per cent, by weight. 

A. (Weight of anhydrous quinine sulphate dried at no C.) 

: (100 — 16.2) : : x : 100 ; 

x = U. S. P. quinine sulphate. 

B. (Weight of anhydrous quinine sulphate dried at no° C.) 

: (100 — 14.45) : : x : 100; 
x — U. S. P. quinine sulphate. 

7 For the qualitative tests about ten or more tablets can be treated as in 
the outline if necessary, but the residue need not be weighed. 

8 If the analysis is a very important one, the sulphate radicle may be 
determined quantitatively, and quinine sulphate calculated therefrom. 



2i 8 Cultivation of Castor Oil Plant. { Am - 1°™- f h j arm - 



THE CULTIVATION OF CASTOR OIL PLANT AS A COM- 
MERCIAL POSSIBILITY. RICINUS CUMMUNIS, 
PALMA CHRISTL 1 

By Joseph L. Lemberger, Ph.M. 

Always an admirer of the beautiful Palma Christi — a thought 
possessed the writer to plant some of the seed of the variety known 
as Ricinus sanguineus — a beautiful, stately and highly colored plant, 
and note results as to its commercial value. My experience was 
satisfactory beyond expectation, having no previous thought beyond 
that of an ornamental bush, and when the fact has materialized, 
that if the castor bean can be cultivated as a commercial product 
a large agricultural asset will be attained. 

After the season had closed correspondence with seed crushers 
and vegetable oil producers has convinced me that the subject is en- 
tirely feasible and deserves more than passing attention — weather 
conditions appearing as the only doubtful factor. This also applies 
to other crops as well. 

The cultivation is very simple. The seed will germinate almost 
anywhere provided the soil is good. Experiment is being made this 
summer planting the seed along the fences where the plow and har- 
row cannot be used and only when the commercial fact is proven or 
established, need we think of field culture. 

I am interesting farmers in my county and experiment will be 
made on a much larger scale — will try some waste places on the 
farm, and, if successful, may publish the results, if spared, some 
future time. 

It will be interesting to know that there is not at this time any 
attention paid to cultivation of castor oil beans for commercial pur- 
poses in this country. After the writer began formulating this paper, 
searching for data, etc., reference to Professor William Procter's 
article along similar lines in 1855, giving a particular account of the 
mode of cultivation in Western States (American Journal of 
Pharmacy, Vol. 28, p. 99). At that period we remember the St. 
Louis brand castor oil stenciled on the boxed containers and barrels 
of castor oil. The present generation of pressers of the castor oil 
seed know nothing of the industry of that period and it is evident 

1 Proc. Perm. Ph. Assoc., 1916, p. 209. 



Am 'May r ' ? 9 h i a 7 rm ' ^ Cultivation of Castor Oil Plant. 219 

that there is no longer any attention given to the cultivation of castor 
oil bean as an industry. The Journal quoted from has the follow- 
ing which I prefer to make part of this paper as a pleasant memory 
of our departed friend : 

" Southern Illinois is the source from whence all the beans are brought 
that are sold or manufactured in St. Louis. The ground is prepared as for 
other crops, and when there is no longer any danger from the spring frosts, 
the seeds are planted in hills and rows, much in the manner of planting Indian 
corn, with the exception that there is but one seed put into each hill, and that 
at every fourth row a space is left sufficiently wide to admit of the passage of 
a team for the purpose of gathering the crop. Unlike the cereal grains the 
ricinus bears at the same time flowers and fruit, and the severity of our cli- 
mate, which renders it in this latitude an annual plant, destroys its vitality 
whilst yet decked with bloom. The ripening commences in August, and the 
crop is gathered at intervals from this date till the plants are destroyed by 
the frost. 

"The yield, of course, varies with the quality of the soil, and the care of 
the culture. Twenty-five bushels from an acre of ground is considered a very 
large crop, and is but seldom obtained. From sixteen to twenty bushels per 
acre is a very fair yield in a season not marked by drought or other unfavor- 
able feature. 



Year. 


Crop 
in bushels. 


Factories 
in Illinois. 


Factories 
in St. Louis. 


Barrels 
of oil made. 


Equivalent 
in gallons. 


1850 


250,000 


18 


2 


9,900 


350,000 


1851 


160,000 


7 


2 


7,000 


255,000 


1852 


90,000 


5 


2 


"5-500 


192,500 


1853 


65.OOO 


3 


3 


4,200 


147,000 



"The estimated crop of beans for 1854 is but 10,000 bushels, being almost 
a total failure, arising from the excessive drought that prevailed during the 
past summer over that part of the country. The number of mills in opera- 
tion in 1854 was but five, and they only employed part of the time." 

As indicated, I planted the bean of Ricinus sanguineus — I knew 
no other variety at that time. There are other varieties, and I have 
obtained and planted this year Ricinus Gibsonii, Ricinus macro- 
carpus and Ricinus philippinensis. The mature plant in my yard 
attained the height of about fifteen feet. The foot stalk of one of 
the plants, as well as some specimens of the fruit, are herewith 
exhibited. 

Through correspondence with one of the largest seed crushers 
and oil producing firms in this country, much valuable information 
was obtained, and the following excerpts from several letters will, I 
feel sure, interest you : 



220 



Cultivation of Castor Oil Plant. { Am -^° a ur - ^I m - 



March 23, 191 6. 

" We have the pleasure t'o acknowledge receipt of your valued favor of 
March 22 and are very pleased that you are interested in raising castor beans 
as a commercial crop. 

" If you can raise these in sufficient quantities, or if by combining with 
your neighbors you are able to do so, we think the experiment might be 
profitable. 

" The value of castor seed, or castor beans, fluctuates very much, accord- 
ing to the size of the crop in India, the demand for consumption in the 
United States, and the fluctuation in freights from India to the United States; 
which, in the latter case, have risen from about 20 cents per bushel of 50 
pounds to $1.40 per bushel of 50 pounds, due to war conditions and the requi- 
sitioning of so many ships by the English government. 

" At the present time the value of castor beans, in not less than carload 
lots, delivered to New York City points, in bags and without' charge for bags, 
is from $2.25 to $3.15 per bushel. It has been higher and it has been within 
the last two years as low as $1.22 per bushel. However, we think the normal 
price is about $1.30 per bushel, 50 pounds being considered a bushel. 

" We can give you no information whatever regarding planting of these 
seeds, as derived from those who have planted them for commercial crops ; 
and inquiry at the Department of Agriculture at Washington fails to elicit 
any information in this direction. The superintendent of a large country 
place near Buffalo has advised us that he would expect success in planting 
one bean to a hill and placing the hills three feet apart in rows four feet 
apart. We think, however, he had in mind the raising of beans for the beauty 
of the plant and blossom rather than for commercial purposes ; and that in 
planting for a commercial crop it would be better to plant three beans in a 
hill, lest one bean might possibly not germinate. On the above basis, it would 
require 726 beans to plant one acre, one bean to a hill, or, say, i J /2 quarts or 
about 2*4 pounds ; and t'o plant three beans in a hill, 2,178 beans, or, say 
quarts to about 6% pounds. 

" We would be interested to know how this compares with your expe- 
rience and to see a sample of the beans raised by you." 

March 27, 1916. 

" We beg to thank you for your letter of March 24, which contained very 
interesting information regarding the cultivation of castor seed with some 
of which we were not familiar. 

" We also thank you very much for the sample of the seeds you have 
raised and have sent them to our laboratory for analysis as to percentage of 
oil contained therein. On receipt of our chemist's report which, however, 
may not be for two or three weeks, as the laboratory is very busy just now 
with very important matters, we shall be very glad indeed to give you our 
opinion of the value of the seed as compared with that shipped from Bombay, 
India." 



April 1, 1916. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 19 17. 



The Price of Gasoline. 



221 



" Referring to the sample of castor beans you were kind enough to send 
us, we beg to report that an analysis indicates them to contain about the same 
percentage of oil as the Bombay beans." 

The foot stalk or trunk of the plant you will observe is full of 
pithy cellulose — membranous substance, very suggestive for wood 
paper pulp — trying to determine uses for the woody portions of the 
plant, the writer incinerated — the burr envelope of the seed and all 
other portions of plant, and by the old process of making lye by 
lixiviation and evaporation, obtained a fair percentage of potash, 
and have for your inspection a presentable sample of nitrate of po- 
tassium. The experience we are passing through at this time natu- 
rally leads one to believe that we might economize, incinerating much 
of the refuse of saw mills — and forestry — with a view to utilizing 
the alkali. 

In concluding this examination as to the possibilities, would 
define : 

1. Enlarged castor oil industry in the United States. 

2. As a by-product, paper pulp or the conservation of alkali con- 
tents from burr to root. 

As a last word, all portilons of this country may not be available 
on account of climatic conditions, but the writer believes from his 
experience that the moist, warm regions of the southern part of 
this country should take advantage of the possibility. We may not 
be able to raise the African Ricinus as a perennial tree, as is stated 
by a writer, but realize the practical possibility of having annual 
crops of castor oil beans as is done with any of the familiar farm 
products. 



THE PRICE OF GASOLINE. 

The final report of the Federal Trade Commission on the price 
of gasoline in 191 5 has recently been published. This investigation 
had to do with all phases of the petroleum industry. Practically the 
entire supply of gasoline is made from crude oil or petroleum. The 
total production of this article in the United States in 191 5 was about 
306,000,000 barrels. The chief element in the demand for gasoline 
is the internal-combustion engine. The summary of facts and con- 
clusions is as follows : 

The demand for gasoline as measured by consumption has in- 



222 



The Price of Gasoline. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 19 17. 



creased, and was about 38 per cent, greater in 191 5 than in 1914. 
The supply did not increase in proportion, the quantity of gasoline 
and naphtha manufactured in 19 15 being 31 per cent, greater than 
in 1914. The difference between production and sales was covered 
by decreases in stocks of gasoline. As a result the general level of 
prices in 19 15 was necessarily and naturally somewhat higher than in 
1914. 

This conclusion, however, does not indicate how much higher the 
price of gasoline should have been on the basis of strictly competitive 
conditions, nor does it indicate when and where the advances re- 
quired by such conditions should have taken place. 

Cost figures for representative refiners indicate that the margins 
in December, 191 5, were from about 1 to 3 cents per gallon greater 
than in July. (See original report.) That is to say, while costs 
increased, prices increased much more, with the result that in general 
the refiners were making much larger net returns per gallon of gaso- 
line in December than in July or in August. This fact is reflected in 
the larger net earnings in 19 15 of the principal refining companies 
and the increased stock-exchange quotations on the securities of 
such companies toward the end of that year. 

While prices advanced rapidly in all parts of the country between 
September and December, 19 15, the movement of prices to Sep- 
tember was irregular, in some cases declining, in others rising, and in 
still others remaining nearly stationary. The rise between Septem- 
ber and December was general, but was more rapid in some localities 
than in others. In relation to cost, the prices were much lower in 
some sections of the country than in others, as shown in the dif- 
ference in margins per gallon of gasoline made by refiners in different 
localities. 

These differences have this in common: They all correspond to 
certain areas described in this report as Standard marketing terri- 
tories. Within such territories the price of gasoline moved with 
practical uniformity. Between them there were wide differences. 

These marketing territories were established long ago and with 
little reference to the gasoline business. They bear little relation to 
the areas that would be adapted to the most economical marketing 
of gasoline (see report), a fact conclusively proved by the large 
interterritory sales among Standard companies and the conduct of 
profitable business by " independent " companies within the area 
embraced in these territories but with very different boundaries. 



Am ' MaT ^7™' ^ Pr * Ce °f GaS0 ^ ne ' 223 

This correspondence of the differences in prices with Standard mar- 
keting territories in itself points to arbitrary price making. But the 
arbitrary character of the inequalities in price is conclusively demon- 
strated by the facts (1) that as between most of the territories 
there were no such differences in demand or supply as would explain 
the frequent and unequal variations in prices, and (2) that the mar- 
gin between cost and price was widely different in the different ter- 
ritories. 

These territories, if they should continue to exist, would have a 
significance different from that they now possess if they were occu- 
pied by companies which were separately owned. As a matter of 
fact, the several Standard companies are interrelated through a 
common body of majority stockholders. 

Throughout this report it has been apparent that the maintenance 
of different markets for gasoline by companies among which there 
exists a substantial community of ownership has been of funda- 
mental importance in the gasoline situation. This condition should 
be modified. 

In the Federal Trade Commission's Report on Pipe-Line Trans- 
portation of Petroleum, and in the preceding chapter of this report, 
it has been shown that control of pipe lines has been a decisive 
factor in giving certain large refining interests advantages over their 
competitors. The combination of pipe lines with the other branches 
of the industry in single business organizations has tended to estab- 
lish and perpetuate monopoly. To be sure, three of four large com- 
petitors exist; but the history of their operations appears to indi- 
cate that, after a preliminary competitive onslaught in which a fairly 
satisfactory amount of business is gained, they " dig themselves in," 
to use a military metaphor, and thereafter " follow the Standard 
market." It is noteworthy that those districts in which The Texas 
Company and the Gulf Refining Company were engaged in business 
along with the Standard companies were by no means always the 
places where prices of gasoline were low in 191 5. 

If competition is to be effective in the business of refining petro- 
leum and marketing petroleum products, the pipe lines which are 
necessary for transporting the raw material, crude oil, must be made 
available to all refiners on equal and reasonable terms both as to 
rates and service. It has been decided by the courts that pipe lines 
are common carriers and as such are subject to the control of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission. It may be that in time their rates 



224 



The Price of Gasoline. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 19 17. 



of charge and conditions of service will be so regulated as to be 
just and equal to all producers and refiners. Such regulation, how- 
ever, has not yet been tested, and, in view of the differences between 
pipe-line transportation and railway transportation, its effectiveness 
is problematical. The analogy of the coal carriers and of the " com- 
modities clause " suggests that it would be desirable to effect a com- 
plete separation of the ownership of the pipe lines from the owner- 
ship of the oil which they transport, and that a law to that effect is 
feasible. It is generally recognized that when the carrier is iden- 
tified with certain shippers it is very difficult to prevent rates and 
conditions which are equivalent to discrimination, and the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission has repeatedly called attention to this 
difficulty. 

A powerful agency for insuring a just balance of supply and 
demand — for eliminating violent fluctuations in price — is knowl- 
edge of conditions. This truth is well illustrated by advantages 
gained from the statistics of crops compiled by the Department of 
Agriculture and even from the statistics of live-stock receipts from 
private sources. Such statistics concerning the petroleum industry 
as are now available are not satisfactory. Information on vital 
points does not appear on time and the data are regarded with sus- 
picion by many "independent" oil men. 

Several statements on this subject were made to the Commission 
at one of its hearings, excerpts from which follow. A jobber said: 

I suppose it cost me $50,000 last year (1915) for lack of knowledge. If 
we had had any way to know the crude conditions, we could have protected 
ourselves in the market. ... If there had been knowledge at our hand of the 
falling off of the production at Cushing, we would not have been caught with 
such a small amount of supplies. The other people who have greater knowl- 
edge of the situation could reduce their price on the 10th of June and make us 
think that the production was increasing and there was going to be still 
cheaper gasoline. . . . Now, if we had statistics in the oil business that gave 
bona fide statement's, we could then know what the runs were every day, and 
we could tell what the stocks on hand were every day, all of which would 
tend to create a more solid condition in the oil business. 

Another jobber said: 

It seems to me that the statistics available in the oil business are very 
meager indeed. . . . But if it were possible to get government statistics, 
brought fairly well up to date, as to the production of gasoline, if you please, 
and the shipments of gasoline, and the volume going into the different terri- 
tories, and the stocks of distillates of benzine on hand, it seems to me that 
would be of very measurable help. 



The citations are of interest, not only as showing the need, but 
as indicating the character of information needed. 

As to the means of securing the information, it is clear that it 
should devolve upon some branch of the federal government to col- 
lect and publish pertinent statistics. 

As indicated in this report, the quality of gasoline is difficult of 
measurement and has probably deteriorated during recent years. 
Various products, all called gasoline, are sold under a common name, 
and the result is confusion in which inferior qualities may be sold at 
the price of superior ones. There has been a trend toward putting 
on the market blended products which often contain such quantities 
of nonvolatile (high boiling point) products as to give very unsatis- 
factory results in the more important classes of gasoline engines. 

The recommendations and suggestions of the Commission con- 
cerning the foregoing matters are as follows : 

(i) As to Common Ownership. 

I. With respect to the application of the present antitrust laws, 
the Commission makes the following findings, and has taken action 
thereon as prescribed by law. 

The Commission finds : 

1. That the several Standard companies have maintained a dis- 
tribution of territory in the marketing of gasoline, and that no sub- 
stantial competition in the chief petroleum products exists among 
the several Standard companies. 

2. That this absence of competition is due to a community of 
stock ownership, which community of interest is the result of the 
ratable distribution of stock under the dissolution as ordered by the 
court. 

3. That the facts disclose such advances in prices of gasoline and 
such differences in price corresponding to Standard marketing ter- 
ritories as are not possible of explanation apart from the foregoing 
conditions. 

4. The Commission has found no direct evidence of collusion 
among the several Standard companies in violation of the dissolution 
decree. 

Section 6 (c) of the Federal Trade Commission act provides that 
the commission shall have power — 

Whenever a final decree has been entered against any defendant corpora- 
tion in any suit brought by the United States to prevent and restrain any vio- 



226 



The Price of Gasoline. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 19 17. 



lation of the anti-trust acts, to make investigation, upon its own initiative, of 
the manner in which the decree has been or is being carried out, and upon 
the application of the Attorney General it shall be it's duty to make such inves- 
tigation. It shall transmit to the Attorney General a report embodying its 
findings and recommendations as a result of any such investigation, and the 
report shall be made public in the discretion of the commission. 

The Commission's findings, together with the evidence, have, 
therefore, been submitted to the Department of Justice for its con- 
sideration and for such action, if any, as it may deem advisable under 
existing law. 1 

II. With a view to preventing or remedying such conditions as 
obtain in the oil industry, the Commission suggests various plans for 
legislation, as follows : 

1. A law providing for the reopening of antitrust cases on the 
application of the Attorney General by a bill of review for the pur- 
pose of securing such modifications of decrees as new conditions 
may require. 

1 Section 6 of the dissolution decree (U. S. v. Standard Oil Co., 173 Fed., 
199-200) provides as follows : 

" Sec. 6. That the defendants named in section 2 of this decree, their 
officers, directors, agents, servants, and employees, are enjoined and pro- 
hibited from continuing or carrying into further effect the combination 
adjudged illegal hereby, and from entering into or performing any like com- 
bination or conspiracy, the effect of which is, or will be, to restrain commerce 
in petroleum or its products among the States, or in the Territories, or with 
foreign nations, or to prolong the unlawful monopoly of such commerce 
obtained and possessed by defendants as before stated, in violation of the 
act of Jul}' 2, 1890, either (1) by the use of liquidating certificates, or other 
written evidences of a stock interest in two or more potentially competitive 
parties to the illegal combination, by causing the conveyance of the physical 
property and business of any of said parties to a potentially competitive party 
to this combination, by causing the conve3'ance of the property and business 
of two or more of the potentially competitive parties to this combination to 
any ' party thereto, by placing the control of any of said corporations in a 
trustee, or group of trustees, by causing its stock or property to be held by 
others than its equitable owners, or by an3< similar device, or (2) by making 
any express or implied agreement or arrangement together, or one with 
another, like that adjudged illegal hereby relative to the control or manage- 
ment of any of said corporations, or the price or terms of purchase, or of 
sale, or the rates of transportation, of petroleum or its products in interstate 
or international commerce, or relative to the quantities thereof purchased, 
sold, transported, or manufactured by any of said corporations, which will 
have a like effect in restraint of commerce among the States, in the Terri- 
tories, and with foreign nations to that of the combinations the operation of 
which is hereby enjoined." 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
May, 19 17. J 



The Price of Gasoline. 



227 



2. Abolition, by legislation, in certain cases, of common stock 
ownership in corporations which have been members of a combi- 
nation dissolved under the Sherman Law. 

3. Effective limitation upon common ownership of stock in poten- 
tially competitive corporations by withdrawing the power of voting 
and control. 

4. Legislation which, while recognizing common ownership, 
would fix upon such common owners the responsibility for the acts 
of each of the several companies so owned, which prevent com- 
petition. 

As to 1. — It is suggested that there be added to paragraph (c) 
of Section 6 of the Trade Commission Act a proviso to cover all 
cases in antitrust suits where there apparently has been a technical 
compliance with the decree but in which for any reason the decree 
has not been effective. Such law should provide generally that in 
any case where the findings of the Trade Commission reveal no such 
violation of the decree as would constitute a ground for contempt 
proceedings, but which show that the decree has failed to bring about 
competitive conditions, the Attorney General shall have power and 
it shall be his duty to embody such findings and recommendations in 
a bill of review to be filed in the court entering the decree ; and such 
law should further provide that upon the filing of such bill of re- 
view the court shall reopen the suit and take further testimony touch- 
ing the efficacy of the decree in bringing about competitive conditions. 
The findings of the Trade Commission should be made admissible 
as evidence. Such law should further provide that on proof the 
court shall have power to amplify and modify the decree in such 
manner as may be necessary fully to restore competitive conditions. 

As to 2, — It is suggested that the evils growing Out of common 
ownership may be successfully prevented by legislation declaring 
it to be unlawful for any person to own, directly or indirectly, shares 
of stock in more than one of the companies into which a combination 
in the form of holding company or consolidated corporation (except 
railroad combinations) has been dissolved under the Sherman law, 
whenever such companies are engaged in the same line of commerce. 
In other words, to enact into law the doctrine as to diverse owner- 
ship of competing corporations which has been laid down by the 
courts in the Union Pacific, Reading, and other recent cases. 

As to 5. — It is suggested that instead of forbidding absolutely 
common ownership, the same effect may probably be reached by 



228 The Price of Gasoline. /Am jour. Pharm. 

J l May, 19 17. 

withdrawing entirely from such owners the right to vote or hold 
office or otherwise exercise power of control, whether the same is 
done directly or indirectly. Such withdrawal of rights might even 
be extended to the right to receive benefits and earnings. It might 
be made applicable to all potentially competitive corporations. 

As to 4. — If it is deemed inadvisable by Congress to prevent com- 
mon ownership, with its almost inevitable restriction of competition, 
it is suggested that legislation might be enacted fixing upon the com- 
mon owners of stock in potentially competing concerns the responsi- 
bility for the acts of such corporations, so owned, which result in the 
prevention of competition or the abolition of competitive conditions. 

As to pipe lines, it is the opinion of this Commission that it would 
in the long run be the simplest and most effective policy to segregate 
the ownership of the pipe lines from the other branches of the 
petroleum industry. This would mean that no controlling portion 
of the stock of any pipe-line company engaged in interstate com- 
merce should be owned by any individual, company, or corporation, 
or by any group of individuals, companies, or corporations, that are 
also interested as owners in any oil producing or refining properties ; 
and vice versa. 

In view of the bearing of accurate information upon industry 
and competitive conditions, it is suggested that an appropriate 
branch of the federal government should be provided with adequate 
means for carrying on the statistical work required. It is of the 
utmost importance that the work be performed with integrity, ac- 
curacy, and dispatch. It is believed that (independently of any 
remedies that may be adopted to secure a more competitive organi- 
zation of industry) to make available currently the statistical in- 
formation here contemplated would go far toward preventing such 
abnormal and unequal price advances as occurred in the gasoline 
markets of the United States in 1915. 

With regard to quality of product, the Commission suggests the 
desirability of classifying gasoline products. It is a simple matter 
to ascertain what proportion of a sample of gasoline is sufficiently 
volatile to insure the reasonably easy starting and flexibility of 
operation of the ordinary internal combustion engine. If a law were 
enacted which would provide that only such petroleum products as 
contain the desired proportion of sufficiently volatile elements shall 
be sold in interstate commerce as gasoline, it is believed that it would 
lead to a desirable measure of classification and uniformity in 
quality. 



Am, M°ay r ' f 9 h i a 7 rm ' } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 229 

PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 
Minutes of the Annual Meeting. 

The annual meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
was held March 26, 191 7, at 4 p.m. in the library, the president, 
Howard B. French, presiding. Twenty-one members were present. 
The minutes of the quarterly meeting of the College, held Decem- 
ber 26, 1916, were read and approved. The minutes of the board 
of trustees for December 5, 1916, January 2, 191 7, and February 6, 
1917, were read by the registrar, J. S. Beetem, and approved. 

President French then delivered his annual address, giving an 
account of the transactions of the various departments, the condi- 
tion of the buildings and an expression of some of the expectations 
of the future. The address was eagerly listened to and at its close 
continued applause was given. Later in the session Mr. George 
M. Beringer said that owing to the modesty of the president no dis- 
position of the address had been made. He therefore moved that 
the address be referred to the publication committee and such ab- 
stracts as it was desirable to have published be published in the 
American Journal of Pharmacy. Seconded and so ordered (see 
this Journal, page 236). 

The report of the committee on nominations, Joseph W. England, 
chairman, was read and ordered entered and filed. 

A communication from Henry C. Blair was read, declining the 
nomination to the board of trustees, as he would be unable to serve. 

The committee appointed to draft resolutions in .memory of our 
late fellow member, Martin I. Wilbert, reported as follows : 

" 1865. Martin I. Wilbert. 1916. 

" At the quarterly meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy held 
at the College December 26, 1916, a committee was appointed for the purpose 
of expressing the profound sorrow caused by the sudden death of Martin 
Inventius Wilbert. Dr. Wilbert died at the German Hospital in this city, 
where for years he was the chief pharmacist. At the time of his death he 
was engaged in carrying on important work for the government at the hygienic 
laboratory, United States Public Health Service, Washington, D. C. 

"Dr. Wilbert was a graduate of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
and one of its most prominent representatives. He possessed a character of 
unusual attractiveness. He was fearless, aggressive and indefatigable in his 
endeavors to raise the status of professional pharmacy, and yet he was always 



230 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am - JgJ£ f g h T a 7 rm - 

considerate of the feelings of those with whom he differed. He was cour- 
teous and cordial in his bearing toward all. The members of the College 
desire to express their sense of personal loss through Dr. Wilbert's death. 
His life was well spent in advancing the cause of pharmacy and in promoting 
the public welfare. His death is a personal loss to all who knew him. 

" H. K. Mulford, Chairman, 
" Joseph P. Remington, 
" F. E. Stewart, M.D." 

when, on motion, the report was received and an engrossed copy 
directed to be forwarded to the family. 

Dr. A. W. Miller, for the committee on the relief of Belgian 
pharmacists, reported that the funds in hand had been forwarded to 
the Netherlands Pharmaceutical Society, but up to this time no 
reply had been received. 

Editor's Report by Henry Kraemer. — The American Journal 
of Pharmacy has been issued regularly during the past year. 

It is very gratifying to the editor to receive the support and co- 
operation of so many of the best writers and investigators in Ameri- 
can pharmacy. Most authors are cognizant of the fact that the 
Journal is widely read by their fellow workers and that the work 
published herein is utilized by writers of text-books and commen- 
taries. 

There have been published about sixty-five original articles by 
about fifty different authors. It has been a source of profound 
regret to be cut off from communications with his associates of 
other journals, whose people are engaged in war. We have been 
compelled to stop sending the Journal in foreign exchange, but 
have reserved sufficient copies so that we can replenish the libraries 
of Europe and furnish the editors of foreign magazines with copies. 

During the twenty years of the present editorship the grim reaper 
of death has claimed but three members of our publication com- 
mittee. The last of these was Martin I. Wilbert. His article on 
the Pharmaceutical Exhibit held last fall at the College and pub- 
lished in the October issue was the last article - from his pen, and 
it is very gratifying to us to know that during his lifetime and espe- 
cially in connection with the late Exhibition he had evidences of our 
gratitude to him for his services, and of the work he had done for 
American pharmacy. 

In addition to the large amount of original matter that has been 
published we have had several historical articles. One deserves 
special mention, " Pharmaceutical Exhibit at the Philadelphia Col- 



^'i°ay r * f 9 h i7 r . m ' ^ Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 231 

lege of Pharmacy," by Dr. Robert P. Fischelis. This required a 
large amount of painstaking work, and is a model of its kind. 

Report of the Librarian. — Miss Katharine E. Nagle reported 
that the total number of books accessioned to date is 9,079. Total 
number of books catalogued 6,230, and the cards filed alphabetically 
for consulting. The expenditures during the year have been $388.22. 
Use of library by professors, students and the public totaled 3,190. 
In connection with the report of the librarian, Professor Kraemer 
said that most of us did not appreciate the wealth of material we 
possessed, yet there was a class of publications that we were defi- 
cient in, such as reports of the National Wholesale Drug Associa- 
tion, trade organizations and reports of various state associations. 
Much practical work was recorded in these publications and the help 
and cooperation of the members was asked to secure them. Mr. 
French stated that his firm had City Directories dating back to 
about i860 and asked if they would be of service in the library. 
Several members expressed themselves as favoring their acceptance 
by the College. 

Committee on Pharmaceutical Meetings. — The chairman said 
there have been no meetings held during the year, due in part to the 
fact that our members were very active in connection with the Spe- 
cial Exhibition which was held at the time of the meeting of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, and also in part to the fact 
that it has been a very active year at the College. It is quite likely 
that this work will be actively resumed in the near future with profit 
to our members and an extension of the influence of our College. 

Report of the Publication Committee . — In the absence of the 
chairman, Professor S. P. Sadtler, this report was read by Pro- 
fessor Remington. 

The report for this year does not cover the entire 'year ; owing 
to unavoidable delay the March issue did not get into the mails as 
early as usual, so that the financial report does not include the 
receipts for the entire year, although all bills for the year were paid. 
Nevertheless we have a very substantial foundation to begin business 
with this year and we are taking steps to increase both the advertis- 
ing and subscriptions and the outlook is rather promising. 

The usual appropriation from the College for the use of the 
Journal was granted. 

Report of the Curator. — Mr. Joseph W. England said: The ar- 
rangement of monographic collections of drugs and drug products 



232 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am ^ r - f 9 ^ m - 

initiated last year by Professor Kraemer has been completed, and the 
cases in the Museum now contain a series of exceedingly interest- 
ing and valuable collections, showing the plants and plant parts of 
prominent drugs, together with colored photographs or sketches 
showing methods of gathering special features, etc. 

Professor Remington reported the death of Professor C. Lewis 
Diehl at Louisville, Ky., on March 25, 191 7. Professor Diehl was 
not a member of the College but was long identified with the pro- 
fession of pharmacy and pharmaceutical literature. 

Professor Kraemer called attention to the fact that to-day, March 
26, the dean of the College, Professor Joseph P. Remington, cele- 
brates a memorable natal anniversary, and moved that the members 
of the College then assembled felicitate him on the occasion and ex- 
tend to him our best wishes for many more years of service in the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and to the cause of American 
pharmacy. The motion was unanimously approved, when Pro- 
fessor Remington in a few words expressed his gratification. 

The thanks of the College were voted Professor E. G. Eberle 
for the donation of a large photograph of the late M. I. Wilbert. 

Election of Officers, Committees and Trustees. — Joseph W. Eng- 
land, Russell T. Blackwood and Charles F. Leibert were appointed 
tellers. While the tellers were counting the ballots the president 
announced the following appointments : 

Committee on By-Laws : George M. Beringer, Joseph W. Eng- 
land, C. A. Weidemann. 

Delegates to Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association : E. F. 
Cook, chairman, Charles H. La Wall, C. B. Lowe, F. X. Moerk, O. 
W. Osterlund, F. P. Stroup, J. W. Stunner, John K. Thum. 

Delegates to Delaware Pharmaceutical Association : Dr. A. W. 
Miller, chairman, C. B. Lowe, S. L. Foster, H. J. Watson. 

Delegates to the New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association : C. B. 
Lowe, chairman, George M. Beringer, Henry Kraemer, Charles H. 
La Wall, J. W. Sturmer. 

The tellers reported as the result of the ballot the election of the 
following: President, Howard B. French; First Vice-President, R. 
V. Mattison, M.D. ; Second Vice-President, Joseph L. Lemberger ; 
Treasurer, Warren H. Poley ; Corresponding Secretary, A. W. 
Miller, M.D. ; Recording Secretary, C. A. Weidemann, M.D. ; Cura- 
tor, Joseph W. England ; Editor, Henry Kraemer ; Librarian, Kath- 
arine E. Nagle. 



Am 'M°ay r ' ? 9 h i a 7 rm ' ) Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 233 

Trustees : Joseph P. Remington, C. Stanley French and George 
B. Evans. 

Publication Committee : Samuel P. Sadtler, Henry Kraemer, 
Joseph W. England, Joseph P. Remington, Charles H. La Wall, 
George M. Beringer and John K. Thum. 

Committee of Pharmaceutical Meetings : Henry Kraemer, Joseph 
P. Remington, C. B. Lowe, M.D., George B. Weidemann and E. H. 
Hessler. 

President French stated he had received a communication from 
the second- and third-year classes which he desired to submit for the 
consideration of the members. He then read the following com- 
munication : 

Mr. Howard B. French, President: 

Realizing the critical condition in which the government of the United 
States is now placed by the threatened aggressions of a foreign nation, the 
senior classes of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, or a majority of the 
members thereof, desire to offer their services to the proper authorities of 
the government as pharmacists to serve in hospitals, army posts, or in the 
navy, or in other capacity in which we, as pharmacists, can render service, 
and as the necessities may require. 

Therefore, be it Resolved, That we request the president of the Philadel- 
phia College of Pharmacy to notify the proper officials of our government of 
our desire to serve the nation, the state and the city with the knowledge and 
experience which we will have gained in securing our degrees as pharmacists. 

Ralph R. Foran, 

President P.D. Class 1917, 
A. E. Clapham, 

Secretary. 
M. S. Gehman, 

President Ph.G. Class 1917, 
E. B. Powell, 

Secretary. 

Mr. French stated he had prepared a letter to be sent to the 
president of the United States as requested by the senior classes as 
follows : 

To the President, 

Washington, D. C. 
Dear Sir: By request of the senior classes of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy, I have the honor herewith to submit resolutions which they have 
respectively adopted offering their services as pharmacists to the government 
should an occasion arise to require them. There are 304 students in the two 
classes, their final examinations will be held in May, and their degrees will be 
conferred on June 6, 1917. Their practical experience and knowledge will, no 



234 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am -]£™- f 9 ^ rm " 

doubt, be of material benefit in several of the departments of the government. 

Trusting that the two classes referred to may prove of service to the 
government, I have the honor to be, 

With respect, 

Howard B. French, 

President. 

March 26, 191 7. 

The discussion that followed was participated in by Messrs. 
Beringer, Boring, Kraemer, Thum, Remington and Weidemann, 
when, on motion of Professor Kraemer, the action of the president 
was approved. Professor Remington suggested that as the senior 
classes had offered their services to the government, why not also 
should the officers and faculty tender their services ? 

When Mr. Beringer moved that the College recommend to the 
board of trustees to " consider and formulate some plan showing the 
desire of the College to cooperate with the government in the present 
condition of affairs in the nation," seconded and so ordered. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Recording Secretary. 

Abstracts from the Minutes of the Board of Trustees. 

December 5, 1916. Fifteen members were present. The com- 
mittee on announcement and publicity reported on a map recently 
prepared by Professor Sturmer which shows the states furnishing 
the first-year students. Professor Remington was given authority 
to prepare and issue a calendar for 191 7. Mr. French stated that 
the cases borrowed by the College for the recent exhibit could be 
retained for the present. 

Mr. Cliffe referred to the activities of the Philadelphia Chamber 
of Commerce and thought the College should become a member of 
it. Mr. French spoke of the proposed Pennsylvania State Chamber 
of Commerce and thought the College should also become a member 
of same. Others members approved of the suggestion and the mat- 
ter was referred to Mr. French for further action. 

Mr. French referred to the meeting of the deans of the several 
colleges of pharmacy, the Pennsylvania State Board of Pharmacy 
and representatives from the colleges of pharmacy in the state, held 
several years ago relative to establishing a council governing pro- 
fessional educational matters in this state, stating that the time was 
now ripe for such a move. The committee appointed in 1913 was 
still active and the matter was left in their hands. 



Am *Ma U y r ' ? 9 h i a 7 rm ' } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 235 

Julius W. Sturmer, Frank H. Rohrman, Paul S. Pittinger, Charles 
E. Vanderkleed, Robert P. Fischelis, Russell T. Blackwood, John A. 
Roddy and Mrs. Nellie F. Lee were elected to active membership in 
the College. 

January 2, 191 7. Eleven members were present. The commit- 
tee on scholarships reported the award of two additional scholar- 
ships. 

The committee on examination presented the names of gentle- 
men upon whom they recommended that the degree of Master in 
Pharmacy (Ph.M.) be conferred at the coming commencement. In 
accordance with the by-laws the names were referred to a special 
committee, who will report at the next meeting. 

February 6, 191 7. Fourteen members were present. The com- 
mitee on property read a communication received from the Bureau 
of Water, relative to installing water meters in the College. The 
committee after thorough investigation, recommended that meters 
be installed. On motion, the committee was given power to act. 

Mr. French stated that an appraisement of the entire building 
had been made by an expert, but that the valuation given did not 
include the power plant nor the fixtures. He also read a commu- 
nication from the insurance agents advising an increase in the insur- 
ance. On motion, the committee was empowered to place an addi- 
tional $25,000 insurance on the buildings and $25,000 additional 
insurance on the contents of same. 

The committee on library reported receiving a number of gifts, 
among them being a copy of the Philadelphia Year Book, 191 7, 
issued by the Philadelphia Chamber of Commerce. It contains a 
two-page article about the College. An edition of 5,000 copies in 
Spanish and 7,500 copies in English will be distributed. 479 per- 
sons used the library during the month. 

The committee on instruction reported that courses for the vari- 
ous post-graduate degrees were being prepared. 

They also reported that it was found necessary to revise the 
diplomas because of changes in the courses of instruction, and a 
special committee consisting of George M. Beringer, Joseph P. Rem- 
ington and William L. Cliffe was appointed to consider the matter. 

Dr. J. Edward Brewer, assistant in the department of chemistry, 
tendered his resignation to accept a commercial position, but stated 
that he would continue his instructions for the remainder of the 
term. 



2^6 Annual Address of President. (Am. jour. Pharm. 

■^J^ ' 1 May, 19 17. 

The following named gentlemen (previously reported upon) were 
elected to receive the honorary degree of Master in Pharmacy 
(Ph.M.) at the next commencement: Julius W. Sturmer, Philadel- 
phia; William B. Day, Chicago; Frederick J. Wulling, Minnesota, 
and John K. Thum, Philadelphia. 



ANNUAL ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE 
PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

During the past year much has occurred that should be of 
interest to the members, therefore, your president will follow the 
custom which he started some years ago of submitting for your con- 
sideration a concised summary of what has occurred in your institu- 
tion during the past year. 

Some changes have been made in the arrangement of the interior 
of your buildings. Shelving has been placed in the fourth floor 
room, formerly occupied as a gymnasium, for the storage of surplus 
books, which had previously been stored in the basement under the 
library. This enabled your property committee to remove the tem- 
porary partition and to take the lockers from the center section of 
the basement and place them in the south portion — thus giving addi- 
tional room for use in serving lunch to the male members of the 
class. In addition to the old lockers, your committee on property 
has placed 25 lockers of metal construction in the basement. They 
also have had the former reading room divided in half ; the rear 
portion of which is used by women students for their lunch room, 
while the front half has been transformed into an office for the 
associate dean, with a door opening from it into the passageway of 
the main office. This has given additional facilities for the transac- 
tion of business and added greatly to the comfort of those in charge. 

The bacteriology laboratory has been rearranged and refmished 
so that now it is one of the most attractive rooms in your buildings. 

The old Alumni Hall has been transformed into a microscopical 
laboratory. 

During the Christmas holidays, steam radiators were placed in 
Professor Kraemer's special microscopical laboratory on the fourth 
floor and also in the associate dean's office, which added much to 
the comfort of those using these departments. This work was 
largely done by your engineer, and thus the cost of same was re- 
duced to a minimum. 



Am. Tour. Pharm. 
May, 19 17. 



Annual Address of President. 



237 



Your committee on property found it necessary to secure another 
caterer to take charge of the lunch room at the opening of the 
school last fall. The serving of lunch in the college has proven 
most advantageous to the students and employees of the college, and 
while there has been some complaint, it is thought that the luncheons 
are of reasonably good quality and served at a moderate price. 

Taking your property as a whole, it is in reasonably good repair, 
and while a thorough coat of paint upon the outside woodwork 
would prove a benefit, it is not being greatly damaged for the want 
if it. 

Owing to the very rapid rise in building materials, your com- 
mittee on property deemed it prudent to have a reappraisement made 
of the cost of replacing your buildings, and they reported to your 
board of trustees that an additional 825,000 insurance should be 
added to the amount already upon your buildings. They also recom- 
mended that an additional $25,000 insurance be placed upon the con- 
tents of your buildings, both of which were ordered by your board 
of trustees. 

A committee of your college aided a committee of the Alumni 
Association in celebrating the fiftieth anniversary of the Alumni, 
having planned and carried out an exhibition of " Ancient and 
Modern Pharmacy," which remained open from August 30 to Sep- 
tember 30, 1 91 6, and was very largely visited by physicians, druggists 
and others interested in scientific pursuits. 

The number of matriculants for the session 1916-17 total 628, 
which are divided as follows : 

First-year matriculants numbered 226, of which 8 did not begin 
the course, and 25 were in but partial attendance, which reduced the 
number to 193. Six students repeated the second semester of the 
first year, making 199, while one special student brings the total 
of the first year students up to 200. 

The second year class had 198 matriculants, 5 of whom did not 
attend and 11 only attended lectures for a short period, which re- 
duced the number to 182 ; out of this number 6 second-year students 
were called upon to take the second semester of the first year, making 
the total number attending the second-year class 176. 

The third-year class consisted of 134 matriculants, 3 of whom 
did not begin their course of lectures and 3 attended only partial 
lectures, thus reducing the number to 128. 

45 students are taking the special chemistry course, 



2 3 8 



Annual Address of President. { Am jour. Pharm. 

J <• May, 1917. 



6 students are taking the food and drug course, 
8 students are taking the pharmaceutical chemist course. 
There are also 7 special students in bacteriology, three of whom are 
graduates of your institution. Thus the total attendance at the 
present time is 570 students. 

On Monday morning, September 25, 191 6, the college session 
was opened, under rather unusual conditions. Dean Remington 
presided and Ex-Governor Edwin S. Stuart, Dr. Edgar F. Smith, 
provost of the University of Pennsylvania, Prof. J. W. Sturmer 
and your president, each delivered a short address to the students, 
after which the classes had an opportunity of viewing the exhibits. 

Your college now has seven courses of instruction, namely : 

2 years' course (Ph.G.) — Graduate in Pharmacy, 

3 years' course (P.D.) — Doctor of Pharmacy, 

3 years' course (Ph.C.) — Pharmaceutical Chemist, 

4 years' course (B.Sc.) — Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy and 

Chemistry, 
for the above, diplomas are awarded. 

In addition to these, you have : 

3 years' course in analytical and industrial chemistry, 
2 years' course in food and drug analysis, 
Special course in bacteriology. 
For these three courses, certificates are awarded. 

The department of pharmacy not only teaches theory and prac- 
tice, but operative pharmacy and commercial pharmacy — all of 
which, owing to the enlarged classes of the present session, required 
much thought and care to rearrange the instruction to meet the 
situation properly and effectively. 

The professors and assistants in the department have cheerfully 
given their time and talent in aiding to make the result most satis- 
factory. There will have to be, however, some modification in 
existing arrangements so as to facilitate the teaching in this depart- 
ment to somewhat relieve the double work which in some cases have 
been necessarily imposed upon the professors and instructors in that 
department, owing to the duplication of lectures, etc. 

The custom of visiting manufacturing establishments, which was 
inaugurated many years ago, will be continued and it is fortunate 
for the students that notwithstanding the extraordinary conditions 
now existing that the third-year graduating class and the second-year 
graduating class have been invited by the manufacturers to make, 



^ May? f 9 h i a 7 r . m ' ) Annual Address of President. 239 

on separate occasions, an annual visit. This must necessarily involve 
considerable expense to the establishments, for which your presi- 
dent is sure the membership of the college feels duly indebted. 

The professor of pharmacy in his report expresses his apprecia- 
tion and makes very complimentary reference to those who assisted 
in his department. 

It may be of interest for you to know that the large class this 
-year and the complications that have risen by having two senior 
classes, one three-year and one two-year, made it necessary to repeat 
the senior laboratory instruction five times, which greatly increased 
the number of hours of class instruction and rendered necessary the 
appointment of another assistant to aid in the laboratory work. 

The stock room connected with the laboratory of this department 
is being reorganized so as to concentrate the stock and make it more 
available and easy of access. 

Your chemical laboratories have never been so active as during 
the present session. In the annex laboratory accommodations had 
to be provided for eight students taking the B.Sc. course, 6 students 
taking the food and drug course, 7 students taking the Ph.C. course 
and 45 students taking more or less complete special chemistry 
courses ; of the last number, 8 are graduates in pharmacy. In the 
old laboratory instruction was given to the first-year pharmacy 
students in two sections, and to the second-year pharmacy students 
in three sections, and in the first semester, to the third-year phar- 
macy students in two sections. This meant seven half-days per 
week of class instruction. In the remaining open time, many stu- 
dents availed themselves of the opportunity to do extra laboratory 
work; thus, 47 first-year students, 38 second-year students (6 on 
theses subjects) and 26 third-year students (18 on theses subjects) 
were enrolled. 

The above statement does not include students who, failing in 
their laboratory examinations, had to do some extra work in prepara- 
tion for a reexamination. 

Under the very able direction of your professor of botany and 
pharmacognosy, the collections in your museum have been rear- 
ranged, classified, relabelled and are now in a monographic form. 
They now comprise the following subjects: Aloes, chocolate and 
coffee, opium, licorice, sarsaparilla, cascara, cinchona, spigelia, 
hydrastis, belladonna and progress in the cultivation of medicinal 
plants. Each collection includes the commercial varieties of crude 



240 



Annual Address of President. /Am jour. Pha™. 

' May, 19 17. 



drugs, and in some instances the containers in which they were 
shipped in commerce. There is also included chemical constituents 
and photographs illustrating the plants from which they are derived. 

The Maisch collection has been removed to and properly arranged 
in the new microscopical laboratory, while for want of space many 
specimens and stock of unofficial drugs have been stored in the old 
gymnasium. Quite a little progress has been made in securing 
original containers and steps are now being taken to make this col- 
lection a representative one. It would be a most difficult task to 
estimate the exact number of specimens in pharmacognosy, but 
roughly estimated there is probably not less than 10,000 in number. 
They are all in most excellent condition and are constantly increas- 
ing in value both for illustrative purposes and for comparison and 
research. 

The Martindale and other herbariums, containing nearly 200,000 
specimens, have been largely used during the past year, not only by 
your department of pharmacognosy, but by scientific workers from 
other institutions who have repeatedly sought the privilege of 
examining these most interesting specimens. 

The cultivation of medicinal plants in your roof hothouse has 
had much attention, and while the facilities are very meager, material 
results have been obtained. The hothouse has enabled your depart- 
ment to conserve specimens which have been sent to the college and 
the facilities thus afforded have added much to the interest of 
visitors and students in facilitating the recognition by them of the 
growing specimens. 

During the past year many specimens have been forwarded to 
your institution by graduates of your college, living in different parts 
of the United States, asking that the specimens be identified and 
every assistance has been rendered to help them in the identification 
of the specimens submitted. 

It may be of interest for you to know that a large number of 
lantern slides have been made and many of them- colored, showing 
the living plant, the microscopic structure, diagnostic characters and 
color reactions. It is now possible for your department to throw 
upon a screen a picture of the crude drug, as seen at close range, 
and illustrate every stage of the examination by the microscope and 
use of reagents. This adds greatly to the educational value of the 
work and tends not only to illuminate the subject and increase the 
didactic efficiency, but makes it possible to illustrate the material 



Annual Address of President. 241 

before large audiences whenever called upon to demonstrate the 
practical value of what we are doing for the profession. 

It may also interest you to know that a number of special stu- 
dents are making investigations as a basis for their thesis. This, in 
the judgment of your professor, is a source of great stimulation to 
the students and demonstrates that quite a number of them have 
initiative and possess a desire for research work, and it is hoped by 
your president that at no distant future, greater opportunities can 
be afforded whereby students can follow out their investigations. 

Your institution has been handicapped by the lack of facilities 
for conducting a botanical garden, and your president, a year ago, 
expressed the hope that the city or state would provide not only the 
ground, but the means for conducting a suitable botanical garden, to 
assist the educational institutions of Philadelphia in the advance 
study of botany and pharmacognosy, but as yet nothing has been 
accomplished. In your president's opinion, nothing would add 
greater luster or bring more lasting fame to Philadelphia as a 
pharmaceutical and medical center than the establishment of such a 
garden. 

Your department of bacteriology with its improved surround- 
ings and most excellent equipment has maintained its usual high 
character of instruction. Your professor in charge of same has 
recently offered some suggestions which at the proper time will be 
taken up by the committee on instruction. 

Instruction in the departments not mentioned above has been 
conducted in the usual way and but little comes to the attention of 
your president that he deems necessary to take your time to report. 

Your emeritus professor of chemistry, Samuel P. Sadtler, has 
given lectures on chemical topics that have been most instructive 
and our thanks are due for his earnest cooperation in the continued 
success of the college. 

The recording of attendance of students has been continued and 
it is the thought of those in charge that it has proven quite an in- 
centive for closer application of those attending the college. 

Your 95th Annual Commencement was held on Wednesday even- 
ing, June 7, 1916, at the American Academy of Music. Prayer was 
offered by the Rev. Herman S. Cook, and a most able and stirring 
address was delivered by Rev. John G. Wilson, D.D. Announce- 
ments were made by Dean Remington and your president conferred 
the degrees upon graduates who numbered 154 — 20 more than the 



Am. Jour. Pharm. | 
May, 19 17. -* 



242 



Annual Address of President. {Am jour. Pharm. 

J May, 19 17. 



preceding year. Eleven states and 7 foreign countries were 
represented. 

In this connection it may interest you to know that the study 
of pharmacy and kindred branches is yearly becoming more of 
interest to women and at the present time the college has 38 women 
attending the classes. 

During the past year 13 members have been elected to your 
organization ; 2 have died, 1 resigned and 7 forfeited membership, 
thus making the. total present membership 144. You have 14 as- 
sociate members, 1 elected during the past year. 

The position of associate dean, created by your board, early in 
the fall, has proven most advantageous and has assisted materially 
in advancing the interest of the institution. As a matter of record it 
seems proper that your president should report that after numerous 
interviews and conferences, extending over a period of many months, 
an agreement of consolidation between the pharmacy branch of the 
Medico-Chirurgical College and the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy was accomplished, and on August 15, 1916, the final com- 
munication referring to same came from Provost Edgar F. Smith 
to your executive. 

The consolidation has added greatly to the prestige which Phila- 
delphia has for so many years enjoyed as a pharmaceutical center. 
The students of the pharmacy branch of the Medico-Chirurgical 
College and the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy have joined most 
heartily with each other in assisting to make the consolidation a 
great success, and your president wishes to extend to the associated 
students his appreciation for their active and earnest cooperation. 

The consolidation required many changes in your curriculum and 
brought into active and official cooperation with your faculty, the 
following gentlemen, who were formerly connected with the phar- 
macy department of the Medico-Chirurgical College : J. W. Sturmer, 
Charles E. Vanderkleed, Frank E. Stewart, M.D., Heber W. Young- 
ken, Robert P. Fischelis, J. Edward Brewer and Paul S. Pittinger. 
They have been most earnest in their efforts to cooperate with and 
aid the teaching force of your institution, and your president cannot 
allow this opportunity to pass without expressing to them on behalf 
of the membership of the college, appreciation for their earnest 
endeavors. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Howard B. French. 

March 26, 1917. 



THE AMEEICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



The following communication contains an account of certain 
experiments designed to furnish knowledge of the behavior of cal- 
cium glycerophosphate in solution and the effect upon the salt of 
those substances which are commonly associated with it in pharma- 
ceutical mixtures. In a consideration of this substance one must 
always remember that the commercial salt is a mixture of two 
isomeric compounds in varying proportions depending upon the 
details of manufacture ; the isomerism being essentially that of sub- 
stituted propyl and isopropyl groups. This fact in itself lends so 
much uncertainty to the chemical that no one would be justified in 
presenting the results of experiments in which the mixture had been 
used without a statement of the relative proportions of the isomers 
if the last Pharmacopoeia did not recognize the mixture as the 
official substance. I have not been able to find a reliable method for 
the separation of the isomers and cannot, therefore, state the com- 
position of the salt used in these determinations. Analysis, however, 
showed that it easily conformed to the tests of the Pharmacopoeia. 

In this investigation the first step was the compounding of the 
two preparations in the National Formulary which contain calcium 
glycerophosphate (if we are to have abbreviations why not 
"glycphos " instead of the longer official term?). It was found that 
the amount of calcium glycerophosphate directed was not com- 
pletely soluble in either of the official menstrua, the consequence of 
which is that its proportion in the finished elixir will vary with the 
skill of the pharmacist, the temperature of the laboratory and the 
composition of the salt he employs. By directing the addition of 
purified talc to the compound elixir and immediate filtration the 




By James F. Couch, Washington, D. C. 



( 2 43) 



244 Pharmacy of Calcium Glycerophosphate. { A ™ u J° U i 9 f 7 harm - 

National Formulary obscures the fact of the insolubility of the 
calcium glycerophosphate and the pharmacist may be led to believe — 
unless he be of a critical turn of mind — that each liter of his finished 
elixir contains 16 Gm. of calcium glycerophosphate. 

The Compound Elixir of the Glycerophosphates, N. F. IV, was 
prepared with rigid adherence to the directions except that the 
purified talc was omitted and the mixture was not immediately 
filtered. A large proportion of the calcium salt was found out of 
solution, not having been dissolved and then precipitated on the 
addition of the alcohol which might have happened. It had never 
been dissolved and no other manipulation would cause its solution. 
This mixture was allowed to stand two days at room temperature 
with occasional shaking in order that there might be no doubt of the 
establishment of equilibrium. A considerable precipitate remained. 

The mixture was now divided into four equal portions. The 
first portion was filtered, made up to volume through the filter, 
bottled and set aside for analysis. To the other three portions 
lactic, citric, and phosphoric acids were severally added in small 
amounts until the insoluble matter was dissolved. 4 Gm. of citric 
acid per liter dissolved the precipitate in one portion. This solution 
began to deposit calcium citrate within a week and the precipitation 
continued until the acid was exhausted. A third portion required 
40 mils of U. S. P. phosphoric acid per liter to completely dissolve 
the precipitate and this solution quickly became cloudy as a heavy 
precipitate settled out. In the f ourth portion the undissolved calcium 
salt was brought into solution by lactic acid in the proportion of 30 
mils per liter and this solution, which was not filtered, shows only a 
barely perceptible cloudiness after standing three months. This 
mixture now contains 40 mils per liter of lactic acid which is suffi- 
cient to dissolve and retain in solution 16 Gm. per liter of commercial 
calcium glycerophosphate. 

Lest the use of the term " commercial " in the above paragraph 
lead to misunderstanding let me add that the adjective was used to 
designate the mixture of isomers found in commerce which conforms 
to the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia. All of the materials 
used in this investigation complied with the standards of the U. S. P. 
IX or N. F. IV, unless otherwise stated. 

The first portion was analyzed for calcium glycerophosphate. 
29.57 mils gave 0.00826 Gm. of calcium oxide corresponding to 11.72 
Gm. calcium glycerophosphate per liter, or 73.36 per cent, of the 
formulated amount. 



A juJe Ur iV^7 arm ' } Pharmacy of Calcium Glycerophosphate. 245 

The discovery that the official elixir actually contains only 75 per 
cent, of the calcium glycerophosphate directed was disconcerting but 
not entirely unexpected, for after several years' experience with 
glycerophosphate mixtures I did not believe that the N. F. IV for- 
mula was so adjusted that it would dissolve 16 Gm. of the salt. 

An experimental batch of elixir calcium and sodium gylcero- 
phosphates N. F. IV was now made to determine the satisfactory 
character of this formula. The ingredients were manipulated ac- 
cording to the N. F. directions ; the calcium salt completely dissolved 
in the diluted phosphoric acid : upon the addition of the sodium 
glycerophosphate solution a white precipitate appeared at first but 
redissolved when all the solution had been added. A faint cloudi- 
ness was produced when the glycerin was mixed in and this became 
pronounced when the aromatic elixir was added. The mixture was 
made up to volume with water which did not redissolve the pre- 
cipitate ; one half of the mixture was filtered, the other half was 
bottled without filtration. 

The filtered portion precipitated within twelve hours : it was 
refiltered and allowed to stand. Another precipitate formed in four 
hours. Lactic acid was now T added to this in the proportion of 15 
mils per liter; the precipitate was redissolved and after standing 
three months the amount of precipitation was inappreciable. The 
unfiltered portion continued to precipitate until a large deposit 
covered the bottom of the container. 

From these experiments it appears that neither of these formulas 
is wholly satisfactory. In order to compete with proprietary prepa- 
rations now in commerce the compound elixir must contain ap- 
proximately 8 grains and the dual elixir 4 grains of calcium salt per 
fluidounce. 

One of the best known proprietary brands of the compound 
elixir was submitted to analysis. One fluidounce yielded 0.1186 Gm. 
calcium oxide, equivalent to 6.854 grains of calcium glycerophos- 
phate. This preparation had apparently been filtered after precipita- 
tion: it was labelled 8 grains. Tests showed the presence of free 
phosphoric and lactic acids. 

It was then decided that the solubility of calcium glycerophos- 
phate should be determined under various conditions and, if possible, 
a combination was to be found which would retard the hydrolysis of 
the salt. 

All work with the U. S. P. substance is complicated by the fact 



246 Pharmacy of Calcium Glycerophosphate. { A J u l° UT ^ arm - 

that the solubilities of the isomers are quite different and where the 
relative proportion of the two is unknown one cannot adopt the usual 
method for determining the solubility of the salt — that of shaking 
the solvent with an excess of solute at definite temperature and 
analyzing the solution — for, as DuBois 1 has pointed out, such a 
solution will contain a larger proportion of the more soluble isomer 
than the original mixture. On the contrary, solvent must be added 
to a weighed portion of the salt until it dissolves in order that the 
solution may truly represent the original compound. To verify this 
the solubility of the salt was determined by each method. The first 
procedure in which an excess of salt was used gave a solubility in 
water of 1:31.59 at 25 C, while the second method yielded the 
result 1 : 56.95 at the same temperature. Most of the solubilities 
reported in the following experiments were determined by the latter 
method : the first method was used in some comparative experiments. 
All determinations were made at 25 degrees C. 

Before entering upon a discussion of these determinations, how- 
ever, we may profitably review the present knowledge of calcium 
glycerophosphate. 

The U. S. P. IX states that its solubility in water at 25 is about 
1 : 50 ; DuBois 1 says commercial calcium glycerophosphate should 
dissolve in 40 to 50 parts of water at 20 degrees. In this work the 
solubility was determined as 1 156.95 at 25 °. 

The commercial product is a mixture of a and f$ calcium glycero- 
phosphates derived from isomeric a and (3 glycerophosphoric acids 
whose relationship is shown by the following structural formalas : 

CH2OH 

I CH 2 OH OH 

CHOH OH I / 

I / and CH O— P:0 

CH 2 — O— P:0 I \ 

\ CH2OH OH 

OH 

a. j8 

Salts of the diglycerophosphoric acids may also be present in the 
commercial salt as impurities but are excluded by the alcohol- 
soluble tests of the Pharmacopoeia. 

The solubilities of the isomeric calcium salts is given 1 as : 

1 " The Chemistry and Properties of Glycerophosphates," read before the 
pharmaceutical division of the American Chemical Society, September 10, 1913. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 19 17. 



} Pharmacy of Calcium Glycerophosphate. 



247 



a (anhydrous) 1 : 22 at 20 . 
a " 1 : 108 at ioo° 
a " 1:22.4 at 16 . 
/? " 1:60 at 20 . 



(Power and Tutin. 2 ) 



Both isomers are insoluble in alcohol. 

Acids increase the solubility of calcium glycerophosphate in 
water but those acids which form insoluble calcium salts gradually 
produce a precipitate in the solution, which is undesirable. In addi- 
tion, any admixture with acid increases the rate of hydrolysis of 
the glycerophosphoric acid so that, even in the presence of acids 
which do not form insoluble calcium salts, a precipitate of secondary 
calcium phosphate may be produced unless the proportions of acid 
and salt are so adjusted that the soluble primary calcium phosphate 
is formed. Lactic acid appears to be eminently fitted for this pur- 
pose. Citric, phosphoric, and tartaric acids are objectionable be- 
cause they lead to precipitation and other acids are excluded for 
therapeutic reasons or pharmaceutical inelegance. 



1. Influence of Alcohol upon the Solubility of Calcium Glycero- 
phosphate in Water. — For this purpose a solution made by saturat- 
ing water with the salt at 25 was used. The solubility was 1 : 31.59. 

A. To 35 mils of solution 1.5 mils of alcohol were added. A 
flocculent precipitate immediately appeared. The mixture was 
shaken and allowed to stand until precipitation was complete. The 
precipitate was filtered off, washed with a small quantity of 5 per 
cent, alcohol, dried at no°, and weighed. Wt. ppt. 0.2308 Gm. 

B. To 34.7 mils of mother liquor from experiment A 1.9 mils 
of alcohol were added. A precipitate was produced which was 
treated as in A except that it was washed with 10 per cent, alcohol. 
Wt. ppt. 0.2195 Gm. 

C. To 33.8 mils of nitrate from experiment B 0.9 mils of alcohol 
were added. The precipitate produced was treated as in A and B 
except that it was washed with 12 per cent, alcohol. Wt. ppt. 
0.1366 Gm. 

Solution A contained about 5 per cent, alcohol by volume, B 
about 10 per cent, and C about 12 per cent. The solubility of cal- 
cium glycerophosphate in diluted alcohol at 25 is therefore: 

2 Jour. Chem. Soc, 87, 240 (1905). 



Experimental. 



248 



Pharmacy of Calcium Glycerophosphate. { A f u l° nr ig ^j arm ' 



In 5 per cent, alcohol 
In 10 per cent, alcohol 
In 12 per cent, alcohol 



1 : 41.6 
1 : 55-6 
1 : 66.6 



assuming that the composition of the precipitate is the same as that 
of the original salt. The method here employed gives quantitative 
results only for the case where the solute is in excess as before 
stated. It does show, however, that small amounts of alcohol 
markedly repress the solubility of the salt. 

2. Influence of Acids upon the Solubility of Calcium Glycero- 
phosphate in Dilute Alcohol. — A. To 25 mils of the saturated solu- 
tion used in the first series 0.33 mil of lactic acid was added. 
Alcohol was now added drop by drop and thoroughly mixed in until 
a permanent cloudiness was produced. The total volume was 31.9 
mils. Allowing 3 per cent, for shrinkage the alcoholic content of the 
mixture was nearly 23 per cent, by volume and the solubility was 
about 1 : 40. Thus, 1 per cent, of lactic acid increases the solubility 
of the salt so that 23 per cent, alcohol equals the solvent power of 
5 per cent, alcohol without such addition. 

B. To the foregoing 0.9 mil of lactic acid was added which 
redissolved the precipitate. Alcohol was added to permanent cloudi- 
ness as before. The final volume was 101 mils and the alcoholic 
content nearly 72 per cent. The acid concentration was 1.22 per 
cent, and the solubility about 1 : 128. Without the acid calcium 
glycerophosphate would be scarcely soluble at all in 72 per cent, 
alcohol. 

C. To 25 mils of the saturated solution 3.5 mils (12 per cent.) 
of alcohol were added. A precipitate occurred which was redis- 
solved by 0.2 Gm. citric acid. Within twenty-four hours a crystal- 
line precipitate of calcium citrate appeared. 

D. To 25 mils of the saturated solution 3.5 mils of alcohol were 
added and 0.6 mil of U. S. P. phosphoric acid were used to redis- 
solve the precipitate. This solution became cloudy in a short time, 
but did not deposit a precipitate. 

E. To 25 mils of the saturated solution 3.5 mils of alcohol were 
added. 0.6 mil of lactic acid redissolved the precipitate. Solution 
has remained clear for three months. 

3. Influence of Glycerin upon the Solubility and Hydrolysis. — 
A. To 75 mils of the saturated solution 25 mils of glycerin were 
added. In 8 days the solution became cloudy; in 7 days more a 
precipitate settled out. 



A Kn J e° U i9?7 harm ' ^ Pharmacy of Calcium Glycerophosphate. 249 

B. On the same date 100 mils of a saturated solution of calcium 
glycerophosphate in water made by the second method was prepared 
and- set beside the above solution, both being securely stoppered. 
This solution precipitated in three days and at the end of a month 
there was fully ten times as much precipitation in the aqueous as 
in the glycerin solution. These experiments show roughly that, 
while glycerin does not prevent the hydrolysis of the calcium glycero- 
phosphate, it does retard it. 

C. 1.75 Gm. calcium glycerophosphate were treated with 100 
mils of a 25 per cent, solution of glycerin in water. The salt was 
not quite completely soluble. This quantity was just soluble in 100 
mils of water. 

D. To the foregoing solution 0.5 mil of lactic acid were added. 
The remainder of the calcium salt dissolved. The solution pre- 
cipitated in the same fashion as in experiment A and to the same 
extent. This indicates that glycerin retards the hydrolysis in acid 
solutions also. 

4. Joint Influence of Alcohol and Glycerin on the Solubiliy of 
Calcium Glycerophosphate. — A. An aqueous mixture containing 
12.5 per cent, of alcohol, and 25 per cent, of glycerin was employed. 
100 mils were added to 1.75 Gm. of the calcium salt. Very little 
dissolved. 3 mils of lactic acid were sufficient to effect the solution. 
This solution did not precipitate ; in three months a small cloudiness 
only was visible. 

5. Influence of sodium glycerophosphate solution upon the solu- 
bility of the calcium compound. 

A. An aqueous solution of the U. S. P. solution of sodium 
glycerophosphate which contained 40 Gm. per liter (or the same 
strength that is used in the N. F. compound elixir) was employed 
to dissolve 1.75 Gm. of the calcium salt. Required 178.85 mils of 
solvent. Solubility, 1 : 102.2 at 25 °. The calcium compound is, 
therefore, only half as soluble in this solvent as it is in water. In 
addition, this solution hydrolyzed rapidly. 

6. Influence of alcohol, glycerin, and sodium glycerophosphate 
upon the solubility of calcium glycerophosphate in lactic acid solution. 

A. 1.75 Gm. of the calcium salt were treated with a solvent 
composed of 12.5 per cent, alcohol by vol., 25 per cent, glycerin, 40 
Gm. per liter of sodium glycerophosphate solution U. S. P. and I 
per cent, of lactic acid. Required 294 mils of solvent. Solubility, 
1 : 168 at 25 . 



250 Pharmacy of Calcium Glycerophosphate. { A J u l° nr ^j avm ' 

The influence of sodium citrate upon the solubility was roughly 
determined. It was found that an admixture of 20 per cent, of this 
salt increased the solubility from 1 : 57 to 1 : 32 and that the solubility 
of calcium glycerophosphate in a 1 : 250 solution of sodium citrate 
was 1:41. Both of these solutions quickly precipitated calcium 
citrate. 

Summary. 

It has been shown that, 

1. The solubility in water of calcium glycerophosphate is in- 
creased by acids and by sodium citrate. 

2. The solubility in water is repressed by alcohol, glycerin, and 
sodium glycerophosphate solution. 

3. Lactic, citric, and phosphoric acids increase the solubility in 
presence of alcohol or glycerin or both. 

4. Acids hasten the hydrolysis of the salt-producing precipitates 
except that lactic acid tends to keep the hydrolytic products in 
solution. 

5. Alcohol and glycerin repress the hydrolysis even in the pres- 
ence of acids. 

6. In the N. F. formula for the compound elixir the lactic acid 
should be increased to at least 40 mils, and in the formula for the 
calcium and sodium glycerophosphate elixir the phosphoric acid 
should be replaced by at least 20 mils of lactic acid. 

Discussion. 

The use of various acids in order to increase the solubility of 
calcium glycerophosphate so that an effective amount of it may be 
presented in the old-time teaspoonful dose, while highly necessary 
for pharmaceutical reasons, is, nevertheless, quite undesirable from 
chemical considerations. The addition of acid causes the formation 
of free glycerophosphoric acid, which undergoes autohydrolysis, 3 
the free hydroxyls of the acid acting as the catalyst, so that, even- 
tually, the mixture consists of a calcium salt, free added acid, 
glycerin, and phosphoric acid. There may then be little or no true 
glycerophosphates in the solution. Not only will this occur with the 
calcium salt but it will obtain with all glycerophosphates in acid 
solution. Self 4 suggested the addition of sulphuric acid in making 
acid glycerophosphates and DuBois 1 states that these compounds are 

3 Malengreu and Prigent, Zeit. physiol. Chem. (1911), 73- 68-84. 

4 Pharm. Jour., May 16, 1908, p. 627. 



A June" r i g ^7 arm ' ) Pharmacy of Calcium Glycerophosphate. 251 

less stable than the neutral salts. All the proposed formulas employ 
some acid : Dunning 5 used hypophosphorous acid, later changing to 
lactic ; the Australian Pharmaceutical formulary, 6 Griffiths, 7 British 
Pharmacopoeia, 8 all use phosphoric acid. 

In addition to the objection which arises from the hydrolysis of 
the compound another, and more serious, danger bids us hesitate to 
add weak organic acids to such elixirs. The compound elixirs of 
the glycerophosphates all contain a quinine salt. It has been shown 
that weak organic acids cause an intramolecular rearrangement in 
quinine which results in the formation of quinotoxine, 9 a highly 
poisonous ketone to which fatal consequences have been attributed. 
No undesirable results from this cause have as yet been reported 
in the case of the glycerophosphate elixirs. 

In view of these facts it would probably be best to eliminate 
liquid preparations of the glycerophosphates and to supply the small 
demand with tablets or powders. Whatever the therapeutic value of 
the glycerophosphates may be 10 their efficacy cannot be demonstrated 
to advantage by a liquid full of their hydrolytic products. 

A discrepancy will be observed in the results for the solubility of 
the calcium glycerophosphate as observed in the compound elixir and 
in experiment 6A. The first shows a solubility of 1 185 while the 
latter gives 1 : 168. This is due to the fact that in the case of the 
elixir an excess of solute was present so that a larger proportion of 
the more soluble isomer entered solution than in experiment 6A. 



AN INTERESTING PRESCRIPTION. 1 
By L. F. Kebler, Ph.C, M.D. 

I desire to call attention to what appears to me a unique combi- 
nation of drugs and some incidents connected therewith. A patient 
was suddenly taken seriously ill after taking some medicine put up 

5 Proc. A. Ph. A., 54, 616 (1906). 

6 Druggists' Circular formula book, p. 6 (1915). 

7 " Non-Secret Formulas," p. 321 (1910). 

8 Quoted in Hiss and Eberts's " Pharmaceutical Preparations," p. 409 
(1908). 

9 v. Miller and Rhode, Ber., 28, 1056; Scoville, Jour. A. Ph. A., May, 
1916, p. 590. 

10 Jour. A. Med. A., LXVII, No. 14. p. 1033 (September 30, 1916). 
1 Read at the Kansas City meeting of the American Chemical Society, 
1917. 



252 An Interesting Prescription. { A ™ U n° ur ^7 ann * 

on order of a physician by a pharmacist. The medicine was sus- 
pected and immediately discontinued. The question naturally arose 
as to whether or not a mistake had been made in compounding the 
prescription, which was known to contain corrosive sublimate. The 
unused pills were turned over to me, a friend of the family, with a 
view of having the amount of mercuric chloride estimated, so that 
suitable treatment could be instituted if found necessary. A copy 
of the prescription, which follows, was procured : 

$ Hydrarg. Bichloride Grs. y 2 . 

Sulphur Prsecip Drams 2. 

01. Theobromae Q.S. 

Pil. XXX. 

Sig: One before meals t.i.d. 

Dr. 

It will be observed that this mixture calls for % of a grain of 
corrosive sublimate, 4 grains of sulphur, and an indefinite amount 
of cocoa butter to each pill. A number of points must be consid- 
ered in making an examination of a mixture of this character. 
First, variability in the weight of the pills. Second, chemical reac- 
tions which may interfere with the estimation of the corrosive subli- 
mate. Third, method of analysis. Fourth, uniform distribution of 
the mercuric chloride. These points will be taken up in the above 
order. 

First, variability of weight of pills. Twenty of the pills were 
weighed with the following results : 



Grams. 



I . 
2. 
3. 
4- 
5. 

6. 
7. 
8. 
9- 
10. 



0.52 
0.50 
0-54 
0-55 
0-53 
0.47 
0.51 
0.52 
0-54 
0-55 



Grains. 



8.0 


11 , 


7-7 


12 


8-3 


13- 


8-5 


14. 


8.2 


15. 


7.2 


16 


7-9 


17. 


8.0 


18 


8.3 


19. 


8-5 


20 . 



Grams. 



Grains. 



0-53 
0-54 
9-59 
0-53 
0.51 
0.56 
0-53 
0.49 
0-55 
0.52 



8.2 
8-3 
9.1 
8.2 
7-9 
8.6 
8.2 
7-6 
8.5 
8.0 



Weight. Grams. Grains. 

Maximum 0.59 9.1 

Minimum 0.47 7.2 

Average 0.53 8.2 

Percentage variation from the average : 2 slightly exceed a 10 per cent, 
variation from the average; 3 exceed a 5 per cent, variation from the average. 



A j 1 un J e OU ?' 9 ^7 iarm ' ^ ^ n Interesting Prescription. 253 

From a study of other subdivisions of medicines these variations, 
considering the character of the article, are reasonable. 

Second, chemical reactions. There appeared to be no reaction 
at the time the material was received, nor at the end of two years. 
In discussing this matter with the prescribing physician he stated in 
substance that this mixture enabled him to give very large doses, as 
large as 2 grains of the mercuric chloride, without any untoward 
effects. He considered this a very important observation in that it 
may be possible by this mixture to inhibit undesirable intestinal fer- 
mentation. It was suggested that possibly the mercury may be con- 
verted into an insoluble sulphide, thus rendering it inert, but no 
information on this point has been found. 

Third, method of analysis. It can readily be seen that the large 
amounts of sulphur and cocoa butter would tend to make the deter- 
mination of the mercuric compound rather difficult. Neither in- 
cineration nor sublimation was possible. A little experimentation 
showed that petroleum ether dissolved the sulphur and cocoa butter 
and practically none of the mercuric chloride. The method used for 
estimating the mercury compound was as follows : 

A number of pills, accurately weighed, were introduced into a 
beaker, a sufficient amount of petroleum benzin was added to com- 
pletely disintegrate the pills and dissolve the greater portion thereof ; 
the mixture was then transferred to a separatory funnel, the beaker 
rinsed with several successive portions of the benzin and transferred 
to the above separatory funnel. The benzin mixture was then 
treated with several successive portions of water, acidulated with 
hydrochloric acid, the successive aqueous portions transferred to a 
beaker through a funnel, in the throat of which a pledget of cotton 
was lodged. After the benzin solution was completely extracted with 
the acidulated watery solution and the latter transferred to the 
beaker, the mercury was precipitated with gaseous hydrogen sul- 
phide. The mercuric sulphide obtained was transferred to a weighed 
Gooch crucible provided with a suitably prepared filter, the precipi- 
tate washed with water, then with alcohol, and finally with ether to 
dissolve any free sulphur. The crucible and contents were then 
dried to constant weight at no° C. in a hot air oven and the weight 
determined. From the data available the amount of mercuric chlo- 
ride was calculated. The amount found was somewhat less than 
called for by the prescription. The pharmacist apparently endeav- 
ored to lean on the side of safety in filling an order calling for so 
potent a poison to be taken internally. 



254 



Breeding for Atropine. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
*- June, 19 17. 



Fourth, uniformity of distribution. It is of course imprac- 
ticable to analyze each pill separately, but an examination of several 
successive portions showed that the distribution was fairly uniform. 

In conclusion it should be stated that if this mixture were given 
to a chemist for analysis without any knowledge on his part as to the 
presence of the mercuric chloride he would in all probability over- 
look it. 



BREEDING FOR ATROPINE 1 

GREAT VARIATION IN ALKALOIDAL CONTENT OF BELLA- 
DONNA PLANTS PROMISES RESULTS TO SELECTION- 
EXTERNAL CHARACTERS OF PLANT SEEM TO GIVE 
A CLUE TO ITS CHEMICAL CONTENT. 

By L. Wayne Arny, Director H. K. Mulford Co., Experimental Drug 
Gardens, Glenolden, Pa. 

The high prices paid for crude drugs, brought about by the ab- 
normal economic conditions of the last few years, have stimulated a 
wide and popular interest in the cultivation of the plants yielding 
these products. Unfortunately for the crude drug industry, a great 
part of this interest has been aroused merely from a view toward 
financial investment and the real issues at hand have been generally 
overlooked. 

There is no question but that America must grow a large part of 
her drug supply in the future since the drug importations are yearly 
becoming less dependable. The adulterations which are being made 
by collectors of crude drugs render the purchase of these plants upon 
the open markets extremely unsatisfactory and if the American 
manufacturer of pharmaceuticals is to produce articles of high grade, 
he must either grow his own vegetable drugs or obtain them from 
someone who he knows is growing them honestly. 

Certain economic facts, however, must be considered. Compe- 
tition with European peasant labor greatly reduces the chances of 
financial profit from American production, and unless some step can 
be taken to produce drugs superior to those of European origin, no 
hope can be found for such an industry in America upon a purely 
financial basis. It is probable, however, that such improvement can 
be brought about, and the competition will be changed from quantity 

1 Reprinted from Jour. Heredity, April, 1917, Vol. III. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 19 17. 



Breeding for Atropine. 



255 



against quantity to quality against quantity. Stating the case in a 
more simple way it may be said that financial success in the cultiva- 
tion of drug plants depends upon the possibility of increasing the 
alkaloid content of these plants by plant breeding methods. 

The object of this paper is to point out to breeders who are in- 
terested in this field of work the opportunity which these plants offer 
for selective methods of improvement. The resulting improvement 
from research work in this direction not only will afford the satis- 
faction which is coincident with accomplishment, but will provide 
raw materials of uniform and high quality to the exacting profes- 
sions of medicine and pharmacy. This surely then is a worthy field 
for experimental effort. It at once becomes evident that the work 
of increasing alkaloids in a plant differs from that of increasing size, 
changing color or form. The investigator is dealing with unseen 
characters. 

Little Hybridization Done 
Hybridizing drug plants has been attempted by several workers 
and under varying conditions but in general little result has been 
gotten from this method. There may be exceptions to this state- 
ment, such as cinchona; 2 but especially with plants of the temperate 
zone, the great majority of crossing experiments have resulted only 
in a chaotic jumble of characters without meaning. This is to be 
expected when we keep in mind the class of plants with which we 
are dealing. 

The most serious effort then must be through selective methods, 
but here again certain difficulties at once arise. Since the characters 
with which we are working are unseen, the number of individuals 
that can be placed under observation is therefore limited, and in turn 
the chances of success are proportionately reduced. 

In establishing a system of selection of belladonna 3 (Atropa 
Belladonna) at the Mulford Drug Gardens, the effort was made to 
overcome this difficulty by establishing a correlation between some 
apparent physical character and alkaloidal content. If such a corre- 

2 The South American cinchona tree, from the bark of which quinine is 
secured, has been improved by breeders in Java, who have selected the best of 
many natural hybrids, and propagated them asexually. This is usually re- 
ferred to as the only drug plant which has been improved through hybridizing ; 
but so far as I am aware, there is no record of really scientific breeding having 
been done with it. 

3 For an outline of some similar work with belladonna and other plants, 
see "Breeding Medicinal Plants," by F.A.Miller. American Breeders' Maga- 
zine, IV, pp. 193-201. 



256 



Breeding for Atropine. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 

June, 1917. 



lation could be demonstrated, the advantage of observing thousands 
of individuals rather than hundreds would be at hand. 

The breeding plot contained 500 individuals which were chosen 
from a lot of several thousand seedlings. The seed from which these 
plants were grown had been imported from Germany and no previous 
history of them was known. They were sown in the greenhouse in 
January and potted off in the usual manner. Those used for the 
breeding plot w r ere chosen only because of uniform size and ap- 
parent vigor. Some of the features of the plant were recorded on a 
card at the time of setting out. These included size in its first and 
second weeks, and when adult; the blooming date, color, size of leaf 
and of root, and any other facts which seemed likely to be of interest. 
The plot contained five rows with 100 plants in each row numbered 
chronologically and recorded on individual cards. These plants were 
examined once each week for the first three weeks and then as often 
as the data on the cards required. The soil on which the plants grew 
was a heavy clay loam with a clay subsoil and had received no treat- 
ment except a heavy application of stable manure during the winter. 

The leaves were gathered at the usual time — just as the flowers 
are opening — and enough leaves were allowed to remain to mature 
the fruit pods. The leaves were then air dried on drying racks in 
bundles corresponding to the plant from which they were taken, 
after which they were assayed for alkaloidal content. The error in- 
cident to this process was minimized by running the assays in dupli- 
cate. Of the 400 samples, 15 were discarded because too small, or 
because they were spoiled in assaying. The alkaloidal content of the 
remaining samples, expressed in percentages, was as follows : 



Alkaloidal Content, Number of Samples. 
.O-.09 .' 4 

.1-.19 8 

.2-29 : 26 

■3-39 83 

•4-49 94 

-5--5Q 65 

.6-.6g 42 

•7-79 26 

•8-.8 9 25 

•9--99 6 

1.0- 6 

385 

Mean = .507; <r = .ig^. 



^Je U i* 9 ? 7 harm * } Some Constituents of Jambul. 257 

The standard of the United States Pharmacopeia is 0.4 atropine 
in belladonna, and the average sample found in the markets varies 
from this minimum to about 0.6. It is evident, then, that nearly 70 
per cent, of the plants were above the standard in chemical content, 
and that six of them yielded 1 per cent, or more of atropine — a re- 
markably high percentage. They were as follows : 

1.020 
1. 000 
1. 100 
1.230 
1.030 

1.039 
Avg. 1.07 

Interest naturally centered on these plants, and a study of the 
records showed that every one of them was small at the time of 
harvest, while practically all the plants which yielded .01 or less were 
large and vigorous in growth. Furthermore, the six high plants all 
had light stems, while the plants yielding .1 or less had dark stems. 
These characters were the only ones found which seemed to give a 
clue to the chemical constitution of the plants, but they were marked 
enough to warrant especial attention during the coming season, when 
a selected second generation will be grown. 

In conclusion, it must be remembered that this work covers only 
one season and hence must be regarded as merely preliminary. It is 
highly encouraging to us, however, in indicating the extreme variation 
of atropine content in the belladonna plant and giving hope that 
valuable commercial results can be secured by selection. 



SOME CONSTITUENTS OF JAMBUL. 1 

By Merrill C. Hart and Frederick W. Heyl. 

The Jambul Tree {Syzygium Jambolana) , well known to the 
natives of the East Indies and Malay regions from China to New 
South Wales, for its edible fruit, is a large tree belonging to the 
Myrtaceae, sometimes attaining the height of ninety feet. A care- 
ful gleaning of the medical literature finds that three parts, the seed, 

1 Reprinted from the Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 
XXXVIII, No. 12, December, 1916. 



2c8 Some Constituents of Jambul, { Am. jour. Pharm. 

J <• June, 1917. 

pericarp and bark, have been employed in the treatment of diabetes 
mellitus with questionable results, but is perhaps impressed by some 
beneficent results reported. Two parts of the plant, the bark and 
the pericarp, have been recognized in the pharmacopeia of the 
Netherlands. 2 

The berry-like, sour fruit is about as large as the olive, and ap- 
parently forms a readily procurable commodity in the European 
market, whereas the term Jambul as used in this country refers to 
the flinty, hard seed contained in the pericarp. There is also some 
difference in opinion as to the part of the plant which should be 
employed in the manufacture of the fluid extract. 

The early chemical studies showed the presence, in the bark, of 
tannin, 3 in the seed, of gallic acid. 4 The seed yields a trace of 
ethereal oil, 0.37 per cent, fat, and 0.3 per cent, resin, and pharma- 
ceutical shrewdness, rather than chemical investigation, or conform- 
ance with a rational system of nomenclature, has given the name 
" antimellin " to an alleged glucosidic constituent. 5 This finding of 
Borsch could not be substantiated by Power and Callan. 6 The 
statement of Pottiez 7 concerning the presence of quercitol and cin- 
namic acid could not be confirmed by these chemists. Stephenson 8 
found that the diastatic hydrolysis of starch was appreciably re- 
duced by the presence of the extract of the fresh kernels. 

Several preparations of German origin are marketed, e. g., 
Djoeat, Bauers, Glykosolvol and Pavykol, which probably contain, 
in part, extracts from the bark or pericarps, and Djoeatin (Borsch) 
which is alleged to contain the above-mentioned " antimellin." The 
presence of tannin has recommended its use among the natives as 
an astringent, but on the whole, as stated in the Dispensatory, " it 
has failed to establish itself as a practical medicament." 

The recent work of Power and Callan on Jambul seed leaves 
the question as to the pharmaceutical value of the pericarp. It was 
our plan to make a comparative study of the seed and pericarp, and 
we decided to investigate independently the seed, while awaiting a 
promised supply of pericarp, which unfortunately will not be avail- 
able at present and we therefore report our work on the seed. 

2 Ph. Nederl, IV. 

3 Johanson, Dissert, Dorpat, 1891. 
4 Elborne, Pharm. J., 3, 932 (1888). 

5 Borsch, Pharm. Ztg., 44, 574 (1899). 

6 Pharm. J., 34, 414 (1912) ; 91, 245 (1913). 
'Ann. Pharm, Louvain, 5, 373, 490 (1899). 
8 Pharm, J., p. 211 (1892). 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
June, 19 17. 



Some Constituents of Jambul. 



259 



Our sample of Jambul seed, which was badly worm eaten, was 
'received from Bombay. It was picked over and 91 pounds were 
rejected from a 200-pound shipment. The material contained 8.0 
per cent, moisture and 2.9 per cent. ash. Ligroin extracted 1.2 per 
cent., ether, 1.3 per cent., and alcohol 16. 1 per cent. The residue 
insoluble in alcohol had the following composition: crude fiber, 2.3 
per cent.; pentosans, 2.1 per cent.; protein, 6.3 per cent.; starch, 
41.4 per cent. ; dextrin, 2.1 per cent. The alcohol extract showed 
the presence of 0.3 per cent, sucrose and 3.3 per cent, reducing 
sugars. Tannin amounted to 6.0 per cent. 

The products present in the alcoholic percolate, and soluble in 
water, besides the sugars and tannin, are ellagic and gallic acids. 

The study of the resin gave, in general, the same results as those 
reported by Power and Callan, i. e. } from the ligroin extract, oleic, 
linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids ; from the ethyl acetate and al- 
coholic extracts, chiefly ellagic acid. YVe are, however, able to de- 
scribe more fully the presence in the ligroin extract of myricyl al- 
cohol, of a hydrocarbon very probably hentriacontane, and of a 
phytosterol, C 27 H 46 0, melting at 135-135 -5° that formed an acetate, 
melting at 119-120°. The ether extract as well as the chloroform 
extract yielded in addition a phytosterolin, C 33 H 56 6 , which Ave have 
described in detail. 

. YVe endeavored to repeat Stephenson's work which would indi- 
cate the presence of something in Jambul that would retard dia- 
static hydrolysis. In using the iodine method of Sherman, Kendall 
and Clark, 9 it was found to be impossible to read the end points of 
a diastatic hydrolysis because the presence of gallic acid in the ex- 
tract decolorized the iodine solution. In the same way the reduc- 
ing action of a Jambul extract is sufficiently great to render inac- 
curate their excellent gravimetric method employed for finding the 
activity of pancreatin. 



{A) Proximate Analysis. — A sample of the air-dried seed 
after grinding and sieving was quantitatively extracted with various 
solvents, with the following results : 



EXPERIMENTAL. 



Extract 



Percent. 



Ligroin (35-55°) 
Volatile ether extract 

Ether 

Alcoholic 



1-3 
16.1 



0.2 



1.2 



9 American Chemical Journal, 32, 1073 (1910). 



260 Some Constituents of Jambul. { Al ?-J° 

J 1 Tune, 



ur. Pharm. 

1917. 



The proximate analyses were conducted in accordance with the 
usual methods, and gave the result tabulated below : 

Percent. Percent 

Moisture 8.0 Protein 6.3 

Starch (diastase) 41.4, 40.3 Ash 2.9 

Crude fiber 2.3 Dextrin 2.1 

Pentosans 2.1 Tannin 10 6.0 



The quantitative examination of the alcohol-soluble carbohy- 
drates resulted as follows : 

100 g. of Jambul seeds were extracted with boiling 95 per cent, alcohol. 
The alcoholic extract was concentrated to a syrup, precipitated with a slight 
excess of lead subacetate and made to a volume of 200 Cc. The direct and 
invert readings at 22 in 2 dcm. tube are — 2.6V, and 3.2V, respectively.. The 
invert reading at 86° in a 2 dcm. tube was 0.35V. Hence sucrose = 0.23 per 
cent., fructose = 2.3 per cent., and glucose == 2.1 per cent., respectively. Gravi- 
metric determinations by the Walker-Munson process gave sucrose 0.33 per 
cent, and reducing sugar 3.3 per cent. 

(B) Examination of Alcoholic Extract. — For this purpose 
45.4 kg. were exhausted by percolation with wood alcohol at room 
temperatures. Power and Callan extracted the seed with hot ethyl 
alcohol. The percolate (397 1.) was concentrated under diminished 
pressure to a volume of 12.5 liters. This concentrated extract on 
standing deposited 230 g. of yellowish material which was quite in- 
soluble in the usual organic solvents. It could be redissolved in 
dilute alkali and then reprecipitated by the addition of acetic acid. 
After being digested with ether, and with ethyl acetate, this ma- 
terial was crystallized from pyridine. Brown needles were ob- 
tained that gave the characteristic tests for ellagic acid. 

The filtered alcohol extract was poured into 25 1. of distilled 
water and vigorously agitated. After long standing the resin was 
removed 'by filtration. The aqueous alcohol nitrate was concen- 
trated under reduced pressure in order to remove the alcohol. 
When this solution was diluted with distilled water, further precipi- 
tation took place even after diluting to a volume of 80 liters. The 
solution was allowed to stand overnight and the precipitate (372 g.) 
was filtered off. This material was of the nature of a phlobaphene. 
The filtrate was concentrated to a volume of 9.77 1. It now depos- 
ited 84 g. of ellagic acid. This deposit was digested with ether and 

10 Both the Hide powder method, and the Proctor-Lowenthal method 
gave the same results. 



'^fule^j^'} Somc Constituents of Jambul. 261 

with ethyl acetate and crystallized three times from pyridine. The 
crystals were washed successively with water, ethyl acetate and 
ether, dried at 150 and analyzed. 

Calc. for C 14 H 6 O s : C, 55.6; H, 2.0. Found: C, 55.6; H, 2.1. 

The aqueous solution containing 5276 g. of water-soluble plant 
extractive was divided and a quantity containing 3750 g. was ex- 
tracted repeatedly with large volumes of ether, which extracted 524 
g. of a greenish white solid, which proved to be gallic acid. This 
amounts to 1.63 per cent, of the drug. A portion of this crude 
gallic acid was digested with fresh ether, which removed the color. 
The residue crystallized from water in colorless needles, decompos- 
ing at about 240 . It was dried at 115 and identified as gallic acid: 

Calc. for C 7 H 6 5 : C, 49.4; H, 3.5. Found: C, 49.4; H, 3.4. 

The dark green ethereal filtrate from the purified gallic acid was 
exhaustively examined, and a small quantity of sulfur melting at 
114-115 was identified as a constituent. 

The aqueous solution which had been completely extracted with 
ether, was now extracted with chloroform, which extracted only 
3 g. of material. This was redissolved in chloroform and fraction- 
ally extracted with the usual alkaline solvents which yielded noth- 
ing definite. The neutral solution upon evaporation yielded a 
minute quantity of crystalline material melting at 115-121 . This 
gave the color tests of the phytosterol group. 

The aqueous solution which had been completely extracted with 
.ether and chloroform was now extracted repeatedly with hot amyl 
alcohol. During this extraction there ensued a gradual precipita- 
tion of ellagic acid. The material extracted with amyl alcohol 
weighed 742 g., equivalent to 2.2 per cent, of the drug. This ex- 
tract contains a considerable quantity of ellagic acid. The amyl 
alcoholic extract could be prepared as a greyish white powder, by 
precipitation with petrolic ether. From dilute alcohol and from 
pyridine solutions, ellagic acid separated. A part (58 g.) of the 
amyl alcoholic extract was redissolved in this solvent and the solu- 
tion was extracted with the usual alkaline solvents, but nothing 
crystalline was separated by this procedure. Another part (127 
g.) was hydrolized by boiling for several hours in the presence of 
5 per cent, sulfuric acid, but no crystalline hydrolytic products 



262 Some Constituents of Jambul. { A j u J° u ^ arm - 

were found. Eighty-four grams were hydrolized by boiling for one 
minute with 10 per cent, potassium hydroxide solution. The mix- 
ture was cooled and poured into an excess of dilute sulfuric acid, 
and then steam distilled. From the contents of the flask a quan- 
tity of gallic acid, melting at 240-242 °, was isolated. 

A quantity (171 g.) was boiled with a large volume of water 
and then vigorously steam distilled. Ellagic acid separated. The 
solution was concentrated and further quantities of ellagic acid 
separated. At length, after evaporation to dryness, the residue 
was boiled with ethyl acetate and some insoluble material (ellagic 
acid) was removed by nitration. It was impossible to obtain crys- 
tals from this solution. The ethyl acetate solution was evaporated 
to dryness, and again taken up in dry ethyl acetate, in which it 
was freely soluble, but nothing definite could be obtained from it. 
The amyl alcoholic extract is not glucosidic. 

The aqueous liquid which had been extracted with ether, chloro- 
form, and with amyl alcohol, was freed from the latter immiscible 
solvent by a vigorous steam distillation. The distribution of nitro- 
gen in this solution was as follows : Total soluble nitrogen, 0.0649 
per cent. ; ammonia nitrogen, 0.0079 P er cent. ; lead subacetate pre- 
cipitable nitrogen, 0.0197 per cent. 

In order to test for acid amides, one fifth of the solution was 
precipitated with mercuric acetate solution, but the results were 
negative. 

The remainder of the solution was precipitated with basic lead 
acetate, filtered, and the precipitate was found to consist essentially 
of lead tannate. 

The filtrate from the lead tannate was freed from lead with 
hydrogen sulfide and sharply concentrated. Although this syrup 
yields a precipitate with phosphotungstic acid, no nitrogenous bases 
were isolated from this fraction. The only product found was 
sugar, a crystalline deposit of a J-phenylglucosazone melting at 
207-208 being readily prepared. Pentose sugars were absent. 

The Examination of the Resin. — The resin which precipi- 
tated when the alcoholic extract was poured into water weighed 
about 699 g., equivalent to 1.5 per cent, of the drug. It was dis- 
solved in wood alcohol, poured upon purified sawdust, transferred 
to a continuous extractor, and extracted with the following results : 



Je, U i'J 7 harm ' } Some Constituents of Jambul. 263 

Ligroin (40-60 ) 433 g. 

Ether 20 

Chloroform 13 

Ethyl acetate 79 

Alcohol 109 

Total 654 g. 



The Ligroin Extract. — Three hundred grams were dissolved 
in ether and shaken with solutions of potassium hydroxide (5 per 
cent, and 10 per cent.). The alkaline extractions were acidified 
and extracted with ether. This ethereal solution was successfully 
extracted with a solution of ammonium carbonate (10 per cent.) but 
these extracts yielded nothing but a small quantity of smeary ma- 
terial precipitable with acid. 

The ethereal solution- was now extracted with solutions of potas- 
sium carbonate, and the fatty acids occurring free in the plant were 
removed. The alkaline extract containing the potassium salts of 
these fatty acids was acidified and extracted with ether. The 
ethereal solution of fatty acids was dried over anhydrous sodium 
sulfate. The ether was removed and a residue of about 92 g. ob- 
tained. This was distilled under diminished pressure. The boil- 
ing point was 215-250 at 20 mm., and the iodine number of the 
distilled acids which solidified in the receiving tube was found to 
be 88.7. A very considerable quantity of this material could not 
be distilled and it remained as a tar in the flask. These fatty acids 
were studied in connection with those obtained upon the subsequent 
hydrolysis of the glycerides. 

The ether solution which had been extracted with ammonium 
carbonate and potassium carbonate was now extracted with a solu- 
tion of potassium hydroxide. The alkaline extract was acidified 
and a quantity of tarry material (15 g.) precipitated. This was 
dissolved in alcohol and subjected to acid and alkaline hydrolysis, 
but nothing crystalline could be separated in either case. 

The ether solution which had been extracted with solutions of 
ammonium carbonate, potassium carbonate and potassium hydroxide 
contained 17 g. of neutral material belonging to the unsaponifiable 
.material. It boiled at 120-250 at 15 Mm., and yielded oily distil- 
lates exactly corresponding to those described among the unsaponi- 
fiable products of the fat. 

The original ethereal solution of the fat which had been ex- 
tracted with solutions of potassium hydroxide was evaporated to 



264 



Some Constituents of Jambul. { A ™- J° ur - P^arm. 

J June, 1917. 



dryness and the residue was saponified by boiling with 250 Cc. of 10 
per cent, alcoholic potash for about five hours. The alcohol was 
removed and water added to completely precipitate the unsaponi- 
fiable material, which was extracted with ether. 

Examination of the Unsaponifiable Matter. — The dried 
solution was evaporated to dryness and the residue was an orange- 
colored oil amounting to 47 g. It was dissolved in absolute alcohol 
and upon standing 0.15 g. of material separated. The melting 
point was indefinite (62-76 ) and suggested, as stated by Power 
and Callan, a mixture of hydrocarbon and a higher alcohol. By 
means of the phthalic acid fusion, and subsequent extraction with 
sodium carbonate, a small quantity of a hydrocarbon melting at 61 
was isolated. Three crystallizations from ethyl acetate raised this 
melting point to 63 °. It separated in colorless leaflets and was 
perliaps impure hentriacontane. 

Calc. for C 3 iH 64 : C, 85.3; H. 14.7. Found: C, 85.1; H, 14.1. 

A small quantity of a sodium salt of an acid phthalic ester was 
isolated and boiled with alcoholic potash. A product separated 
which had the melting point of myricyl alcohol, 82-84 . It crys- 
tallized from alcohol in leaflets, which softened at 82 and melted at 
85°. 

Calc. for C 30 H 62 O: C, 82.2; H 5 14.1. Found: C, 81.7; H, 13.5. 

The alcoholic solution from which the hydrocarbon and myricyl 
alcohol had separated yielded no further crystallizations even from 
concentrated solutions after the addition of small quantities of 
water. This residue was distilled under diminished pressure. 

Fraction I (b. p. 120-160 at 100 Mm.). This was a colorless, 
limpid oil with a fragrant odor. The weight was 11 g. 

Fraction I (b. p. 120-160 at 10 Mm.). This was a colorless, 
oil, less mobile than the first fraction, and of about the same weight. 
A systematic fractional distillation of I and II effected no sep- 
arations. 

Fraction III (b. p. 200-250 at 10 Mm.). This was a thick 
viscid oil which partially solidified. It weighed about 5 g. 

The fractions collected above 250 at 10 Mm. solidified in the 
receiver. The fraction boiling at 280-340 at 10 Mm. was crys- 
tallized from ethyl acetate. The material melted at about 132 , but 



A ?un^ 9 S arm '} Some Constituents of Jambul. 265 

softened somewhat lower. It was necessary to separate a small 
quantity of low-melting material (70-75 ) by a fractional crystal- 
lization and phytosterol then separated in glistening plates, melting 
sharply at IZS-^S-S - 

Calc. for C 27 H 4G OH 2 0: H 2 0, 4.5. Found: 5.6 per cent. 

Calc. for C 27 H 46 0: C, 83.9; H, 11.9. Found: C, 83.8; H, 11.6. 

0.1 163 g. of the anhydrous phytosterol made up to 20 Cc. with 
chloroform showed a rotation of — 0.489 in a 2 dcm. tube, whence 

Wg=— 42.04°. 

It yielded an acetyl derivative that separated from acetic an- 
hydride in thin plates which melted at 119-120 . 

Examination of the Fatty Acids. — The alkaline solution 
from which the unsaponifiable matter had been extracted with ether 
was acidified and the liberated fatty acids were extracted with ether. 
The ether solution was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, con- 
centrated to a small volume and then largely diluted with ligroin 
which precipitated some tarry material. This was removed by fil- 
tration, and the solvent was distilled from the fatty acids. These 
boiled chiefly at 230-260 at 15-20 Mm. A small fraction distilled 
at 260-280 at 20 Mm. The weight of distilled acids was 30.1 g., 
and the iodine number was 98.3. 

These acids were mixed with those which had been extracted 
with potassium carbonate solution. A portion weighing 22.5 g. was 
converted into the lead salts, which were treated with ether. The 
liquid acids obtained from the lead salts soluble in ether weighed 
I2 -9 (57-3 P er cent.). These boiled chiefly at 235-245 at 32-34 
Mm. 

Calc. for C 18 H 34 2 : C, 76.6; H, 12. 1 ; iodine no., 90.1 ; for C 1S H 32 2 : C, 77.1 ; 
H, 11.4; iodine no., 181.4. Found: C, 76.6, 76.7; H, 1.1.3, H-55; iodine no., 
1317. 

The liquid acids therefore consist of a mixture of oleic and lin- 
oleic acids. 

The lead salts of the fatty acids, insoluble in ether, were decom- 
posed with hydrochloric acid and the solid fatty acids separated in 
the usual manner. When dissolved in absolute alcohol with the ob- 
ject of separating any of the more insoluble acids by crystallization, 
it was found that the acids were very readily soluble and no satis- 



266 Some Constituents of Jambul. { Al ?- J° ur - pharm - 

J June, 1917. 

factory crystallization could be obtained even from very concen- 
trated solutions. The alcoholic solution was fractionally precipi- 
tated with an alcoholic solution of barium acetate. This yielded 
Fractions I and II. Fraction III was precipitated by the addition 
of water. 

1. Melting at 51-53°. C, 75-8; H, 12.4; N. v., 204.3. 

III. This fraction was an oil and gave entirely anomalous ana- 
lytical data. Iodine no., 35.2, 34.7; neutralization value, 34.9; and 
saponification value, 140.2. 

The solid acids are therefore a mixture of palmitic and stearic 
acids. 

Calc. for C 16 H 3 o0 2 : C, 75.0; H, 12.5; N. v., 219.1. C ls H 30 O 2 : C, 76.1; H, 
12.7; N. v, 197.5. 

The Ether Extract of the Resin, which amounted to 20 g., 
contained a quantity (2 g.) of an insoluble white solid. This was 
filtered off. When this substance was dissolved in chloroform, in 
the presence of a few drops of acetic anhydride, and sulfuric acid 
was added, a play of colors resulted showing at first transient pink, 
then blue, and finally a beautiful green. It was crystallized several 
times from dilute pyridine, and then melted at 275-285 °. It was a 
phytosterolin. After being dried to constant weight at 120 it was 
analyzed. 

Calc. for C 33 H 5G 6 : C, 72.3; H, 10.2. Found: C, 72.3; H, 10.2. 

A portion of this was converted into an acetate, which crystal- 
lized from dilute alcohol in colorless, glistening leaflets melting at 
167-168 . 

0.5036 g. of the anhydrous phytosterolin acetate, when made up 
to 20 Cc. with chloroform, showed a rotation of — 1.21 in a 2 
dcm. tube, whence [ a ]^= — 24.... 

One gram of this phytosterolin was hydrolyzed according to the 
method outlined by Power and Salway. 11 It was dissolved in 60 
Cc. of hot amyl alcohol and 20 Cc. of an aqueous 15 per cent, solu- 
tion of hydrochloric acid added, together with sufficient ethyl alco- 
hol to form a homogeneous liquid. After heating for three hours 
in a reflux apparatus, steam was passed through the mixture to re- 

11 /. Chem. Soc, 103, 399 (1913)- 



Am. jour. Pharm. i Some C onstiMents of Jambul. 

June, 1917. } J 



267 



move the amyl alcohol, and the contents of the flask then filtered. 
A solid substance was thus collected, which after several crystalliza- 
tions from ethyl acetate, alcohol, and dilute alcohol, separated in 
glistening leaflets melting at 1 34-135 °. The mother liquors from 
this crystallization contained a relatively large quantity of an oily 
resinous material which had evidently been formed from the phyto- 
sterolin by too prolonged hydrolysis. The crystals gave the phyto- 
sterol color reaction. 

0.0983 g. made up to 20 Cc. with chloroform had a rotation of 
0.38 in a 2 dcm. tube, whence [a]^= — 38.8. 

Calc. for C 7 H 46 : C, 83.9; H, 11.9. Found: C, 83.3; H, 11.3. 

The acid aqueous liquid, from which the phytosterol had been 
separated by filtration, was exactly neutralized with sodium car- 
bonate, evaporated to dryness, the residue digested with absolute 
alcohol, and the mixture filtered. On evaporating the alcoholic 
filtrate a small amount of syrupy residue was obtained, which re- 
duced Fehling's solution, and yielded an osazone melting and de- 
composing at 212 . It was thus evident that the sugar was glucose. 

Thus this phytosterolin is shown to be phytosterol-d-glucoside. 

The ether extract from which the phytosterolin had been sep- 
arated was fractionally extracted with varying strengths of alkali. 
The potassium hydroxide extracts removed practically all the dis- 
solved matter as a green oil which after some time became semi- 
solid. This could not be crystallized and was unchanged when 
boiled for several hours in the presence of an alcoholic solution of 
5 per cent, sulfuric acid solution. 

The Chloroform Extract of the Resin weighed 13 g. Part 
of this extract was quite insoluble in ethyl acetate and alcohol with 
which it was digested. This part was crystallized twice from dilute 
pyridine and melted at 280-295 °. This gave the usual color test 
for a phytosterolin. After crystallization it weighed 3 g. Alto- 
gether the phytosterolin isolated from the ether and chloroform 
extracts amounted to 5 g. or 0.011 per cent, of the air-dried drug. 

The filtrate from the above phytosterolin was evaporated to dry- 
ness, taken up in chloroform, and then fractionally extracted with 
varying strengths of alkali. Nothing of a crystalline nature was 
obtained by this procedure. 

The Ethyl Acetate Extract of the Resin was a mixture of 
ellagic acid and tannin-like substances. Upon distilling oft a por- 



268 



Methods of Studying Coal. { Al ?- J° ur - Pharm. 

' - 7 ° *- June, 1917. 



tion of the ethyl acetate about half of it separated as crude ellagic 
acid, which when crystallized once from alcohol yielded 13 g. of 
pure acid that did not melt at 350 . The mother liquor from this 
separation was a smear, that colored ferric chloride solution black, 
and precipitated a gelatin solution. 

The part soluble in ethyl acetate was thoroughly examined but 
nothing was isolated. 

The Alcoholic Extract of the Resin yielded 15 g. further 
of ellagic acid. The total ellagic acid separated amounts to 1.2 
per cent, of the plant. Neither an acid hydrolysis nor a potash fu- 
sion gave any interesting decomposition products. Neither the 
ethyl acetate fraction nor the alcoholic extract was glucosidic. 

Kalamazoo, Mich. 



METHODS OF STUDYING COAL 1 

HOW A NEW METHOD OF REFINED TECHNIQUE HAS RE- 
VEALED PLANT RECORDS TO THE INVESTIGATION, 
ESPECIALLY WITH REFERENCE TO THE ORIGIN 
OF COAL. 

By E. C. Jeffrey. 

Coal, since it is a mineral, has in the past been investigated with 
the aid of the admirable technical processes, which have been devised 
by the mineralogist and petrologist in the study of minerals and 
rocks. Fossil plants, also, have naturally been regarded as minerals, 
since in the condition ordinarily studied structurally they are petri- 
fied: that is, infiltrated or, in some instances, actually replaced by 
mineral substances. In addition to the relatively scanty petrified 
remains of fossil plants, which have previously been the most im- 
portant document for the student of extinct vegetations, there are 
huge quantities of plants of former epochs, preserved for us by a 
more or less complete process of carbonization. This carbon- 
ization is so marked in some instances, that it is obvious that the 
plant remains have been charred previous to fossilization. The pres- 
ent writer has turned his attention to the utilization of these car- 
bonized remains, in connection with the tracing of the all too incom- 
plete geological records of plants. By the perfecting of processes 

1 Reprinted from Science Conspectus, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1916. 



A june u i J 7 harm ' ) Methods of Studying Coal 269 

of softening and bleaching these carbonized remains, it has been 
found possible to add very largely to our knowledge of the organiza- 
tion of ancient plants, particularly of the Mesozoic Age, concerning 
which our information has been most meager. Methods developed 
first for the investigation of isolated members and parts of plants, 
by modification have proved serviceable in the study of that struc- 
turally almost unknown mineral coal. Our ignorance of the or- 
ganization of coal is not due at all to the neglect of mineralogists, but 
rather to the unsuitability of the approved methods of their science 
in the case of a substance at once so opaque and so friable. The 
advantages of the methods recorded here may be judged from the 
fact that they permit the cutting of large quantities of sections, which 
average one tenth of the thickness of the few and laboriously secured 
preparations resulting from the grinding processes of the mineralogist. 
Moreover it is possible to render the sections even more favorable 
for study for bleaching, which is inapplicable to ground sections. It 
should be added that the successful manipulation of the processes 
described in the subsequent paragraphs involves a considerable ex- 
perience in the use of the microtome, the slicing mechanism of the 
biologist. 

The more recent and less modified coals are treated for sectioning 
with comparative ease. Alcohol alone is frequently sufficient to 
bring about the necessary degree of softening for successful slicing. 
Such coals are of relatively light hue, and sections need not be so 
thin as is essential in the case of the older and more highly car- 
bonized coals. In general, however, somewhat vigorous softening 
agents must be used in the investigation of combustible minerals, 
since pressure and temperature have often brought about a con- 
siderable degree of modification even in coals of tertiary and sec- 
ondary origin. Caustic soda or potash dissolved in alcohol of about 
70 per cent, strength in the proportion one part in ten is a very useful 
preliminary reagent but has been found for various reasons, less 
valuable in use than phenol. This substance has unfortunately ad- 
vanced immeasurably in cost on account of its employment as a basis 
for the manufacture of high explosives in the present European war. 
The phenol or carbolic acid is melted and the selected coal samples 
(which must ordinarily not be more than a centimeter in length 
and breadth by half a centimeter in thickness vertically) are 
subjected to its action. The material is to be kept hot in a 
water bath for a number of days, usually as long as a week. The 



270 Methods of Studying Coal. { Ar f u l^ nT ;^ arm ' 

carbolic acid is then washed out with repeated changes of warm 
water. Heat and subsequent treatment with water after neutraliza- 
tion by means of an acid are likewise necessary in the case of ma- 
terial treated with alkaline alcohol, as described above. The ad- 
vantages of the use of phenol in softening coal are that less swelling 
and cracking results than in the case of alkaline alcohol, and the 
material is in better condition for subsequent manipulations. 

The removal of mineral substances from the coal is the next 
stage and for this purpose hydrofluoric acid is most generally em- 
ployed. The fragments of coal remain in strongest commercial 
hydrofluoric acid for some days or even a week or more. In the 
case of coals neither much carbonized nor possessing a very high 
proportion of ash, the processes indicated suffice. In most coals, 
particularly those of the Paleozoic period, after treatment with hydro- 
fluoric acid, the combustibles must be washed for a day or two in 
running water and then returned to the phenol for a renewed sojourn 
in the heat. This second softening in many cases is sufficient, but 
where a higher degree of carbonization is present, a second treatment 
with hydrofluoric acid is needed. In still more resistant coals the 
processes must be further repeated and the acid is reinforced in its 
action by adding crystals of chlorate of potash or soda, which brings 
into play the activity of nascent chlorine. With anthracites and 
other coals of an extreme degree of carbonization, nitric acid may 
be added with advantage to the hydrofluoric acid and chlorate of 
potash, but in moderation so that maceration may not result. The 
treatment with hydrofluoric acid and accompanying reagents, where 
these are necessary in the case of more refractory coals, is carried 
on in wax bottles or in glass bottles coated both externally and inter- 
nally, with hard paraffine or beeswax. A fume-cupboard with 
heavily painted windows is safe and convenient for this work, par- 
ticularly if it is built over a soapstone sink. 

After the coal is softened and bleached (as is the case where 
chlorates and aqua regia are used), it is carefully washed in running 
water until quite free from the reagents. In the case of highly 
bituminous coals, particularly cannels and the like, the pieces may be 
returned to melted phenol for* some days. With most coals, especially 
those of later geological ages, it is necessary to wrap the specimens 
with bands of cotton fabric, held in place by stout linen thread. This 
precaution prevents the coal from going to pieces in the phenol. 
After the last treatment with carbolic acid, the combustible is washed 



A ji^ig^ 3 ™' ) Methods of Studying Coal. 271 

repeatedly with warm water and then transferred to strong alcohol 
and finally to absolute alcohol, to remove all the water. Two or 
three changes of absolute alcohol are necessary. After the water is 
entirely removed the specimens are exhausted of all air under an air 
pump of high vacuum. In order to secure slices of the softened coal, 
it must be held together by means of nitrocelluloses. The best and 
least explosive of these is Schering's Celloidin, which is for the 
moment practically unobtainable on account of the war. It may be 
replaced with some degree of success by Anthony's photographic 
cotton. This is a less pure nitrocellulose and gives results which are 
less satisfactory. The dehydrated and air-free coal is transferred 
into a 2 per cent, solution of nitrocellulose in absolute alcohol and 
ordinary ether (of good quality). Absolute methyl alcohol gives 
better results than ethyl alcohol and is sold by the Bausch & Lomb 
Optical Company under the commercial name of Synthol. The ma- 
terial is secured in a strong bottle by means of a good cork wired in 
and remains for a day in a bath kept at the temperature of 70 Cen- 
tigrade. It is allowed to cool and then transferred to a 4 per cent, 
solution of nitrocellulose in the medium indicated above. A second 
twenty-four hours in the heat brings it to a 6 per cent, solution. 
After the latter treatment it is enclosed in an air-tight chamber made 
from large diameter steam pipe. The corks are removed from the 
bottles preliminarily and by means of a valve in the cap of the cham- 
ber and an automobile pump, pressure is raised to two hundred or 
more pounds. The coal remains under these conditions over night 
and has then become thoroughly infiltrated with the solution of nitro- 
cellulose. The next step is to transfer it to a thick solution of nitro- 
cellulose. In this it is placed again in the warm bath and after a time 
still further thickening is brought about by the addition of dry frag- 
ments of nitrocellulose. After several days of repeated thickening 
the specimens are now ready for the final process. This consists of 
transferring them from the thick nitrocellulose to chloroform. 
Chloroform has the valuable property of at once hardening the nitro- 
cellulose and further softening the coal. After a stay of some hours 
in chloroform, which must not be used sparingly, the piece of coal 
are transferred to a mixture of equal parts of alcohol and glycerine, 
where they may remain indefinitely, until needed for sectioning. 

The fragments of coal treated in the manner described above are 
clamped in a heavy sliding microtome (the Jung-Thoma modified 
to the author's design answers very well for this purpose). A very 



272 Methods of Studying Coal. { A j 1 u ^e Ur I ' 9 ? 7 harm ' 

sharp and heavy knife is employed for sectioning and its edge must 
be kept moistened with ordinary strong alcohol. The sections are 
turned back on the knife, as they are sliced, by means of a large 
camel's hair brush, wet with alcohol. Successful sections must usu- 
ally be five micromillimeters or thinner. If the processes have been 
successfully carried out, abundant and consecutive slices can easily 
be secured, showing every feature of organization of the coal. 

After the sections are cut they are dehydrated by means of abso- 
lute alcohol, to which a quantity of chloroform has been added to 
obviate the softening of the nitrocellulose in the coal. From the 
absolute alcohol and chloroform they are transferred to benzole or 
some other clearing medium and are then mounted in hard Canada 
balsam, dissolved in benzole or whatever clearing agent has been 
used on the sections. Where too high a degree of clearing is unde- 
sirable, as for example in the case of oil shales, chloroform may 
with advantage replace benzole or xylol. After the covers are put 
on, the preparations are allowed to dry for a day in a horizontal 
position and they are gradually warmed up with lead weights on the 
covers to promote flattening. When the balsam has become so thick- 
ened by the heat as to set in the cold, the slides are cleaned up. 
Where it is necessary to make photomicrograms of them, they are 
still further flattened by means of a clip clothes pin acting on a disk 
of cork (over the cover) in the heat of a warm bath. For pho- 
tographic reproduction, the best lenses (Zeiss apochromatics) are 
desirable and these should be used with a yellow screen and chromatic 
plates. Screens of other colors, although theoretically more desirable 
than yellow, have not been found practically to give as good results, 
probably on account of the difference between the visual and chem- 
ical focus even in the best microscopic lenses. The largest possible 
amount of light should be used, an end to be attained both by having 
a powerful electric arc as a source of illumination and the diaphragm 
of the sub-stage condensor opened to the widest possible degree, con- 
sistent with sharp focusing of the object. Naturally only the very 
best lenses will give good results under these conditions. The 
details of photomicrography are so familiar to all scientific workers 
in the field here described, that further details will only add unduly 
to the length of this article. 

In conclusion are added, at the editor's request, some statements 
in regard to the bearing of the results obtained by the technical 
manipulations described upon the problem of the mode of formation 
of coal. It is to be noted that the mass of expert opinion at the 



A ?un T e, ur i'J7 harm ^ Methods of Studying Coal 



273 



present time regards coal as of the nature of modified peat and as 
having originated in most cases on wet land as the result of the root- 
ing, flourishing and falling of successive generations of plants on 
the prostrate remains of their ancestors. This condition is realized 
in the cold, temperate regions of our earth. In the tropics, how- 
ever, in spite of a luxuriance of vegetation, with which that of the 
greatest coal age (Carboniferous) has been frequently compared, 
there are no accumulations of vegetable matter on the soil. In warm 
climates the hoarding of plant remains occurs only in the bottoms of 
lakes and tranquil estuaries, since the high temperature makes the 
destruction of dead vegetable matter on land particularly rapid. 
Even in this country, which, as a whole, is neither particularly hot 
nor especially cold, we have the authority of the United States 
Bureau of Mines (Peat Investigations) for the statement that by 
far the greater accumulations of vegetable matter occur under open 
water, which by its relatively constant level, safeguards the hoardings 
in its depths from the ravages of destroying fungi, since these are 
unable to flourish subaqueously. 

The investigation of coals from all parts of the world and from 
every geological age, by the methods described in the earlier para- 
graphs, has made it clear that, in general, coal is of the nature of 
impude cannel. It is universally conceded that cannel coals, oil shales 
and similar combustibles, which constitute a small proportion of 
coals mined, were laid down in open water. We can best picture 
their mode of deposition by reference to a lake of to-day. Gener- 
ally in the month of June the forest trees shed their fertilizing dust 
(pollen) in the air, to be borne by the winds to the waiting seeds. 
Most of the blossom dust is spilled, however, on the bosoms of lakes, 
lying in sheltered hollows, where the air currents losing their driving 
force drop their load of pollen, which falls on the waters as so- 
called " sulphur showers." After floating for a while in circling 
windrows, the pollen sinks with other coarser vegetable matter into 
the depths of the lake or estuary. Where the pollen or spores were 
relatively abundant in the depths of the coal lakes of the past the 
result was a deposit which later became a cannel or oil shale. In 
more troubled and shallower waters a greater amount of the vege- 
tative parts of plants accumulated with the spores and pollen, to 
constitute the raw material of a " fat" bituminous coal. Where the 
vegetative parts predominated a " lean " type of coal is the final 
result. Often in addition to spores we find in coal wood with struc- 
ture preserved, most inappropriately designated " Mother of Coal." 



274 Methods of Studying Coal { A j u J° u Vj 7 harm " 

This constituent, which is the record of ancient forest fires, fre- 
quently retains its organization so perfectly that it is possible to 
diagnose the type of tree from which it was derived. If the wood 
was only partially charred by the action of heat, its persistence as 
such in coal is correspondingly incomplete. Sections of coal ordi- 
narily reveal two sorts of material showing recognizable structure: 
namely, "Mother of Coal" (relatively rare) and spores or pollen 
of the higher or vascular plants (more or less abundant). In addi- 
tion to these structurally preserved constituents, combustible min- 
erals are largely formed of a brown matrix resulting from the modi- 
fication in the course of ages of the uncharred woody and other 
gross vegetable remains. With the fundamental brown of highly 
modified wood, the spores contrast by their golden yellow hue and 
" Mother of Coal " by its intense black ( shading into brown in those 
portions incompletely charred). The mass of the coal has been sub- 
jected to enormous compression during the ages elapsed since its 
deposition in the bottom of the waters. As a consequence even its 
structural constituents are greatly flattened in the plane of the hori- 
zontal bedding or laminaion. 

The study of ultimate organization now rendered possible by im- 
proved technique appears to finally set at rest the controversy which 
has lasted for nearly a century and a half, in regard to the origin of 
combustible minerals. The generally accepted view of the way in 
which coal has been formed is that it is essentially, dynamically and 
chemically transformed peat. This conception which took its origin 
with von Beroldingen in the eighteenth century, has had its main 
defenders in Germany and as a result of the Teutonic scientific 
hegemony in modern times has been widely adopted in all parts of 
the world. In contrast to this hypothesis is the more logical view, 
cherished mainly in France, that coal is the consequence of organic 
sedimentation in open water. • This opinion has been ably defended 
by Renault, Grand'Eury and many others, and there appears now 
no doubt that it is the correct one, since all the data derived from the 
microscopic study of coal, which must apparently ever be most 
cogent, are entirely in its favor. We must accordingly regard the 
hoardings of past plant life, preserved for us in the form of the 
various coals and their products, petroleum and natural gas, as hav- 
ing accumulated not in peat bogs but at the bottom of tranquil lakes, 
not in situ, but as the result of water transports. 

Botanical Department, Harvard University, 
February, 1916. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 19 1". 



Correspondence. 



175 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

(Representation of Pharmacy on the Council for National 

Defence. 

Dear Brother Pharmacists: 

Notwithstanding that this communication is printed, it is im- 
portant to every pharmacist and to the country-at-large, and the only 
reason for sending you the matter in this way is on account of the 
haste that is necessary in order to do effective work. 

The letter herewith is taken from one by President F. J. Wulling, 
of the American Pharmaceutical Association, addressed to the Sec- 
retary of War. It explains itself and no further comment is neces- 
sary in that respect. The short letter is one that was dictated to a 
Senator and will serve as a guide for writing to your Senators and 
Congressmen, and the other one will serve for the substance of a 
letter to the Secretary of War. As he has already been apprised of 
the pharmacists' desire, you can be very brief in your communication, 
but let your letter inform him of the object you have in addressing 
him. 

The writer is certain that your Association will favor the effort 
which the American Pharmaceutical Association is making, and 
therefore either the secretary or president alone or the executive 
committee should be in position to at once address the Secretary of 
War and Senators and Congressmen. Quick work is the important 
thing and we hope that you will give this matter your very prompt 
attention. Let them know the strength of your organization, and if 
advisable, the number of druggists in your state. 

May we say in this connection that the American Pharmaceutical 
Association is alive to the interests of American pharmacy and is 
only handicapped because of insufficient members. Let us therefore 
urge that at your forthcoming meeting you make the strongest effort 
possible to persuade as many to join the Association as possible. We 
believe that it is a duty of all pharmacists to belong to the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, and then they receive the benefits that 
this Association offers in its Year Book and Journal. The American 
Pharmaceutical Association has done great work in behalf of phar- 
macy. Its Proceedings, the Year Book, the Journal, the Pharma- 
copoeia, the National Formulary, the work of the Drug Trade Con- 
ference speak only in part of this. 



276 



Correspondence. 



I Am. Jour. Pharm. 
*■ June, 1917. 



At this time the object of the communication is centered to enlist 
your support in securing due recognition for pharmacists in the gov- 
ernment service and particularly apprise the government officials 
that pharmacists can be of efficient and valuable service. Your 
prompt cooperation will therefore be appreciated. 

Thanking you and with fraternal greetings, 

The Journal of the A. Ph. A. 

E. G. Eberle, 

Editor. 

It appears that pharmacy has no adequate representation in the 
Army and Navy and that no representation has been accorded it on 
the Council for National Defense. Medicine is strongly represented. 
Medicine is not pharmacy, nor does it include pharmacy, as evi- 
denced by the existence of the separate pharmaceutical profession. 
National defense without adequate pharmaceutical representation 
and recognition can never be as effective as it can be with pharma- 
ceutical participation under proper standard of recognition. Medical 
men are not pharmacists and, as far as I know, do not claim to be. 
They cannot any more give expert pharmaceutical service than 
pharmacists can give medical or surgical service. In the failure to 
recognize and employ the expert pharmaceutical services available, 
the country falls short in that degree, as I see it. It is fallacious to 
claim that pharmaceutical service in war or peace is negligible or of 
so low a grade that it shall be a hand-maiden to any other division of 
the service. 

The Council for National Defense has appointed a committee of 
which the Secretary of War is chairman, to effect, among other 
things, a practical standardization of pharmaceutical supplies. Who 
is as competent as a highly trained expert pharmacist to direct this 
standardization and other purely pharmaceutical activities? Unless 
this kind of work is under the direction or responsible participation 
of such a pharmacist, the country is deprived of the best kind of 
service in this field and yet it is entitled to the very best that the 
country affords. This kind of expert service is freely at hand and 
available and, as president of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, I respectfully request and urge that it be employed. I feel 
that if I did not make this request and make it with the fullest 
strength of whatever influence my office carries, I would not be doing 
my duty to my country, not to speak of my duty to my calling. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 19 17. 



Correspond en c e . 



277 



It should be considered that in a crisis such as the United States 
finds itself in at the present time it is unwise for the country to risk 
the possible displeasure of so large a part of the representative citi- 
zens as pharmacists constitute. There are probably in excess of 
500,000 persons engaged in pharmaceutical activities. These are 
represented in a large measure by a number of strong national and 
state associations — among them the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, the National Association of Retail Druggists, the American 
Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties, the National Wholesale 
Druggists' Association, the American Drug Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation, American Association of Pharmaceutical Chemists, National 
Drug Clerks' Association, the Drug Trade Conference, the several 
state associations and others. The good will in the fullest measure 
of all these is essential. I do not maintain that these interests would 
withhold their good will if not given deserved recognition and the 
opportunity to serve in their fullest capacity, but I do maintain that, 
proper recognition would greatly stimulate and augment their help 
and loyal support. 

I desire to further direct attention to the unfortunate fact that 
the United States has not a pharmaceutical corps for the control and 
direction of medical and pharmaceutical supplies service such as all 
other great countries, except Great Britain and Russia, have. In 
each of these large countries a corps of highly trained pharmacists 
with commissioned rank has the medical and pharmaceutical supplies 
service in its hands. The head of the service in Germany is of the 
rank of Colonel ; in Japan, of the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel ; in 
Italy and France, of the rank of Major-General. These officers are 
experienced pharmaceutical chemists of high attainments and quali- 
fications, capable of directing their respective service. Our own 
country contains many such men who are at least as capable, if not 
more so, for this kind of service as a surgeon could possibly be. 
That American pharmacy is not represented in the country's service 
in the form of a pharmaceutical corps composed of men equal in 
rank to those in the medical service is undoubtedly due to the fact 
that American pharmacy has not exerted that pressure for this 
merited recognition and opportunity to serve under its own respon- 
sibility and standard that it is capable of. Much dissatisfaction in 
this respect on the part of representative pharmacists in all divisions 
of the calling has been reported to me recently. It is my opinion that 
the country cannot afford to continue to ignore American pharmacy 
as it has done in the past. 



2 7 8 



Correspondence. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1917. 



In my humble opinion, if the post of Chief Medical Purveyor is 
not already in existence, it ought to be created and put in charge of 
an expert pharmaceutical chemist of administrative ability. Such a 
one should be clothed with ample authority and should be of the rank 
not lower than that of Colonel. The importance of the medical and 
pharmaceutical supplies service can hardly be exaggerated. The 
Hospital Steward of the present should not be confounded with the 
highly trained pharmaceutical chemist of administrative capacity I 
have in mind. Our late war with Spain demonstrated the utter in- 
adequacy and futility o>f methods then in use for the purchase, manu- 
facture and distribution of pharmaceutical and medical supplies. 

In writing thus I know that I am representing American phar- 
macy at large, but of course I have only the authority vested in the 
office I hold to speak for the American Pharmaceutical Association. 

I mean no disrespect to anyone. What I have said and urged 
grows out of my loyalty to the country and the cause it is cham- 
pioning and to our calling. 

My urgent suggestion is that every national and state association 
appoint forthwith with the greatest dispatch strong and capable rep- 
resentatives to constitute a Council or Commission to bring about 
deserved and adequate pharmaceutical representation in the Army 
and Navy and on the Council for National Defense. This isn't the 
time for futile and undirected talk and discussion but for determined, 
insistent and fruitful action. This is the psychological moment. 

A Letter to Congressmen and Senators. 
(This letter was written by a pharmacist and maybe used as a guide.) 

As you know, American pharmacy feels that it has not proper 
representation and recognition in the government service. It has 
just come to my attention that the Council for National Defense has 
appointed a committee to effect, among other things, a practical stan- 
dardization of pharmaceutical and medical supplies. The Secretary 
of War is chairman of that committee. It appears that no pharma- 
cist is on the committee. For that reason I have written the Secre- 
tary of War in the matter. American pharmacists cannot under- 
stand why the government treats pharmacy so shabbily and medicine 
so generously. Here is an opportunity for someone to right a wrong 
and to earn the everlasting appreciation and thanks of pharmacy. 

I do not want to take too much of your time, but in case you 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1917. 



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279 



would care to have me do so I will be very glad to take the matter 
up further with you and go into details. 

Pharmaceutical Corps in the U. S. Army. 

Philadelphia, May 11, 191 7. 

Hon. Nelson D. Baker, 
Secretary of War, 
Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Secretary: 

The Board of Directors of the Philadelphia Drug Exchange 
earnestly urges the establishment of a Pharmaceutical Corps in the 
U. S. Army analogous to the Medical Corps, the Dental Corps and 
the Veterinary Corps, for the following reasons : 

1. The present system of enlisting pharmacists in the Army, 
not as pharmacists, but as privates, is hopelessly antiquated. France, 
Germany, Japan and other foreign countries have a Pharmaceutical 
Corps in their armies in charge of a pharmaceutical expert. 

2. The present system is unjust to pharmacy and pharmacists. 
Pharmacy is a profession and the pharmacist of to-day has had 
years of collegiate training and practical experience in scientific 
work. To enlist professional men as privates is not only unjust to 
the men, but is unjust to the Army, because it denies to- the Army 
the possibilities of service which such men could render. 

3. The present system is faulty. The status of pharmacists in 
the Army is very unsatisfactory. Officially y they are not pharma- 
cists, but non-commissioned officers with responsible duties and no 
possibility of advancement in the Service as pharmacists. They 
can excel as privates and be promoted as privates, but they cannot 
excel as pharmacists and be promoted as pharmacists ; and this in- 
jures the service. 

4. The present service is detrimental to the efficiency of the 
Army itself, because it fails to recognize the importance of proper 
and sufficient pharmaceutical service and denies to the sick and 
wounded the best pharmaceutical service that the Nation can give. 

5. The present system is unfair to the medical corps, because it 
denies that body the assistance and support that a properly trained 
pharmaceutical corps could give. The pharmaceutical service could 
be made most valuable to the medical profession, not only in the 
hospitals, but also* in the field. 



280 



Advances in Pharmacy. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
<- June, 19 1 7. 



Pharmacists 'have been trained, not only in the science and art 
of pharmacy, but also have had elementary instruction in some of 
the medical sciences, and with but little extra training could be made 
useful " medical assistants " in the field in the matter of surgical 
anesthesia, surgical dressing, etc., thus supplementing and helping 
the medical service. 

We are informed by the Dean of a medical school in Philadel- 
phia that 14,000 physicians will be required for an army of a mil- 
lion, that there are less than 7,000 physicians with ages of less than 
31, and that, of these, probably one-half are physically unfit for 
service. 

If this is correct, then only one fourth of the necessary medical 
material is available. In view of such a possibility, it seems to us 
that pharmacists could be made, with extra training, most valuable 
" medical assistants " in the field, while in the hospitals they could 
be given charge of the medical supplies of the hospitals, and render 
pharmaceutical and chemical service in the compounding and dis- 
pensing of drugs and in the chemical and bacteriological examina- 
tion of excrements, foods, water, milk, etc. 

Again urging the establishment of a Pharmaceutical Corps in the 
Army as most essential for proper pharmaceutical service, we re- 
main 

Yours respectfully, 

(Sgd.) John Fergusson, 

President. 
(Sgd.) J. W. England, 

Secretary. 



QUARTERLY REVIEW ON THE ADVANCES IN 
PHARMACY. 

By John K. Thum, Ph.G., German Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Potash. — According to Commerce Reports, a company making 
Portland cement at Durham, Ont., is now turning out as a by-product 
from the feldspar used, from twelve to sixteen tons of potash daily. 
Chlorides and caustic products are produced, the former being said 
to be an almost pure product. It is said that even the dust and 



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June, 19 17. 



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281 



gases of the plant are trapped, in which there is said to be five per 
cent, of potash, which is used for fertilizer. It is also said to be 
quite possible for every cement plant in Canada, within the next 
five years, to produce potash in large quantities as a by-product. As 
is well known, there are immense deposits of feldspar in Canada, 
which are said to contain at least ten per cent, of potash, of which 
86 per cent, in a pure form is collected. And it is also stated, and 
this is most important, the cost of manufacture is less than the 
freight charge per ton on that heretofore coming from Germany 
{Jour. A. M. A., March 24, 1917, p. 917). 

Antidrug Bill. — The bill known as the Whitney antinarcotic 
act was endorsed by representatives of the New York State and 
New York County Medical societies and of the Medical Economic 
League at a hearing, March 22. This bill provides for a free supply 
of drugs for addicts and for the registration of addicts. Some of 
those present offered objection to the triplicate order blank system 
of checking narcotic drug distribution. However, this part of the 
proposed bill is under consideration with a view to formulating 
some plan which will not work undue hardship on practicing drug- 
gists {Jour. A. M. A., March 31, 1917, p. 987). 

Patent Legislation. — At the January meeting of the Phila- 
delphia Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association two 
interesting papers on the fore-mentioned subject were read. The 
subject is a timely one and one that affects the great mass of people 
very closely ; this point should be played upon very insistently so as 
to get Congress to act. Never has the time been so favorable for 
legislation of this character. In the first paper Mr. J. W. England 
mentions that the crux of the situation in connection with the patent- 
ing of chemicals in this country is the system of permitting product- 
protection; he then goes on in a convincing manner and points out 
how this impedes the progress and development of American 
chemical industry. Dr. F. E. Stewart in his paper gives a most 
comprehensive discussion of the Paige Bill. This paper is enlighten- 
ing in many ways and should be read by all chemists and pharmacists 
{Jour. A. Ph. A., Feb., 1917, pp. 120 and 122). 

Pharmacology of the Aconites. — Of the vast number of the 
Aconitum, and there are at least 150, only two or three have been 
examined pharmacologically. Notwithstanding the fact that all 
those examined show the same characteristic results on the nervous 
system, secretions, circulation, and respiration, yet they may be 



282 



Advances in Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1 9 1 / • 



divided into two classes. One of those examined acts principally on 
the circulation, and the other on the respiration. Those containing 
aconitine belong to the first class, and those which contain pseudo- 
aconitine belong in the other class. Aconitum Napellus is the most 
efficient of the aconitine class. To the other class belong Aconitum 
heterophylloides and Aconitum magarum; these can be conveniently 
referred to as the pseudo-aconitine group. (Jour. Pharmacology, 
Chem. Abstr., 1917, II, 70, T. R. Fraser). 

Elimination of Strychnine by the Kidneys. — According to 
the researches of the investigators named below this alkaloid makes 
its appearance in small quantities in the urine within a few minutes 
of administration, and the amount excreted is very much increased 
by diuresis. Injected intravenously large doses of the alkaloid do 
not increase the amount of excretion. It was found that in the case 
of dogs, renal excretion is not sufficient to save life, no matter how 
active it may be. It is therefore logical to assume that diuresis helps 
very little to the successful treatment of strychnine poisoning. It 
was also discovered that the amount of strychnine eliminated by the 
kidneys by dogs agrees generally with the amount eliminated in the 
same w r ay by man (R. A. Hatcher and M. J. Smith, Jour. Pharma- 
cology, Chem. Abstr., 1917, II, 69). 

Banana Stalks as a Source of Potash. — The continued high 
prices for potash and the constant demand for it, for use as a ferti- 
lizer, has caused attention to be directed to many vegetable sources 
of this alkali. These sources have hitherto been disregarded as a 
means of potash production, but since the Stassfurt mines are no 
longer accessible, the world has been sad put for this very necessary 
adjunct to agriculture, and industry in general. Among the many 
sources mentioned banana stalks seem to show much promise. A 
recent investigation shows that banana stalks contain as much potash 
as, or nearly as much as, dried kelp as a filler for commercial ferti- 
lizers. The stalks, when charred and lixiviated, will produce 27 
pounds from one ton of stalks, containing at least 90 per cent, of 
K0CO0. Further investigation may reveal more possibilities (/. 
/72c?. Eng. Chem., 153, 1917). 

Destruction of Fly Larv,e in Manure. — No doubt the logical 
way to get rid of the ubiquitous fly is to destroy him before he 
reaches his full development. Therefore the results of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture's experiments as to the best way in 
which to destroy the larvae, should be of interest. After three 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1917. 



The Quarterly Review on 



283 



seasons the department feels safe in saying that one of the most 
efficient substances for this purpose is borax. Two pounds of this 
chemical to 28 gallons of water, which should be sufficient for 24 
bushels of manure, is the most effective and cheapest of all the many 
substances tried. However, it must be used with a great deal of 
care, for if the manure is to be used for fertilizing purposes an 
excessive amount of the borax will be very prone to have an in- 
jurious effect on growing plants. They also found that 8 ounces 
of green hellebore to 10 gallons of water for the treatment of 8 
bushels of manure, is also effective. Of course the cost is some- 
what higher. Calcium cyanamide was also found to be of value for 
this purpose, a half pound of it to each bushel being the proper pro- 
portions. While the cost of this is higher, the manurial value is 
considerably increased ; it is as well to add to it then at least half 
a pound of superphosphate as this chemical prevents the loss of 
ammonia by the action of the cyanamide, and in turn this adds to 
the increase of the phosphorus content. Good results were also 
obtained with solutions of aniline and emulsions of nitrobenzene 
with fish oil soap, this being found to be without harm to the fertiliz- 
ing value of the manure. They advise against the use of such potent 
substances as potassium cyanide, Paris green, arsenic sheep-dip, 
and pyridine, it being claimed that these substances are too danger- 
ous (F. C. Cook and R. H. Hutchinson in U. S. Depart. Agric. 
Bullet., 408). 

Yellow Soft Paraffin as an Intestinal Lubricant. — There 
is considerable objection being manifested against the use of the 
liquid paraffin for internal consumption because of leakage ; despite 
this disagreeable feature the popularity of this kind of treatment for 
habitual constipation is growing more and more every day. It is 
proposed by the writer that the soft paraffin be used to overcome this 
tendency of leakage ; it is claimed that it is more thoroughly mixed 
with the intestinal contents and for this reason is more thoroughly 
lubricating. The author feels that it is greatly to be preferred to any 
form of oily enema (H. Gifford, Jour. A. M. A., 304, 1917). 

Chlorazene. — This article, made in this country, has antiseptic 
qualities and the claim is also made that it is an active germicide. 
Its action is somewhat similar to the hypochlorites, but is less irritat- 
ing. Chemically it is known as sodium para-toluene sulphochlora- 
mine. It appears as a white crystalline powder, and has a chlorine 
odor. Chlorazene is not intended for internal administration ; ex- 



284 



Advances in Pharmacy. 



I Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 19 1 7. 



ternally it is used in solutions varying from 0.5 to 4 per cent, in 
strength. It can be dried at or exposed to a temperature of ioo° to 
102 C. without decomposition taking place. 

Toxic Effect of Emetine Hydrochloride. — Two American 
Army physicians in a study of 140 cases of endometric dysentery 
treated with this drug, show that it is well to watch patients very 
closely who are being treated with emetine. They state that the 
danger is somewhat similar to that of salvarsan in the treatment of 
syphilis. Two of the patients died from conditions in no way con- 
nected with the disease for which they were being treated, while five 
others showed unusual symptoms, which, in the absence of any other 
known causes, were naturally attributed to the emetine. In the two 
fatal cases there was the inability to swallow water after food had 
reached the gullet ; the heart was rapid and uncontrolled ; there was 
a marked tendency for the head to fall forward, and there was a 
lobar-pneumonia. In the five other cases the symptoms were similar, 
all of which disappeared when the treatment ceased (Military Sur- 
geon, 40, 58, 1917, Johnson & Murphy). 

Infusion of Broom Tops as a Larvicide. — A cold infusion 
made by steeping fresh crushed tops in water for from ten to twelve 
days, in a quantity sufficient to give to the liquor a greenish color, 
was found to be a quite formidable agent of destruction for cater- 
pillars. It was found to be of great benefit for watering cabbage 
as it readily destroyed the larvae of the cabbage butterfly and other 
numerous larvae which feed on cruciferous plants. In France it has 
been found to be particularly valuable for removing Cochylis larvae 
from vines and various caterpillars from apple trees. The infusion 
is applied by simply spraying or watering over the plants (Rev. Sci., 
U Union pharm., through The Phar. J oar. & Pharmacist, 2, 191 7, 
17, P- 139). 

New Method for Determining Ozone. — It is said that the 
following method for determining the presence of ozone used for 
surgical and therapeutic purposes is simple, accurate, and sensitive. 
This determination depends on the extreme avidity of ferrous am- 
monium sulphate for ozone, a reagent which is quite stable towards 
ordinary atmospheric oxygen under the conditions of the test. The 
reagent consists of 3.92 grams of ferrous ammonium sulphate v dis- 
solved in water and 20 mils of pure H 2 S0 4 , sp. gr. 1.815, made up 
to one liter. This is quite permanent under ordinary conditions. 
Against this, a solution of potassium permanganate, 0.316 gram is 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
June, 19 17. -* 



The Quarterly Reviezv on 



285 



standardized. To determine the amount of ozone in the air of a 
room, a liter flask filled with water is emptied therein. The air 
replaces the liquid. Five mils of the standard ferrous ammonium 
sulphate solution is then run into the flask and gently agitated. It 
is then at once titrated with the standard permanganate solution, 
five mils of which will equal to 0.4 Mn. of oxygen. The statement 
is made that as little as 0.00002 gram of ozone may be detected in 
this way, since one drop of the permanganate is sufficient to impart 
a pink tint to five mils of the ferrous solution. That this latter is 
perfectly stable towards atmospheric oxygen is shown by the fact 
that no oxidation can be detected when 20 liters of air free from 
ozone is slowly bubbled through it. It is interesting to know that 
when large volumes of ozone have to be dealt with, fully as good 
results can be gotten by employing standard solutions of ten times 
the strength mentioned above. When this was done, though, it was 
noticed that the more concentrated standard solution of ferrous 
ammonium sulphate, which contained 39.2 grams of the salt to the 
liter, was not so permanent as the more dilute solution (Comptes 
rend., igi/, 164, 430, through Pharm. Journal and Pharm., April 7, 
1917, p. 295). 

Influence of Carbohydrates on the Accuracy of the Van 
Slyke Method in the Hydrolysis of Casein. — The presence of 
carbohydrates during the hydrolysis of casein by the method men- 
tioned above causes a complete redistribution of the amino-acids, 
which varies according to the nature of the carbohydrate. It is very 
marked in the hexone bases, and a considerable loss of amino- 
nitrogen also takes place when the protein is hydrolyzed in the pres- 
ence of xylan. Direct hydrolysis is, therefore, without reliance 
when used for the estimation of amino-acids in feeding stuffs ; the 
great variation in the nature and the amount of the carbohydrates in 
feed stuffs makes it impossible to establish factors of correction for 
the results (/. Biol. Chem,, 1916, 241-249, through Analyst, March, 
1917, p. 90 ). 

Hydrotropic Phenomena. — C. Neuberg cites a number of in- 
stances of this useful phenomenon, which is the property of aqueous 
solutions of certain salts dissolving certain other substances which by 
themselves are insoluble in plain water. This property or phe- 
nomenon has been termed hydrotropism and has been made use of 
pharmaceutically, the caffein sodiosalicylate of the National Formu- 
lary being an instance. Among the substances having this property 



286 



Advances in Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 19 17. 



are benzoic, salicylic, benzo-sulphonic acid, and various hydro-aro- 
matic acids. Solution of these substances will dissolve or increase 
the solubility of carbohydrates, alcohols, aldehydes, proteins, alka- 
loids, fats, and lipoids, and quite a number of other substances. 
This ought to open up an interesting field of experimentation among 
pharmacists for making solutions for hitherto insoluble drugs. As 
an example we might mention mercury salicylate. This drug is very 
popular among physicians, who are. because of its insoluble nature, 
compelled to give it in an oily suspension (Biochem. Zeit. } J. Chan. 
Soc, no, 2, 555). 

Relative Toxicity of Stovaixe axd Xovocaixe. — According 
to Hatcher and Smith, who have given considerable attention to the 
study of these two drugs, stovaine is slightly more toxic than novo- 
caine when administered in like manner. Recovery from toxic doses 
of stovaine is not so prompt as from corresponding doses of novo- 
caine. They found no evidence to show that stovaine exerts any 
direct action on the blood-vessels after the intravenous injection of 
it in cats and practically none of the drug was excreted unchanged 
in the urine of these animals. Stovaine, they say, causes death by 
bringing about immediate and simultaneous paralysis of the heart 
and respiration, the action of each being independent of that on the 
other (Jour, of Pharmacology, 1917, 9, 4). 

Estimation of Fluorine in Soluble Fluorides. — A neutral 
solution of the fluoride is heated to boiling, and powdered calcium 
sulphate is added ; after standing for one hour, with frequent 
stirring, the precipitate, consisting of calcium sulphate and calcium 
fluoride, is washed several times by decantation and collected on a 
filter. The latter consists of a disc of filter paper fitted into the 
bottom of a perforated platinum crucible. The precipitate is now 
washed (the wash water .used should be saturated previously with 
calcium sulphate and calcium fluoride) , then rinsed into an ordinary 
platinum crucible, and the water evaporated ; the disc of filter paper 
is, meanwhile, ignited on the crucible lid and the ash introduced 
into the crucible. The dry contents of the crucible are then heated 
at 300 C. for one hour, or until constant in weight, then sulphated, 
again heated at 300 C, and weighed. The increase in weight after 
sulphating is due to the replacement of two atoms of fluorine by the 
sulphuric acid radicle, and a simple calculation gives the quantity of 
fluorine present. The error of the method is about 0.1 per cent. 
(Amer. Jour. ScL, 1916, 42, 464-468, through The Anayht, March. 
I9I7, P- 93)- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1 9 17. 



The Quarterly Review on 



287 



Importance of the Vakrentrapp Reaction in Fats and 
Oils. — Notwithstanding the fact that hydrogenation in the presence 
of a catalyst is the usual way of converting unsaturated fatty acids 
into saturated ones, it seems possible that some of the older processes 
could be carried out on a commercial scale with the means now avail- 
able. This applies especially to the Yarrentrapp reaction, in which 
oleic acid is converted into palmitic acid by fusion with an excess of 
an alkali hydroxid. The reaction is not confined to oleic acid'; all 
unsaturated acids may be converted into saturated acids of lower 
carbon content. It is said that the process as outlined is satis- 
factory: For whale oil: 2,500 kilos of the whale oil fatty acids are 
placed in an autoclave of 5.000 liters capacity, 800 kilos of sodium 
hydroxid dissolved in an equal quantity of water are added, and the 
mixture is heated at 260° C. for six hours. The pressure must not 
be allowed to exceed 10 atmospheres. The resulting mass, which is 
quite free from objectionable odor of whale oil. may be worked up 
into soap, or the fatty acids present may be liberated and distilled. 
The yield of fatty acids so liberated is about 85 per cent, of the 
quantity taken originally. The hydrogen liberated during the reac- 
tion may be collected and utilized (Cheni. Eng. and Manufacturer, 

1916, 24. 203-204. by W. Schrauth. through The Analyst, March. 

1917, p. 91). 

Urinary Test for Trinitrotoluene (T. X. T.). — The method 
mentioned was first described by Webster and is as follows: 12.5 
c.c. of urine is mixed with an equal volume of 20 per cent, acid 
sulphuric, and then extracted in a separating funnel with ether. 
The ethereal extract, after washing with water, is tested for trini- 
trotoluene by adding 5 per cent, alcoholic solution of KOH : if 1 
purple color makes its appearance, which quickly turns to brown, the 
presence of trinitrotoluene is positively indicated [ Medical Press. 
1916. 537. through The Analyst, March, 1917. p. 89). 

Therapeutic Worthlessness of Piperazine and Other 
Organic Urate " Solvents.''' — Hanzlik in the Jour. Laboratory and 
Clinical Medicine makes some statements in reference to the unre- 
liability of this class of drugs in doing what is claimed for them. 
Maybe not so much now, but twenty-five years ago piperazine was 
much vaunted as a wonderful agent for promoting diuresis, and 
acting as a urate solvent. The investigator mentions that while 
excessive doses show a slight increase in the uric acid output, the 
same result can just as readily be brought about by giving the patient 
such well-known alkali salts as sodium bicarbonate or the citrates. 



288 



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Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1917. 



and, what is more to the point, at a great saving in price. He 
found that the solvent action of piperazine on calculi is practically 
negligible in weak solutions, although in more concentrated solu- 
tions there seemed to be some solvent action ; however, it was very 
limited. No evidence was obtainable that this drug can prevent or 
remove urate deposits. While it was found that the direct addition 
of piperazine to urine renders the liquid alkaline, this does not occur 
when the drug is taken internally, for the reason that it is destroyed 
in its passage through the body and is without effect on the urine. 
He also brings out the' interesting fact that piperazine does not in- 
fluence diuresis, and that its administration is without value in the 
treatment of gout. The author also makes the statement that there 
is sufficient scientific evidence to prove that many of the so-called 
urate solvents, such as the following, are absolutely without any 
value in that direction : Urosin, lycetol, sidonal, quinic acid, lysidin, 
urol, quinoline, our old friend colchicum, and piperazine. At this 
point we cannot help but remark that probably the best diuretic is, 
after all, water (through /. A. M. A., 807, 1917). 

Pituitary Extract in Obstetric Practice. — The fact that this 
drug very often exhibits powerful physiological action is a sufficient 
reason for insisting that it be administered, if administered at all, 
with the greatest caution. In selected cases, it is an exceedingly 
active oxytocic, and is without equal in that regard, yet the drug 
should never be used in normal obstetrics. The writer of this paper 
makes this last assertion very plain and gives good reasons for it. 
It is said that a number of cases had rupture of the uterus, and other 
ill effects followed its incautious use (Amer. Jour. Obstet.; Med. 
Review, p. 444, 191 7). 



CURRENT LITERATURE 
Pharmacological Studies with Cocaine and Novocaine. 

George B. Roth (Bull. No. 109, Hygienic Laboratory) has made 
a comparative investigation of these substances in intact animals and 
on isolated organs. 

The results of the laboratory experiments with cocaine and novo- 
caine, when compared with the results obtained in the clinical use 
of these substances, show that man is relatively more susceptible to 
cocaine and novocaine than are laboratory animals. From animal 
experiments it is seen that the toxicity of these substances depends 
partly upon the manner and method of administration. The state- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1917. 



Current Literature. 



289 



ment also seems to hold true for man. The untoward results that 
have been reported in the literature from the use of novocaine in 
operations about the head and face might well be accounted for by 
the fact that absorption may be very rapid, as for example in dental 
operations when the injection is made in a region well supplied with 
blood vessels, so that administration directly into the circulation is 
not unlikely to occur, and when injected in this way the toxicity is 
greater than when given subcutaneously. Individual susceptibility 
is marked in both animals and man. This may account for some of 
the fatalities reported in the literature. 

In addition to idiosyncrasy, age seems to be a factor in man in the 
production of fatal results with novocaine. In the three cases re- 
ported by Scandola, 1915, the ages of the men were 69, 75, and 80 
years, respectively. In cases having low blood pressure, or cardiac 
disease, novocaine should be used with caution, inasmuch as in the 
laboratory experiments it has been shown to have a depressing effect 
upon the heart muscle when large doses are given. 

The administration of hyoscine, previous to the use of a local 
anesthetic agent, is sometimes advised. If it is given before either 
cocaine or novocaine, it may act as a synergistic agent in depressing 
the respiration. In order to prevent the absorption of novocaine 
from the subcutaneous tissues, epinephrine is employed. Epineph- 
rine is a relatively unstable agent, especially in alkaline solutions. 
It is not unlikely, therefore, that unless the epinephrine which is used 
with novocaine is active, general symptoms may arise from the ad- 
ministration of novocaine as a local anesthetic agent. 

The melting point of novocaine, as determined from the examina- 
tion of 10 samples used in this investigation, varied from 153 to 
1 57° C. The relative toxicity of cocaine and novocaine, as shown by 
animal experiments, varies ; the variation being dependent mainly 
upon the animal employed as test animal. The relative toxicity of 
cocaine and novocaine for various animals when given subcutane- 
ously is as follows: For frogs (Rana pipiens) the ratio is 1.0 to 
1.4; mice, 5.5 to 1 ; rats, 10 to 1 ; guinea pigs, 10 to 1 ; and rabbits, 
5.3 to 1. When given intravenously to rabbits, the ratio of toxicity 
of cocaine to novocaine is 3.9 to 1. When given intravenously the 
rate of administration is a factor in modifying the toxicity. The 
subcutaneous administration of large sublethal doses of novocaine in 
the dog and cat causes marked general symptoms which rapidly sub- 
side. The ratio of the toxicity of cocaine and novocaine for mice, 
when fed on cakes containing these substances, is much wider than 



290 



Current Literature. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1917. 



when given in any other way, cocaine being about 50 times as toxic 
as novocaine. Feeding mice on sublethal doses of novocaine for a 
period of weeks did not seem to confer immunity to cocaine when 
the mice were fed on cocaine in the same way. 

The effects of novocaine on the isolated heart of the frog re- 
semble the effects produced by cocaine, both substances causing a 
decrease in rate of the heart and a decrease in the extent of systole. 
The relative toxicity on the heart of the frog as determined by per- 
fusion experiments is less for novocaine than for cocaine. On 
smooth muscle, the effect of novocaine differs slightly from that pro- 
duced by cocaine. On the isolated ureter of the dog, the isolated 
urinary bladder and stomach of the cat, and the isolated uterus of 
the rabbit, the effect of novocaine differs from that of cocaine 
only in being stimulating to a less degree when similar dilutions are 
used. On the isolated intestine of the rabbit, cocaine stimulates in 
dilute solutions, and in concentrated solutions depresses intestinal 
motility, whereas novocaine depresses it in any effective concentra- 
tion. On the blood pressure and respiration, both cocaine and novo- 
caine increase blood pressure and respiration in small doses and de- 
press in large doses. When given subdurally, the relative toxicity of 
cocaine and novocaine is practically the same, as shown by the com- 
parative effects on the blood pressure and respiration. Death in 
rabbits after cocaine or novocaine poisoning is usually respiratory, 
but with novocaine under certain conditions, death may be cardiac. 

1. Novocaine is several times less toxic for laboratory animals 
than cocaine, the relative toxicity being dependent upon the method 
of administration as well as upon the animal used in making the 
determination. 

2. Novocaine possesses many of the properties of cocaine as 
shown by experiments on the isolated heart, on smooth muscle, and 
by its effects on the circulation and respiration of anaesthetized 
animals. 

3. The depressing effect of novocaine on the blood pressure and 
respiration of animals makes it necessary to use caution in its ad- 
ministration in clinical cases in which the blood pressure is low or 
in which the heart is at fault. 

4. Great care should be exercised in the injection of novocaine 
subcutaneously, in order to avoid its entrance into the circulation, 
thereby increasing its toxicity. 

5. Individual susceptibility should always be considered in the 
administration of either cocaine or novocaine. 



THE AMEEIOAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



JULY, iqi* 



THE PHARMACOGNOS 




By John MoserN ">> 

v 

The extensive use of this domestic drug m -present-day, medicine 
which led to its inclusion in Part II of the National Formulary, 
fourth edition, and the confusion between this drug and alertis due 
to the number of more or less misleading synonyms such as blazing 
star, star grass, unicorn plant, unicorn root, etc., as well as certain 




Fig. i. Photograph, showing several types of Helonias rhizome: A, ob- 
lique rhizome with stem base and two stem scars ; B, upright rhizome showing 
new growth at top. 



292 



The Pharmacognosy of Helonias. { Am j u -iy Ur ; 9 ^7 



iarm. 



errors and omissions in the official description of these drugs make 
it desirable that an effort be made to clear up the subject. He- 
lonias, known in different localities as devil's bit, blazing star, droop- 
ing starwort, unicorn plant, false unicorn root, colic root, etc., is the 
dried rhizome and roots of Chamcelirium lutenm (Linne) A. Gray, a 
smooth, perennial, dioecious herb of the lily family, growing in low 
grounds from New England to Georgia and westward. Authentic 



Fig. 2. Cross section of the central portion of a seedling rhizome of 
Helonias. It will be noted that the endodermal layer is indistinct. A, a 
foramen ; B, a foramen with section of root in place ; C, collateral mestome 
strand; D, narrow bands of trachea that extend from the epidermis to the 
pericycle. 

specimens for use in this work were collected by the writer in the 
vicinity of Baltimore. 

A medical history of helonias dates back to its use by the Amer- 
ican Indian. It has long been recognized by the American Homeo- 
pathic Pharmacopoeia, and is now included in the National Formu- 
lary. Judging from the amount used in present-day medicine, it 
ranks among the important domestic drugs. 







'•} The Pharmacognosy of Helonias. 



293 



The chemical constituents of helonias have never been properly 
investigated, nor has its pharmacognosy been thoroughly gone into, 
as the National Formulary, fourth edition, fails to mention its most 
striking characteristic, a feature recognized by Millspaugh in his 
work " Medicinal Plants," published in 1892. 

This feature is aptly described in these words. "When the 
root (rhizome) is cut across it will be plainly noticeable that the 



Fig. 3. Radial-longitudinal section of Helonias rhizome. A, epidermis, 
showing annuli; B, foramen, showing cells of the tube wall; C, bands of nar- 
row trachea. 

fibrous rootlets pierce the cortex through ample foramina, in which 
they are freely movable like threads in the eye on a needle." 

The drug consists of an annulate rhizome of upright or oblique 
growth (Fig. 1), 1 to 5 cm. long, 0.5 to 1 cm. in diameter, bearing 
at the crown numerous leaf bases or in rhizomes of oblique growth, 
one or more stem scars in addition. Below there are numerous 
roots, often stripped of their cortical layers, and piercing the cortex 
of the rhizome through characteristic openings. They enter the 
cortex of an upright rhizome at an angle of about 45 degrees, are 



A 




B 




■ 



294 The Pharmacognosy of Helonias. { Am jJ° ur i 9 ^7 arm * 

more numerous in the newer growth near the crown and are often 
decayed in the older parts of the rhizome. The lower portion of 
the rhizome, representing growth two or more years old, often de- 
cays and disappears causing the rhizome to end abruptly. The 
color varies from light brown to yellowish ; fracture of the rhizome 
tough and horny ; odor slight ; taste bitter. 





I 



Fig. 4. Radial-longitudinal section of the central portion of Helonias 
rhizome. A, entering root, showing manner in which the root divides just 
inside the pericycle, and connects with the vascular system of the rhizome. B, 
endodermal layer ; C, cortex ; D, central cylinder. 

Helonias rhizome presents a most interesting structure, and 
is a fine illustration of the fact that nature refuses to follow man- 
made laws. Fig. 2, a transverse section through the central portion 
of a seedling rhizome, shows the foramina spoken of by Millspaugh, 
cut obliquely. They may appear in any portion of the cortex, and 
as will be later shown, vary in size and appearance according to 



Am j u {y Ur i 9 ^7 arm '} The Pharmacognosy of Helonias. 295 

their location. Narrow bands of trachea extend from the epidermis 
entirely through the cortex, to and even through the pericycle. 
There is no distinct endodermal layer and the mestome strands are 
of the collateral type. 

Fig. 3, a radial-longitudinal section through the cortex of he- 
lonias rhizome, shows a foramen in longitudinal section. The walls 



A- 




Fig. 5. Section of Helonias rhizome, cut at right angles to the entering 
roots, or at an angle of about forty-five degrees. This section shows five 
roots entering the cortex through their respective foramina. It will be noted 
that the cortex of the roots gradually narrows as the roots approach the 
central cylinder. It also gives an excellent view of the tube walls, which are 
seen to be uniformly thickened. A, tube wall; B, endodermal layer of root; 
C, pentarch mestome; E, endodermal layer of rhizome. 

of these root-carriers are made up of longitudinally elongated cells 
which are regular, moderately thickened and lignified, reacting to 
phloroglucin. 

A continuation of this tube with the root in place is shown in 
Fig. 4, ending just inside the pericycle. Here the mestome of the 




296 



Topical Applications. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 19 17. 



root divides, connecting with and forming part of the vascular sys- 
tem of the rhizome. 

Fig. 5 shows an oblique section of a portion of helonias rhizome, 
cutting the root-carrying tubes with their contents at right angles. 
The walls of the root-carrying tubes consist of from one to three 
layers of cells which are uniformly thickened. The epidermis of 
the contained root has disappeared and the cortical parenchyma, 
somewhat altered, gradually narrows as the root approaches the 
pericycle. 

The endodermal layer of the root, enclosing the pentarch radial 
mestome, persists practically unchanged until it reaches the pen- 
cycle. Here the endodermal layer disappears, while just inside the 
pericycle the mestome divides, sending out branches of the col- 
lateral type. Helonias is thus shown to possess characteristics that 
enable its identification to be accurately and quickly determined. It 
should be added as diagnostic aids in the study of the powder, that 
helonias rhizome contains much starch and numerous cells filled 
with bundles of raphides of calcium oxalate. The endodermal cells 
of the root are thickened on their inner walls, have a narrow lumen, 
and very numerous simple pores, the radial walls appearing sinuate 
from their close proximity. Root hairs are very numerous. 



A THESIS ON TOPICAL APPLICATIONS, THE METHODS 
OF PREPARATION AND MEANS OF DISPENSING, 
FOR THE TREATMENT OF DISEASES OF 
THE EYE. 

Submitted by C. Elbert Hoffman. P.D., P. CP., 1909, for the Degree of 
Master in Pharmacy, Ph.M., in the Philadelphia College 
.of Pharmacy 

Realizing that the products of some of the pharmaceutical meth- 
ods have been unsatisfactory from the standpoint of the practicing 
pharmacist as well as the practicing ophthalmologist, the author 
presents this thesis with the knowledge that the products secured 
by the careful following of its formulae are not only highly eligible 
but present the compounds or mixtures in the most effective form. 

While the work on glycerite of boroglycerin is entirely orig- 
inal I am indebted to Dr. Conrad Berens for his encouragement 
and suggestions in my investigation. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1 9 17. 



Topical Applications. 



297 



BOROGLYCERIN. 

Gm. 

$ Boric acid 620 

Glycerin — a sufficient quantity to make 1,000 

Heat nine hundred and twenty grammes of glycerin in a tared 
porcelain dish to a temperature between 150 C. to 160 C. and add 
the boric acid in portions, stirring constantly until all the boric acid 
is dissolved and continue the heat until the mixture has been re- 
duced to 1,000 grammes. 

Glycerite of Boroglycerin, 60 Per Cent. 

Gm. 

I£ Boroglycerin 600 

Glycerin — a sufficient quantity to make 1,000 

Heat the boroglycerin and 600 grammes of glycerin in a tared 
porcelain dish to a temperature between 150 C. to 160 C, until 
the mixture has been reduced to 1,000 grammes. When made ac- 
cording to the above formula this glycerite of boroglycerin has the 
specific gravity of 1.35 at 25 C. 

Glycerite of Boroglycerin in the Treatment of Trachoma, "Granular 

Conjunctivitis!' 

Trachoma is a disease of the conjunctiva palpebrarum charac- 
terized by infiltration of the follicles, which are distended by the 
products of the inflammatory processes. 

It is highly contagious and when neglected often destructive of 
vision. 

The writer's attention was called to the promising action of 
glycerite of boroglycerin made according to the old formulae and he 
was urged to attempt the task of improving it by increasing its per- 
centage of boric acid and rendering the product anhydrous. 

In the pursuit of these objects entirely new methods of prepar- 
ing glycerite of boroglycerin were devised, especially in the applica- 
tion of heat and the attainment of what heretofore appeared to be 
forbidden temperatures. 

The formula evolved by a long series of experiments is herewith 
presented. 

The product is anhydrous and contains 60 per cent, of boro- 
glycerin, which contains 62 per cent, of boric acid, and in the hands 



298 



Topical Applications. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1917. 



of many skilled ophthalmologists has proved of inestimable value 
in the treatment of trachoma, indeed frequently causing a com- 
plete recovery and without cicatrices. 

Of the formulae for the other medicaments it may be said that in 
several instances the refinements in method of compounding have 
resulted in more perfect, efficient and eligible preparations. 

Ointment of Glycerite of Boroglycerin. 

Gm. 



5. Glycerite of borogrycerin 20 

Sodium borate 2 

Spermaceti 20 

White wax 20 

Oil of sweet almond 38 



To the spermaceti and white wax which have been melted add 
the oil of sweet almond and continue the heat to a temperature of 
8o° C. To the glycerite of boroglycerin add the sodium borate and 
bring to a temperature of 120 C. and continue until all of the 
sodium borate has been dissolved. Add the mixture of the glycerite 
of boroglycerin and sodium borate to the oil mixture and stir rapidly 
and continuously until the ointment congeals and becomes of a uni- 
form consistence. 

This ointment is very hygroscopic and must be placed immedi- 
ately in sealed tin tubes or air-tight containers. 

Ointment of Citrate of Copper in Glycerite of Boroglycerin. 

Gm. 



I£ Citrate of copper 8 

Glycerite of boroglycerin 80 

Wool fat 2 

White petrolatum 10 



Heat the glycerite of boroglycerin to 125 C. and slowly add the 
citrate of copper and continue the heat until all of the citrate of 
copper has been dissolved. Remove the heat and when the mixture 
, has cooled to 75 C. add the wool fat and white petrolatum and stir 
constantly until it has cooled to 50 C. and transfer to airtight 
containers. 

Copper citrate was brought to the writer's attention as being a 
most valuable agent in the treatment of certain varieties of trachoma 
and of disturbances of the follicles of the ciliae. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1917. 



Topical Applications. 



299 



The objection to all former preparations of copper citrate was 
the inability to procure a base that would dissolve the copper citrate. 

After many experiments it was found that copper citrate was 
soluble in glycerite of boroglycerin and in this way it is possible to 
make a perfect and permanent ointment. 

Ointment of Iodoform. 

Gm. 

Iodoform, in very fine powder 10 

White petrolatum 90 

Heat a white porcelain mortar to 6o° C. and rub the iodoform 
with a small quantity of the white petrolatum, then incorporate the 
remainder of the white petrolatum and triturate until it congeals. 

Iodoform is very valuable in ointment form, used as a dressing 
for wounds of the ocular region. 

For this purpose it should be divided as finely as possible ; there 
should not be visible even with a powerful lens the minutest crys- 
tals, for if present they act as irritants. 

In all ointments of iodoform and combinations thereof white 
petrolatum has been found to be the best base. 

Ointment of Cassaripe. 

Gm. 

Cassaripe 10 

White petrolatum 90 

The cassaripe is heated to 6o° C. and the white petrolatum is 
slowly added and the mixture stirred until it congeals. 

Cassaripe ointment is now commonly used in the treatment of 
corneal ulcer. 



Ointment of Corrosive Mercuric Chloride. 



Gm. 

T)L Corrosive mercuric chloride 1 

Sodium chloride 1 

Distilled water 5 

Wool fat 20 

White petrolatum to make 5,000 



Dissolve the corrosive mercuric chloride and the sodium chloride 
in the distilled water and add the wool fat and white petrolatum 
and mix thoroughly. 



300 



Topical Applications. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1917. 



This ointment is a good base for other remedies, providing they 
contain no incompatible substance. 

Ointment of Yellow Mercuric Oxide. 

Gm. 

Yellow mercuric oxide 1 

White petrolatum 99 

In a white porcelain mortar which has been heated to 6o° C. 
place the yellow mercuric oxide and triturate with the white petro- 
latum, the latter a little at a time until the oxide is completely in- 
corporated. 

The yellow mercuric oxide should be made by the wet process 
for this ointment. 

The finished product must be absolutely free from any visible 
particles of the oxide even when a thin film is spread upon clear 
glass. 

This ointment is probably more frequently used in ophthalmic 
practice than any other. 

Alkaline Antiseptic Solution. 



Gm. 

5: Camphor 

Thymol, aa 0.54 

Sodium chloride 

Sodium benzoate, aa 5.40 

Sodium bicarbonate 11.00 

Oil of spearmint .60 

Oil of eucalyptus 

Oil of pine needles, aa .90 

Alcohol 10.00 

Glycerin 27.00 

Water, q.s 1,000.00 



It is the purpose of the above solution to act as an alkaline 
cleanser and render the parts aseptic and produce exosmosis. 

In order to have this exosmotic effect it will have to be of a 
specific gravity lower than 1.020. This solution when made accord- 
ing to the above formula at a temperature of 70 F. will have a 
specific gravity of from 1.0185 to 1.0190. The alcoholic strength is 
reduced to a minimum so as to lessen the irritating effects. 

This preparation is used as an eye lotion because of its thorough 
cleansing, antiseptic properties. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1917. 



Topical Applications. 



301 



The alkalinity is just sufficient to make it act as a good cleansing 
agent. 

Formaldehyde Preserving Jelly. 



I£ Gelatin 1 ounce 

Solution formaldehyde 2 drams 

Egg albumen Vz ounce 

Glycerin 8 ounces 

Water 20 ounces 



Break the gelatin into small pieces and allow it to soak in twelve 
ounces of water for ten hours, then transfer to a porcelain vessel, 
add the egg albumen and the remaining eight ounces of water and 
the glycerin ; heat until all of the egg albumen has coagulated, allow 
to simmer for ten minutes, filter, and while still liquefied but cooled 
to 6o° C, add the solution of formaldehyde and allow to congeal. 

This preparation is used for the preservation of eye specimens 
and is most satisfactory as it is almost perfectly transparent. 

For preserving a specimen the jelly having been carefully heated 
to liquefaction only is poured over the specimen and the container 
sealed. 

Working with the following substances I have accumulated the 
following practical experiences. 

Acacia is generally employed as a mucilage ; when used as a 
powder vehicle should be in as fine a state as possible. 

Acid Boracic, in eye lotions, is generally used from 1 per cent, 
to 4 per cent, solutions and in ointment forms from 5 per cent, to 
10 per cent. In every instance the chemically pure drug only should 
be used. 

Acid Picric: in making solutions there should be 50 per cent, of 
glycerin ; the ointments should have the acid in solution before in- 
corporation. 

Acid Salicylic, to be used in ointment form, should first be dis- 
solved in a small percentage of olive oil, and then incorporated with 
the base. 

Alcohol as a stimulant in eye lotions should not exceed 2 per 
cent. 

Alum is generally used in solution in combination with boracic 
acid. Borax should never be used in combination with this chemical. 

Antipyrine, when prepared for eye solutions, should never be 
dispensed with tannic acid, calomel or the salicylates. It is gen- 



302 



Topical Applications. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1917- 



erally used in aqueous solutions, ranging from 5 per cent, to 10 per 
cent. 

Aqueous Solutions for ophthalmic use should be carefully fil- 
tered before being dispensed. 

Aqua Camphor ce: it is important that all alcohol be evaporated 
in the preparation of this solution for ophthalmic use. 

Argyrol should always be freshly prepared with distilled water 
and dispensed in a dark bottle. 

Aristol, when prepared for eye work, should always be dissolved 
in sterile olive oil. 

Atropine , when used in its alkaloidal state, should first be dis- 
solved in olive oil and then incorporated in ointment form or further 
diluted with the oil for dispensing. 

Boroglycerin and its compounds have been previously described. 

Calomel, for ophthalmic work, should be an amorphous powder. 
It should never be dispensed if the patient is known to be taking 
iodides. 

Chlorine Water. This solution, for ophthalmic work, should 
consist only of the gas in water from 0.4 per cent, to 0.5 per cent, 
solution. As a compress a drachm of this solution to eight ounces 
of hot water is about the proper percentage. 

Cocaine, when used in the alkaloidal form for local anaesthesia, 
should be dissolved in freshly sterilized olive oil. It should never 
be dispensed in combination with zinc or sodium salts. 

Collodion, when used on wounds in the ocular region, should 
contain a small percentage of iodoform. 

Copper Sulphate, when dispensed for eye work, should contain a 
small percentage of glycerin. It should never be used after applying 
an alkaline or silver nitrate solution. 

Copper Citrate is used as an astringent in combination with glyc- 
erite of boroglycerin. 

Ethyl-morphine hydrochloride forms a saturated solution at 10 
per cent. It is generally prescribed in from 3 per cent, to 10 per 
cent, solutions and frequently in combination with atropine or 
eserine and should be dispensed in dark glass. 

Fluorescein is used in solution for staining ulcers. The solution 
acts best when of 2 per cent, strength rendered alkaline with the 
addition of 3.5 per cent, of sodium bicarbonate. 

Gelatin is used in the manufacture of ophthalmic discs and for 
making formalin preserving jelly previously described. 



Am ju T iy Ur i9^- arm '^ Topical Applications. 303 

Glycerin is generally used as a solvent and in the preparation of 
other compounds. 

Holocaine is the most delicate substance we work with. Glass 
vessels should be avoided in preparing and preserving the solution, 
as the small quantity of the alkali derived from the glass precipitates 
the drug. Porcelain should be the container of choice. 

Homatropine hydrobromide is generally prescribed in from 2 
per cent, to 3 per cent, solution rendered sterile. 

Hydrastis. When this preparation is written for in liquid form 
the colorless preparation should be dispensed. 

Iodoform. The mode of preparation for ointment has been 
previously described. When dispensed in powder form boracic acid 
is the best diluent. 

Mercury is a most important chemical in the manufacture of 
ophthalmic pharmaceuticals. The bichloride of mercury and yellow 
oxide of mercury ointments have been described. The other salts 
of mercury are generally prescribed for internal use. Metallic mer- 
cury is usually dispensed as mercury ointment 50 per cent. U. S. P. 

Pilocarpine and its salts are incompatible with tannin, iodides, 
alkalies, corrosive sublimate and silver nitrate. 

Potassium Iodide is used both internally and externally in oph- 
thalmic work. In ointments it should first be dissolved in water at 
saturation and then incorporated with wool fat. 

Physostigmine or E serine solutions should always be dispensed 
in dark bottles. Solutions that have acquired a dark color should be 
rejected. 

Silver Nitrate is used both in crystal form and in solutions and 
must be dispensed in dark glass. 

Sodium Borate is generally prescribed in solution as a detergent. 

Sulphur, when prescribed in ointment form, should be carefully 
incorporated with a white petrolatum base. 

Zinc Salts are generally prescribed in solution. In the prep- 
aration of the solution all borates must be avoided. 

Pipettes or medicine droppers, for use with ophthalmic solu- 
tions, should be regulated to such a point that one drop will be 
equivalent to one minim. After very many tests it has been found 
that a dropper 2.2 Mm. outside dimension with an opening 1.1 Mm. 
and the wall of the glass barrel 1.1 Mm. on each side will form as 
nearly as possible a minim drop. 

Potash-lime glass should be used for this purpose as it can be 
worked more exactly. 



3°4 



Topical Applications. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1917. 



The width of the pipette after tapering from the point should 
be of such a diameter as to consume the entire amount of liquid that 
will be drawn up by releasing the pressed rubber bulb. In this way 
no liquid will come in contact with the rubber. 

A dropper with a flange should be used only with solutions in- 
tended as eye lotions. This flange makes it less harmful should the 
tube accidentally be forced against the eye. 

Bulbs are next to be considered. These are supplied in several 
colors according to the composition. All bulbs will oxidize to a 
certain extent and it is this uncombined substance on the inner sur- 
face of the bulb that works its way into the solution and when ap- 
plied to the eye causes considerable irritation. 

In all cases the bulb should be most thoroughly cleansed before 
dispensing. Collapsible tubes for all ointments and glycerites are 
by far the most convenient and sanitary method for dispensing. 

A tube for this purpose must be made of pure tin and finely fin- 
ished. 

Different preparations require different sizes of openings for the 
release of the contents. In any case the cap must fit securely and 
seal the package. 

After a tube has been deprived of some of its contents it is 
always advisable to thoroughly cleanse the tip before replacing the 
cap. 

A bottle with a dropper stopper is the most satisfactory method 
of dispensing eye drops. 

Solutions ranging from twenty minims to one half ounce can 
easily be dispensed in a half-ounce bottle. 

The bulb is made with an enlargement on the outside so that 
it can only go just so far into the neck of the bottle and has a 
groove on the inside which is filled by the flange on the top part of 
the glass barrel. This groove serves to answer two very important 
purposes. It prevents the glass barrel from moving up or down 
and with the bulb properly fit into the bottle allows the glass barrel 
to come very close to the bottom of the bottle. 

Eye drops bottle should be fitted with a glass barrel that will 
correspond to the dimensions given under pipettes where one drop 
is equivalent to one minim. The eye lotion bottle is made under 
the same conditions, only of a larger capacity. In this case a 
dropper of almost any size may be used. 

Eye baths are used where it is the intention to have the solution 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1917. 



Topical Applications. 



come and remain in contact with the eye for a considerable space 
of time. The cup is partially filled and in this condition is pressed 
against the eye, the head is thrown back and the lids of the eye are 
opened and closed several times. 

Eye baths are made in various designs and combinations. The 
one most commonly used is the glass one with a shaft and base. 

The aluminum bath is an excellent one because it can be easily 
sterilized without danger of breaking. 

Eye irrigator: This apparatus is by far the most sanitary of 
any appliance used for washing the eye with a fluid. 

It consists of a bottle of about one and one half ounce capacity 
and a curved metal tube, which extends from near the bottom of 
the bottle to about three inches curved out from the top, which 
carries a very fine stream and is forced out under air pressure. In 
this way the solution remains in a perfectly sterile condition until 
used. 

The force of the flow is somewhat lessened by having the end of 
the tube slightly enlarged. 

The flow is very easily checked by turning the bottle half on its 
side so that the tube carrying the liquid is not immersed at the end. 

This little appliance is so complete that it can be operated per- 
fectly with one hand. 

Eye patches are used where it is the intention to protect the eye 
completely from light. These come in various colors, combinations 
and styles. The best patch is the soft-linen patch as it is more com- 
fortable and acts as a better protector. 

These come for right and left eye and in combination. They 
are also used to support compresses. 

Ophthalmic Disc Containers. 

These generally come in two styles, the vial and the celluloid 
case. The celluloid case is the more practical ; it being pure white 
enables one to see the disc more readily. 

The disc can easily be removed for application by moistening the 
tip of a camel's hair brush to which it will readily adhere and may 
then be carried directly to the conjunctival sac. 

When a physician prescribes smoked glasses to be worn during 
mydriasis it is his intention that the patient be supplied a glass that 
will protect the eye from as much light as possible. 



306 



Magma Magnesia. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
<• July, 19 17. 



Under these conditions the best glass to furnish is a glass with 
very large lens and which for its support does not depend upon a 
bridge but rests against the sides of the nose and eyebrows. 

Bottle with Bulb for Flushing. 

This consists of a bulb of about two ounces capacity and a large 
wide-mouthed bottle of eight ounces capacity having a glass cover. 

The outfit is for use where it is the intention to flush the eye 
with a large quantity of fluid. 

The bulb fits the bottle in such a manner that it becomes air- 
tight after pressing and placing the end of the dropper into the 
bottle to the body of the bulb and releasing the bulb. 

The dropper barrel for this appliance should be considerably 
larger than one used for eyedrops so that the flow will be much 
greater and with less force. 

Ointment pots or jars for dispensing eye ointments should be 
composed of opal glass. There should be no metal covering used 
unless protected from the contents by paraffine paper. A very good 
jar to use is one composed entirely of glass; or one where the base 
is of opal glass and the cover celluloid. 

Glass Applicators are small devices for the application of oint- 
ments or semi-solid substances to the eye. The more common is the 
plain piece of glass slightly tapered at the ends on which the medi- 
cation can be placed and transferred to the eye. 

An applicator more adapted to ointments is flattened on one 
end and rounded so as to remove all sharp edges. 



CRITICISMS AND SUGGESTIONS ON MAGMA 
MAGNESIA. 1 

By Sister Bertha Mueller, Assistant Apothecary at the German Hos- 
pital, Philadelphia. 

Ever since the proprietary preparation, milk of magnesia, has 
been placed on the market and become so popular, attempts have 
been made by the pharmaceutical profession to develop a good 
working formula for the making of that preparation, but so far all 

1 Read at the annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, June 19-21, 1917. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1917. 



Magma Magnesia. 



307 



the formulas advanced have been only partly satisfactory. Let us 
just briefly review some of the shortcomings of the most important 
formulas. 

We all know, for instance, that the N. F. Ill formula was un- 
satisfactory in that it took actually months for the magma to settle 
down to the required volume. Of course, in order to avoid that 
inconvenience, directions were given to transfer the magma to a 
muslin strainer and allow to drain. That, however, is not a very 
satisfactory way of doing, because of the messiness attending the 
process. Furthermore, by bringing the magma down to the required 
volume in order to have a preparation in accordance with the N. F. 
Ill requirements, one incurred the still greater embarrassment of 
having a product that was not pourable. To correct this short- 
coming, various modifications of the formula were suggested, such 
as boiling the magma, reducing the amount of water, etc. As all 
these changes, however, proved more or less unsuccessful, the con- 
clusion was drawn that it was practically impossible to prepare a 
satisfactory magma by the interaction between magnesium sulphate 
and sodium hydroxide. Some other chemical, it was thought, was 
necessary to react with sodium hydroxide in order to obtain a satis- 
factory preparation. Hence, in the present U. S. P. formula the 
magnesium sulphate is replaced by magnesium carbonate ; a change 
which is unfortunate. In the first place, magnesium carbonate is 
at -all times more expensive than magnesium sulphate. Secondly, 
the sodium carbonate resulting from the interaction between mag- 
nesium carbonate and sodium hydroxide is necessarily consider- 
able, and for that reason the preparation requires a great deal of 
washing in order to free it from the nauseating alkaline taste which 
sodium carbonate, as long as the merest trace is present, lends to it. 
Lastly, magnesium carbonate, being insoluble in water, cannot pos- 
sibly be freed from those accidental mechanical impurities which 
are present in all chemicals in varying amounts. Therefore, this 
feature of insolubility is a matter of no small consideration, for if 
we wish to have a first-class preparation, it must, above all things, 
be free from an admixture of mechanical impurities. 

In recent years still another method has been advanced, which, 
if it only yielded a more satisfactory product, would indeed, to the 
busy pharmacist, be a very welcome method. The chemical, mar- 
keted for the express purpose of preparing magma magnesia by this 
method, is said to be a hydrated magnesium oxide which, in order 



3 o8 



Magma Magnesia. 



Am. Tour. Pharm. 
July, 19 17. 



to prepare the magma, is simply mixed with water, allowed to stand 
for twenty-four hours, shook up, and the process is completed. We 
have tried that method, but find it does not yield as satisfactory a 
preparation as one would wish it to be. In the first place, the 
magma is rather grayish in color, probably due to insufficient puri- 
fication of the hydrated magnesium oxide. Secondly, the magma 
does not stand up well ; is quite gritty, and if allowed to stand for 
some time, cakes into a solid lump, which appears rather gluey and 
is very hard to shake up. It is indeed to be regretted that hydrated 
magnesium oxide, as it is marketed at present, falls short of yield- 
ing a satisfactory magma; for the fact remains that this method 
would be the ideal method. It is to be hoped that the manufacturers 
of hydrated magnesium oxide will continue to work with the chem- 
ical with a view to improving it so that eventually it can be made 
to yield a satisfactory product. 

Perhaps it would not be amiss right here to draw attention to 
the fact that the beautiful white color, which some very popular 
brands of milk of magnesia appear to have, but in reality do not 
have, is achieved by bottling the magma in glass bottles of a strik- 
ingly beautiful pale blue tint. How simple and yet so successful a 
trick ! 

After considerable work on magma magnesia, it has been our ex- 
perience that a really nice magma can be prepared according to the 
X. F. Ill formula, somewhat modified. If dried magnesium sul- 
phate is substituted for the ordinary sulphate, and the amount of 
water reduced, no difficulty in working the formula will be experi- 
enced. It is a strange phenomenon, yet it is certain that dried 
magnesium sulphate exhibits different physical properties from or- 
dinary magnesium sulphate. This feature is clearly brought out 
in making magma magnesia. If dried magnesium sulphate is used, 
a nice smooth magma is obtained which subsides very rapidly, in- 
deed so rapidly that a fresh washing can be given it every ten to 
fifteen hours, which enables one to have the preparation finished in 
less than a week's time ; while a magma prepared exactly according 
to the same formula, but with ordinary magnesium sulphate, is 
rather lumpy and requires at least several days to subside; thus 
considerable time is required for its manufacture. 

The following formula has been tried a number of times by dif- 
ferent workers, and has always produced the same satisfactory 
results : 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 19 17. 



Tinctura Cinchona Composita. 



309 



Magnesium sulphate, dried 
Sodium hydroxide, U. S. P. 
Distilled water to make . . . 



1. 000.0 



270.0 
120.0 



Dissolve the magnesium sulphate in enough water to make 750 
mils and filter; dissolve the sodium hydroxide in enough of water 
to make 250 mils ; filter. Pour the sodium hydroxide solution into 
the magnesium sulphate solution ; mix well, and bring up to 4,000 
mils with distilled water. Wash by decantation, bringing up the 
volume each time to 4,000 mils. Continue washing until the super- 
natant liquor, when tested with barium chloride test solution, does 
not show more than traces of sulphate. When assayed by the official 
method, the magma contains not less than 6.5 per cent, nor more 
than 7.5 per cent, of magnesium hydroxide. 



Imprimis: The most soluble form of the alkaloids of cinchona is 
the hydrochloride. It has always seemed to me in the course of 
fifty-odd years in the drug trade a very curious thing that the uni- 
versally used salt of quinia at least in English-speaking countries 
should be the sulphate and that this should come in the course of 
successive generations to be so commonly the name that when 
quinine was mentioned " quinine sulphate " was understood to be 
the variety intended and neither the alkaloid nor any other salt was 
thought of for many years. 

Probably the real reason was for the discoverers that thev could 
make it that way cheaper, as the calcium sulphate was so easily got 
rid of. 

Pondering thus, I have had in mind for a long time to try the 
merit of hydrochloric acid in the maceration of the ground mixed 
drugs for a lot of the compound tincture and on November 26, 1916, 
as a preliminary trial of the solvent effect of the weak acid one per 
cent, by volume on the reddish brown sediment always present in 
the finished tincture, after standing a month or so. 

I had about 2,000 mils of the regular official tincture from a lot 

1 Read at the meeeting of the New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association, 
June 13, 1917. 



TIXCTURA CINCHONA COMPOSITA. 1 



By Thomas D. McElhexie, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



^io Commercial Training for Pharmacists. { Am j u J 1 ° ur j 9 ^7 arm * 

dated May 27, 1912, and after shaking well I put into a quart packer 
marked for 1,000 mils and containing 10 mils of hydrochloric acid, 
enough of the turbid tincture to make 1,000 mils. This portion 
represented here by Sample A is at this date, May 30, 19 17, en- 
tirely limpid, showing that the trifle of cinchotannic acid sediment 
with probably some little alkaloid carried down in it was entirely 
soluble in the 1 per cent, acid menstruum. The remaining portion 
of the stock of tincture, about 1,000 mils, was turned unfiltered into 
the shelf bottle for observation, on November 26, 1916, pouring off 
clear when needed. It has still of course the sediment as before or 
a little more about % inch deep in a quart shelf bottle. Shown 
here as sample B. In another quart packer on the same date I 
started 1,000 mils of the same tincture including 10 mils of acid to 
macerate until wanted when I confidently expect to percolate a per- 
fectly clear tincture of the chlorides of the cinchona alkaloids which 
will remain clear, carrying all the alkaloids as chlorides, and the 
cinchotannic acid. After that lot has been finished a few months I 
will report on it if I am still in the harness. Perhaps at next year's 
meeting it will be an appropriate time. I cannot at present think 
of any prescription combination in which the slight trace of acid 
here suggested would be any way objectionable. 

Brooklyn, N. Y., 
May 30, 19 1 7. 



COMMERCIAL TRAINING FOR PHARMACISTS. 1 

By Robert P. Fischelis, B.Sc, Phar.D. 

The need for commercially trained pharmacists is an acute one 
if the trend of the profession is accurately recorded in the phar- 
maceutical press and in pharmaceutical meetings. It is therefore 
no longer necessary for those advocating commercial training to 
apologize for usurping a place in the pharmaceutical sun. On the 
contrary, many close students of the present-day pharmaceutical 
situation are beginning to wonder whether the time is not coming 
when those who have scientific papers to present before pharma- 
ceutical associations will not in their turn open their remarks with 

1 Read at December, 1916, meeting of N. Y. Branch A. Ph. A. 



Am jtii? ur i 9^7 arm " } Commercial Training for Pharmacists. 311 

an apology for taking up valuable time that might better be devoted 
to a discussion of business problems and financial profit possibilities. 

What the whole situation requires is the acceptance of a common- 
sense viewpoint on the part of teachers, retailers, students and others 
who are interested in the practice of pharmacy of to-day. I am not 
in sympathy with those who wish to displace a large portion of the 
present minimum pharmaceutical curriculum with business training 
any more than I am in sympathy with those who begrudge even the 
small period of time — about 60 hours — that the better schools of 
pharmacy are devoting to the subject. 

There must be a willingness to give and take in this matter if 
pharmacy is to be served properly. 

We all recognize what pharmacy is to-day and it is foolish to try 
to make ourselves believe that it is on a higher plane than actual 
conditions demonstrate. 

Our colleges of pharmacy are attempting to elevate the profes- 
sion of pharmacy to their high standards and practical men every- 
where are trying to make the colleges recognize the fact that in order 
to really serve the profession the colleges should take cognizance of 
conditions in the trade and adapt their curriculum to the situation 
in such a manner as to turn out men who would be trained and 
valuable for the present-day drug store. That, in a nutshell, is 
the_ situation and thus far many of the colleges have responded by 
instituting short courses in commercial training — with emphasis on 
the short. 

It is expecting too much of both student and instructor in com- 
mercial pharmacy to feel that just because a college gives a short 
course in commercial training its graduates should make good as 
business men. To be sure they are much better prepared for busi- 
ness life after having taken such a course than they are without 
having taken it, but the other learned professors on the pharma- 
ceutical faculties must also help to make our 191 7 graduates and 
those who follow them good assistants to the average retail drug- 
gist of to-day or good business men in their own stores. 

Those who advocate discontinuing some of the scientific instruc- 
tion given in the present pharmacy course and substituting more 
commercial training for the same are often asked what branch of 
the curriculum may be eliminated or curtailed. Invariably the first 
subjects mentioned are botany and pharmacognosy. 

Yet a knowledge of the habitat and characteristics of vegetable 



312 Commercial Training for Pharmacists. { Am j u J iy Ur ; 9 ^7 arm * 

drugs as well as climatic effects upon their growth, etc., is quite 
essential to the shrewd buyer. But how many teachers of botan> 
and pharmacognosy ever handle the subject from this point of view? 
They are usually profound students of the subject and teach what 
custom dictates every educated pharmacist should know about these 
sciences and they usually teach it in a highly scientific way, regard- 
ing any commercial consideration of the subject as beneath their 
dignity. 

It is necessary to remember that we are not, in this day and 
generation, teaching pharmacists who will go out and collect green 
drugs, dry and grind them and manufacture them into elegant prep- 
aration. We are teaching men who to-morrow will be in the thick 
of the fight for a living out of a business which has some profes- 
sional trimmings but requires the ability to utilize these trimmings 
in a commercial way for success. 

Chemistry is a big subject, which requires four years of under- 
graduate study and some more postgraduate work in our universi- 
ties before it is felt that the student or graduate knows enough to 
speak with authority on the subject. Yet we try to make our men 
master chemistry in two short years and crowd the work in at an 
enormous rate, with the result that there is little time for absorp- 
tion, because it is all needed for cramming. Chemistry is invaluable 
to the pharmacy student, but it should be handled from the view- 
point of the pharmacist. Our professors are victims of a system 
which does not recognize that the object of teaching chemistry in a 
pharmacy school is not to turn out chemists but to turn out good 
pharmacists, just as the object of teaching botany is not to develop 
botanists but better pharmacists. Here, too, a consideration of the 
commercial aspects of the subject from the pharmaceutical stand- 
point is a crying need. 

The time has come when the traditions of the past must be 
shaken off, for they have burdened us heavily for too long a time. 

Commercial training must mean more than bookkeeping, account- 
ing, selling and advertising in the future. It should be considered 
in connection with every subject in the curriculum and the men now 
teaching the various subjects at our colleges will find a keener in- 
terest in their work, on the part of students, if it is approached from 
the present-day retail druggists' standpoint. And further than this, 
the colleges will then be fulfilling their mission, which is to pro- 
vide trained men to meet the needs of the hour. 



Production of Hydrogen. 313 

PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY THE IRON CONTACT 

METHOD. 1 

By Harry L. Barnitz, Ph.G. 

One of the methods that has found favor in recent years for the 
production of hydrogen in installations of large commercial capacity 
is the so-called " iron contact method." 

The generating elements employed by this method are coke and 
water, and through them hydrogen can be produced of almost 
" chemical purity," i. e., of a purer grade than by many other tech- 
nical processes for large production excepting electrolytical. 

The iron contact method is cyclic with respect to the " iron con- 
tact mass " ; that is, this iron contact mass is used over and over 
again. If red hot iron is siprayed with a jet of steam, the iron is 
oxidized and forms iron oxide, while hydrogen is liberated. If the 
iron oxide thus produced is treated with reducing gases, such as 
generator gas, water gas or illuminating gas, the iron oxide is re- 
converted into sponge iron. 

All these reducing gases consist chiefly of a mixture in varying 
quantities of carbonic oxide, hydrogen and hydrocarbons. 

For instance, the commonly employed water gas, which is easily 
produced by means of coke and steam in producers of large working 
capacity (say up to 100 cubic meters per hour), gives a theoretical 
mixture of 50 per cent. CO and 50 per cent. H. In practice, how- 
ever, this gas always contains large quantities of impurities, em- 
anating from the coke during the process of generation, averaging 
about 6 per cent. N, 4 per cent. CO and 2-3 per cent, hydrocarbons 
and sulphides. 

The reactions used in the iron contact process may be repre- 
sented by the following formulae : 

(1) Oxidation: Fe + H 2 = FeO + H 2 . 

(2) Reduction: 2FeO + H 2 + CO = 2Fe + H 2 + C0 2 . 

It will be observed that equation (2) is exactly the reverse of 
equation (1) at least as far as steam is concerned. 

The reaction takes place at the surface of the "contact mass." 
Only where the fresh gases enter, a powerful and far-reaching re- 

1 Reprinted from Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering, Vol. XVI, 
No. 10, May 15, 1917. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. j 
July, 1917. i 



3H 



Production of Hydrogen. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1917. 



action generally takes place, while the reaction generally decreases 
in intensity in the direction of the outlet of the gas. 

Compact iron, such as waste or filings, is little suited as contact 
substance for the process, but iron oxide, either artificial or natural, 1 
e. g., iron oxide clay briquettes or iron ore, are eminently suitable. 
All these substances become more or less porous during the reducing 
process. 

Theoretically speaking, the contact mass could be used over and 
over again indefinitely in accordance with the before mentioned 
formulae, so that an unlimited quantity of hydrogen could be pro- 
duced by means of a limited quantity of contact mass. 

In practice, however, a limit is placed to the life of the contact 
mass by the fact that as it is only the surface of the latter that is 
being acted on, the substance gradually becomes impregnated by the 
dust, silicic acid and sulphides liberated by the gases. These im- 
purities form a layer on the surface, diminishing the reacting 
capacity, so that the yield of hydrogen is gardually lowered and 
other disadvantageous combinations take place. 

It is necessary, therefore, to renew the contact mass periodically, 
say after the plant has been in operation for from 8 to 30 days. 

The principal difficulty with the iron contact method arises from 
the fact that a considerable amount of heat is absorbed during the 
various stages of the process by the chemical reaction. It is there- 
fore not easy to keep the contact mass at a correct temperature with- 
out overheating. 

If overheated, the contact mass loses its porosity, cakes and even 
melts. This renders the replacing of the contact mass difficult or 
even impossible. The action of the gases becomes defective and the 
yield of hydrogen falls considerably, as channels and cavities are 
formed which can no longer be acted upon regularly by the gas and 
steam. 

As the iron contact method is very old, all kinds of suggestions 
have been made in the course of time in connection with the prac- 
tical method of dealing with this process. 

A voluminous mass of patent literature on this subject is in ex- 
istence. Only the most important of these patents, most of which 
have long ago expired, are here passed under review. 

Giffard, who made the method public in 1878, may be considered 
the discoverer of the method. He employed a shaft filled with ore 
which he heated and reduced by means of gases coming from a 



Am jtJ? ul i 9 ?7 arm '5' Production of Hydrogen. 315 

producer connected with the shaft and which passed through a dust 
chamber, in order to remove the particles of dust introduced during 
the operation. The defect of this system was that the ore was easily 
contaminated by the impurities contained in the gases and that a 
sufficiently high temperature could not be maintained. 

In 1889 Clans (English Patent No. 50) published a method for 
the production of hydrogen in a shaft furnace. He too employed 
" porous though solid blocks of iron oxide " which he alternately 
reduced with water gas and oxidized by means of superheated 
steam. i 

Walker's English patent 8373, dated 1890, describes the operation 
of the contact method in iron retorts, which were heated in a retort 
furnace from the outside. He employed water gas for the reduction. 

In 1892, the firm of Krupp published various improvements of 
the process (D. R. P. No. 73,978) which, however, did not produce 
satisfactory results and were ultimately rejected. 

Iron ores were employed in heated shafts or retorts and atten- 
tion was drawn to the importance of employing reducing gases as 
rich as possible in hydrogen with a minimum of hydrocarbon. 

Stracke returned in 1893 to the Giffard shaft furnaces (German 
Patent No. 77,350) and filled a shaft furnace with layers of " iron, 
iron oxide and ore in any form," heating and reducing the whole by 
heated generator gas or water gas which he introduced through the 
ore from the generator. He used charcoal in the generator in order 
to avoid the formation of sulphur compounds while producing ex- 
ceptionally pure gas. The waste gases formed during the process 
of reduction were completely consumed in a superheater with fire- 
proof cage-work which served to raise to a high temperature the 
steam used in producing the hydrogen. Here too the heating was 
insufficient. 

Schimming took out a German patent No. 95,071 for the pre- 
liminary heating of the reducing gases which he achieved by blow- 
ing air into the reducing shaft in order to cause combustion of a 
portion of the reducing gas. This method had the grave defect of 
overheating and melting the ore at the entrance, while the ore 
further away was not sufficiently heated. He tried to remedy this 
defect by mixing pieces of fire brick with the contact mass in order 
that the former might retain a portion of the heat, but the system 
involved serious drawbacks. 

Caro in German patent 249,269 tried to overcome the want of 



3i6 



Production of Hydrogen. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Juty, 19 17. 



uniformity in the heating by introducing air to the ore mass at 
various points during the reducing process. It is evident that under 
this system the reducing capacity of the gases was seriously affected, 
so that the yield of hydrogen was altogether too low. 

Lewes 's English patents 4134 and 20,752, dated 1890 and 1891, 
once more describe the iron contact method in detail. He proposed 
to lay a retort with iron contact mass directly through a water gas 
generator, which was technically hopeless owing to the consequent 
overheating. He proposed for the first time to employ porous 
briquettes made of iron oxide and clay or asbestos and then pressed 
and burned. He employed water gas for reducing, justly pointing 
out that the use of such gas rich in hydrogen greatly accelerated the 
process of reduction. 

Hills describes in his English patent 10,356, dated 1903, the pro- 
duction of hydrogen by the iron contact method, which he proposes 
to carry out in iron retorts. Unimportant improvements in the ap- 
paratus employed in the already well known process were patented 
by him. He used water gas for the reducing process. 

Elworthy, in German patent 64,721, dated 1905, discusses the 
contact method exhaustively. He notes as the chief defects the 
tendency of the mass to melt and the choking of the retorts. He 
proposes to overcome this difficulty by using furnaces in which the 
spongy iron is contained in specially constructed fireclay holders. 
The use of iron in lumps of varying size is taken for granted. By 
" iron " he always means spongy iron produced by reduction from 
iron oxide or iron ore, as, he explicitly states in his English patent 
12,461, dated 1902, he employs water gas for the reducing process. 

Lane repeatedly constructed installations in Russia, France and 
England about 12 to 14 years ago on the iron contact method. He 
used chiefly briquettes similar to those suggested by Lewes, made of 
iron oxide and clay which were reduced by water gas in iron retorts, 
in large iron retort furnaces. The installations proved, however, to be 
of inferior working capacity, as in the case of the proposals made 
by Walker (1890) and Hills (1903), and were nowhere a success. 

The International Hydrogen Company, whose shares are held by 
the Berlin Anhalt Machine Construction Company of Berlin, there- 
upon " discovered " the identical method for the hundredth time. 
The result was the same as in all other previous cases. 

The inevitable difficulty of the retort system lies in the fact that 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1 9 17. 



Production of Hydrogen. 



317 



the retorts are destroyed by fire after being a short time in operation 
(about six weeks) besides being choked by the ore. 

In a large installation now in operation every charge for the 32 
retorts for two furnaces with a capacity of 100 cubic meters costs 
about $3,000. 

As these retorts produce 100,000 cubic meters before being ren- 
dered useless by fire, one cubic meter of hydrogen costs for the re- 
placing of retorts alone $3,000-^-100,000 = 3 cents. Apart from 
the high cost of production involved in the production of hydrogen 
by the retort method, other drawbacks, such as continuous repairs, 
loss of hydrogen by waste, interruption of operating plant, ex- 
cessive, unbearable heat, and early destruction of the furnaces are 
so serious that the system is not to be recommended. 

The mere fact of the imperfect preparedness for operation 
makes it unsuitable for airship purposes, as the furnaces have to be 
heated gradually for several days before they begin to produce gas. 
The heating of the retort furnaces entails the use of a special sys- 
tem of coke firing, built in the retort furnaces, and involves the use 
of a considerable amount of coke (about 1,200 to 1,500 kilos per 
furnace daily). 

The oldest system employed by Giffard, already referred to, un- 
doubtedly possessed important advantages over this system,, but the 
difficulty of heating was a very serious one, as is shown by the above 
mentioned extracts from the patent literature on the subject. 

Recently, however, after exhaustive experiments many of the 
difficulties connected with the rational carrying out of the iron con- 
tact method in large industrial plants have been to a great extent 
overcome by the vertical cylinder process and installations. 

The method has now been so much improved by the application 
of entirely new principles that it meets to a certain extent the re- 
quirements of a process adapted to large installations, such as rapid- 
ity in getting the plant into working order, more certainty of opera- 
tion, and simplicity. The vertical cylinder generator is distin- 
guished by separate heating and contact chambers communicating 
with each other. The former serve for the uniform heating of the 
contact mass, as well as for the super-heating of the steam. The 
heating takes place at intervals, yet it is continuous, because when 
the heating is discontinued, the super-heating maintains the tem- 
perature of the contact chamber by its radiation and continues to 
heat the contact mass. 



3 1 8 Production of Hydrogen. { Am j l Jy Ur : ; 9 ^ arm * 

The application of this principle explains the high generating 
capacity of this type of generators. 

Owing to the separate chambers, the vertical cylinder generators 
may further be heated directly by the still combustible waste gases 
liberated during the reducing process. They require, therefore, no 
expenditure for heating material or special heat generators with 
workmen in attendance, as they are self-heating. This gives some 
advantage of an economy hitherto unattained. Losses of hydrogen, 
such as are inevitable by the retort process, are avoided by the use 
of the vertical cylinder type of generators, as no glowing particles 
of iron peel of! the exterior of the apparatus, under pressure, owing 
to the generator being lined with fireclay. 

Necessary repairs can be executed in a few hours without any 
lengthy interruption of work, as the inner parts can be easily with- 
drawn and replaced by a block and pulley arrangement. Any kind 
of reducing gas may be used in the vertical cylinder system of gen- 
erators but it is best to employ water gas or half water gas. 

A special arrangement further renders it possible to heat the 
contact mass, both directly and indirectly during the reducing proc- 
ess by means of which uniform heating is secured. 

Many of the defects incident to former installations are avoided 
in the vertical cylinder system by replacing the contact mass in com- 
paratively narrow circular layers which also secures uniform heat- 
ing, reduction and oxidation by the corresponding streams of gas. 

Giffard suggested ore as a contact mass. When properly treated, 
specular iron ore, red hematite and iron oxide hydrates have gen- 
erally been found suitable. The use of purple ore was protected by 
patent 220,889 and that of sparry iron ore by patent 241,669 (dated 
1911). The former has the disadvantage of containing too much 
sulphur and cakes easily, while the latter often melts too easily. 

Their use, therefore, offers no advantages. As a rule briquettes 
act too slowly, owing to their defective porosity. 

According to German patent 244,732 taken out by the Inter- 
national Hydrogen Company, spongy iron free from carbon can only 
be produced by reduction and out of it pure hydrogen, when instead 
of the usual water gas, a gas consisting chiefly of hydrogen, but ab- 
solutely free from hydrocarbons, is employed. 

In practice this assertion has not been found to be warranted. 
Besides, the fact is unimportant, as there exists no practical method 
of producing such a gas. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1 9 17. 

The Badische Aniline & Soda Manufacturing Company has even 
admitted in a recently announced patent that a spongy iron produced 
by a reduction from iron ore by means of coal in Sweden for smelt- 
ing purposes is suitable for the preparation of hydrogen. 

Experts have long been aware that the maintenance of a proper 
temperature is indispensable for the production of spongy iron free 
from carbon. If this is done, any reducing gas, even pure carbonic 
oxide, may be used for reducing, but water gas has the advantage of 
acting more quickly, as has been decided by experts who investi- 
gated the matter several decades ago. 

Many defects of the iron-contact method for production of 
hydrogen have been overcome in recent years, but there still remain 
further refinements to bring the process to its highest efficiency. 



INVESTMENT IN MINES. 1 

It is quite probable that most of the people who buy shares in the 
stocks of mining companies do not care whether the mines are good 
or bad. Their money is put on the cards with certain mining names 
and they occasionally win, and often lose, with the rise and fall of 
the markets. The extraordinary feature of this game is that the 
more money the dealer collects in his pile, which of course is taken 
from them, and the richer he gets, the more confidence they have in 
him and the harder they play. 

If it had been customary for the land to be tilled by agricultural 
companies incorporated under the Joint Stock Companies Act the 
names of such companies might have been substituted for those of 
mining companies, and any disrepute which might have been attached 
to the one name might have been transferred to the other. So that 
for any disrepute that the mining industry has, the Joint Stock Com- 
panies Act and not the mines are largely responsible. 

I have nothing to say to such gamblers. They should be handed 
over to their clergymen for curative moral and religious treatment. 

But there are men in the community who are interested in the de- 
velopment of the mining resources of the country, and who are pre- 
pared to follow their interest with some of their money. To such 
men a few remarks may be of interest. 

First, let them disabuse their minds of the idea that mining is any 
1 Reprinted from the Canadian Mining Journal, 1917, p. no, 



Investment in Mines. 319 



320 



Investment in Mines. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1917. 



sort of a game, to be played either over the table or out of doors. It 
is not an amusement or recreation or dishonest mode of making a 
living ; but it is a serious calling and must be contemplated seriously 
if it is to be successful. The work may be pleasant or enjoyable, as 
any good successful work should be, whether that work is mental or 
physical; but it is none the less strenuous on that account. 

Everyone will of course recognize that the actual supervision and 
operation of mines is serious and strenuous work, but many think 
that the investment of money in these same mines is gaming. This 
may be true or untrue, just as one may see fit to make it. 

If the purchaser is willing to take the trouble to be an investor, 
and not a gambler, in mining stocks he must exercise the ordinary 
precautions that he would take if he were to put his money into any 
other business enterprise. He must remember that a mine, in what- 
ever stage of its development, is a natural feature which embraces 
a definite portion of the earth's crust, and that it can be examined 
and valued by those who are accustomed to perform such work, just 
as a house or garden or farm can be valued, and that the men who 
invest on the advice of such valuators are reasonably certain to make 
good profits on their investments. 

Most men who buy stock in mining companies buy on the advice 
of men interested in selling stock to them. The sellers may be quite 
honest, and their opinions may be backed up by those of others who 
are also honest, but nevertheless it is the duty of an intelliegnt busi- 
ness man to inspect what he buys, or to get some competent person 
in whom he can place confidence to inspect it for him, whether the 
object is a mine, a timber limit, a farm, a horse, or whatever it may 
be. If he does not have such inspection made he deserves to lose 
his money. Some people may argue that opportunities for good in- 
vestments in mining properties are seldom offered, and when offered 
must be seized quickly or they will be snatched up by others. Take 
your time, and if a man tries to hurry you into a quick purchase 
without sufficient time for careful examination, no matter what pre- 
text he may offer for the shortness of time at his disposal, refuse to 
do business with him ; you will save money in the long run. 

It may also be thought that it is almost impossible to make favor- 
able investments in good mining properties or in stocks of good min- 
ing companies on account of the keen competition for such invest- 
ments. But competition to be effective must be intelligent, and most 
of the so-called competition is neither the one nor the other. Unin- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1917. 



Investment in Mines. 



321 



formed buying is no competition to the careful business man ; but on 
the contrary it often gives him an opportunity to secure bargains 
which he would not be able to get if other buyers were not wasting 
their money on trash. The purchaser of a mine or of mining stock, 
who purchases without knowledge or competent and independent 
advice, is not a formidable competitor to the man who knows thor- 
oughly what he is purchasing. In spite of the wails and protests of 
those who have lost money by buying pieces of paper which they 
were gullible enough to believe would soon represent wealth to be 
derived from new mines, I have no hesitation in saying that at the 
present time investments in mines, if made intelligently and on com- 
petent and independent advice, will yield larger and more certain 
returns than investment in any other class of securities on the market. 

There may be some timid mining engineers who will say that 
they do not invest any money that they may possess in mining se- 
curities. Such engineers must be avoided as financial advisers. If 
they have not sufficient confidence in their knowledge and ability to 
separate good mines from bad ones, and to stake their own money 
on that knowledge, you may take it for granted that they are not 
capable of judging of the value of mines in which others should in- 
vest. But there are engineers who make a study of the value of 
mines, and who are not afraid to put their money into them. The 
advice of such men will usually lead to successful investments. It 
may have nothing to do with the vagaries of the stock market, and 
it is rarely that a purchaser will buy on such advice stock which is 
selling at $2.00 to-day and which will be selling at $4.00 to-morrow, 
but he will buy stock in mines which have intelligent, honest di- 
rectors, are well managed, have large ore reserves, and are certain 
to pay good dividends for years to come. 

If the capitalist has money to spare, and wishes to take long 
chances in the hope of larger returns, he may be directed to buy 
stock or interests in mining properties in their early stages of de- 
velopment which have good prospects of becoming dividend payers, 
and be will be directed to avoid the many properties, no matter how 
glaringly advertised, which have no such prospects. In the case of 
such speculative purchases no advising engineer of any reputation or 
standing will guarantee success, but he will increase the chances of 
success manyfold. 

Such speculative purchases are the ones usually thought of when 
men talk about " putting their money into mines," and the successes 



322 



Book Reviews. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 19 17. 



that have fallen to the lots of the fortunate speculators have laid the 
foundations for many an attractive story. If a man wishes to specu- 
late, let him do so, but let him be sensible and reduce the chances 
against himself as much as possible before he pays over his money. 
He should not accept a seller's statement that a hole in the ground, 
whether large or small, is of any value as a mine until he has taken 
the trouble to examine it for himself or has had it examined by some 
competent and independent valuator. 

I have attempted briefly to draw attention to an ordinary business 
principle in common use among people everywhere throughout the 
country. If it is kept as constantly in view when mines, or interests 
in mines, are being purchased, as it is in other commercial transac- 
tions, we will soon hear less of the losses incurred in the purchase of 
worthless mining stock. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Principles of Pharmacy, by Henry V. Amy, Ph.G., Ph.D., 
F.C.S., Professor of Chemistry in the College of Pharmacy of Co- 
lumbia University. Second edition, revised, with 267 illustrations. 
Octavo, cloth, 1056 pages. W. B. Saunders Co. $5.50 net; half 
morocco, $7.00 net. 

Writers of textbooks on extensive subjects such as pharmacy, 
like editors of journals, are not confronted with the necessity of 
searching for material but must rather solve the difficult task of 
separating the essentials from the non-essentials. Professor Arny 
has, in his textbook, picked the wheat from the chaff with a skill that 
can only be acquired by long teaching experience and intimate con- 
tact with the pharmaceutical problems of the day. 

The book is divided into seven parts. Part one deals with 
pharmaceutical processes and the arithmetic of pharmacy in a re- 
freshingly concise yet understandable manner. Only sample prob- 
lems are given in the section devoted to arithmetic, so that a text- 
book or class room problems on this subject are needed to supple- 
ment this chapter. 

Part two deals with the galenical preparations of the pharma- 
copoeia and those unofficial preparations considered worthy of notice. 
The numerous tables classifying these preparations as regards 
strength, method of manufacture, etc., are invaluable to the student 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1 9 17. 



Book Reviews. 



323 



in summarizing the knowledge which has been imparted through 
lectures and book study. 

Part three takes up the inorganic chemicals used in pharmacy and 
includes a discussion of chemical theories and chemical arithmetic. 

The organic chemicals used in pharmacy are taken up in part 
four. The comments on individual compounds are preceded by an 
introductory chapter dealing with the theory and classification of 
organic compounds. 

The analytic methods of the Pharmacopoeia are summarized in 
part five and chemical testing is taken up in a manner which at 
once gives the student the proper point of view with regard to this 
phase of pharmaceutical work. 

Part six takes up the prescription and valuable information re- 
garding incompatibilities has been collected in this portion of the 
book. 

Part seven consists of a set of laboratory exercises including 
problems in chemical arithmetic and equation writing. We should 
like to see this portion of the work extended sufficiently to fulfill the 
syllabus requirement for laboratory work in pharmacy. 

A careful examination of the various chapters of the book shows 
that up-to-date information on many phases of pharmaceutical work 
has been included. For instance some space is devoted to a discus- 
sion of ampuls and methods of filling them. On the other hand, 
the subject of biological assaying, now recognized in the Pharma- 
copoeia, is given scant attention. 

Perhaps the greatest distinctive feature of this book is the ex- 
cellent and extensive bibliography given at the end of each chapter. 
For student and teacher alike this is an invaluable asset and it alone 
makes the book a necessary addition to every working pharma- 
ceutical library. 

Just at this time, pharmacy is striving hard for the recognition it 
should receive from other professions and the government. In 
order to secure and hold such recognition it is necessary for phar- 
macy to demonstrate through its men and its literature that it is 
deserving of the prominent place which it craves. 

Books like Amy's " Principles of Pharmacy " are a credit to 
the profession and will go far to give our craft the desired standing 
among the learned professions. 

Robert P. Fischelis. 



324 



Book Reviews, 



f Am. Tour. Pharm. 
1 July, 1 9 17. 



Materia Medica and Pharmacology, a Manual comprising all 
Organic and Inorganic Drugs which are or have been official in the 
United States Pharmacopoeia, together with the Important Allied 
Species and Useful Synthetics, by David M. R. Culbreth, Ph.G., 
M.D., Professor of Botany, Materia Medica and Pharmacognosy in 
the Maryland College of Pharmacy, Department of the University of 
Maryland, Baltimore, Aid. Sixth edition, thoroughly revised, with 
492 illustrations. Octavo, cloth, 1001 pages, price $5.25 net. Pub- 
lished by Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia and New York, 191 7. 

This familiar textbook on material medica and pharmacology 
has been thoroughly revised to conform to the Ninth Decennial Re- 
vision of the Pharmacopoeia, and also includes references to the 
important drugs and preparations now included in the National 
Formulary. 

The arrangement of the drugs remains strictly the same as that 
followed in previous editions, being based upon the principle of 
associating as nearly together as possible those substances, organic 
and inorganic, which have a common or allied origin, allowing those 
next related to follow in regular order, the basal or parental source 
thus being kept paramount. 

Dosage and measurements are given in both the English and 
metric systems. While this is undoubtedly a convenience to some, 
it is a disadvantage to the teaching of medicine and pharmacy in 
view of the propaganda favoring the use of the metric system only, 
in the compounding, prescribing and dispensing of medicines. The 
sooner authors of pharmaceutical and medical textbooks confine 
themselves to the use of the metric system the sooner will it be 
brought into universal use. The Pharmacopoeia and National For- 
mulary have both ceased giving quantities of ingredients in prep- 
arations and dosage in the apothecaries' system and writers of text- 
books should follow this example. 

We note that the abbreviation Ml. is used to express milliliter 
throughout this work, whereas the official substitute for Cc. is the 
coined work mil. From the teacher's point of view this is particu- 
larly unfortunate as it gives the student consulting the official 
works and this textbook an idea that any abbreviation will do, when 
all the energies of the teacher are bent toward uniformity in this 
respect. 

In the table on page 945 under " Prescription Writing " the 
author gives ml. as the abbreviation for milliliter and Ml. as the 



Am jJiy Ur i9^7 arm *^ The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 325 

abbreviation for myrialiter. Yet on the same page we find the state- 
ment that a cube measuring .393 of an inch on the side " contains 
of distilled water 1 Ml. (Cc.) weighing 15.434 grains and this fur- 
nishes the unit of weight (gramme)." While a matter like this 
has no great bearing on the value of the book as a text of materia 
medica and pharmacology, it does present an inconsistency which 
should be avoided in a textbook. 

A number of new illustrations have been added and these are 
undoubtedly of considerable value in elucidating the text. 

One would rather expect in a work of this kind to find some 
reference to the newer methods of standardization, especially those 
mentioned in the Pharmacopoeia under biological assays. In the 
discussion of cannabis, for instance, no reference is made to the 
physiological standard required by the Pharmacopoeia. 

The mechanical make-up of the book is good and on the whole 
its contents entitle it to a prominent place in our list of pharma- 
ceutical textbooks. 

Robert P. Fischelis. 



THE PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 
Ninety-sixth Annual Commencement. 

The Commencement exercises of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy extended from June second to June sixth. The bacca- 
laureate services were held at the Church of St. Luke and Epiphany 
on Sunday, June 4, the baccalaureate preacher being Rev. Dr. David 
M. Steele. The sermon was based upon the text " How much is a 
man better than a sheep." The annual meeting of the Alumni Asso- 
ciation was held on Monday afternoon. The Professors' Supper to 
the graduating classes was given in the Museum on Monday evening. 
Class Day exercises were held on Tuesday afternoon, June 5. The 
annual reunion of the Alumni Association was in the nature of a 
special entertainment followed by a dance. Owing to illness Dean 
Joseph P. Remington was unable to attend the exercises connected 
with Commencement and it is the ardent hope of the faculty, stu- 
dents and members of the College that he will soon return to the 
halls of the College. 

The Commencement exercises were held on Wednesday evening, 



326 The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy { Am j tJy Ur i arm * 

June 6, at the American Academy of Music, when the diplomas and 
prizes were awarded to the members of the graduating classes and 
honorary degrees were conferred. The opening prayer was made 
by Rev. Frederick L. Sigmund, and an address was delivered by 
Mr. Edward J. Cattell. The degrees were conferred by President 
Howard B. French. 

The following are the names of those receiving the degree of 
Master in Pharmacy (Ph.M.) honoris causa: Julius William Stur- 
mer, Phar.D., William Baker Day, Ph.G., Frederick John Wulling, 
Ph.G., LL IX, John Karl Thum, Ph.G. 

The degree of Master in Pharmacy (Ph.M.) in course was 
awarded Charles Elbert Hoffman, P.D., of the class of 1909 P. CP. 

The degree of Bachelor in Chemistry and Pharmacy (B.Sc.) 
was awarded for the first time upon Louis Gershenfeld, P.D., of the 
class of 191 5 P. CP. 

The following are the names of those receiving the degree of 
Doctor in Pharmacy (P.D.) together with the subjects of their 
graduating theses : 

Name Thesis 

Adams, Ernest Watts Application of Purity Tests ...New Jersey 

Adler, Rudolph Wolf Chaulmoogra Oil Pennsylvania 

Banzhof, Harry George Olive Oil Pennsylvania 

Beers, James Norman Cold Creams Pennsylvania 

Boehme, Lawrence Karl Cod Liver Extracts Ohio 

Bradburd, Harry Aaron Industry of Chamois Skins Pennsylvania 

Brenner, Harry Ellsworth ...Rheum Pennsylvania 

Brown, Barton Gerald Gossypium Purification ... New York 

Brown, Leland Nelson Cannabis, Its Cultivation Delaware 

Bucke, Samuel Lawrence Elixir of Pepsin and Bismuth, Pennsylvania 

N. F. Pennsylvania 

Calkins, Arthur Robert Spiritus Ammon. Aromaticus. . Pennsylvania 

Carroll, Paul Raymond Pennsylvania 

Clapham, Miss Amanda 

Elizabeth Pennsylvania 

Colestock, Chauncey Parven . . Three Modified N. F. Prepara- 
tions Pennsylvania 

Cossoy, Herman Lincoln The Vanilla Bean Pennsylvania 

Craft, Charles Clagett Urine Analysis Dist. of Col. 

Cravens, John Coldsmith, 

Jr. (P.C.) ..Castor-Jell Pennsylvania 

Croff, Adam Cleveland .Solution of Peptonate of Iron 

N. F Missouri 

Davidson, Abraham (Ph.G.) .. Sulphur, Its Properties and 

Uses New York 

Dinklocker, Robert George . . . Sponges Pennsylvania 

Dohner, Harold Bertram Sant'onica Pennsylvania 

Duster, Elmer Joseph Microscopy of Morbid Urine . . Pennsylvania 

Ehman, Karl Francis (P.C.) . . Glycyrrhizin Pennsylvania 

Ellis, Chester Alexander Petrolatum Liquidum Pennsylvania 

Ellis, Wilbur James Insect Powder Tennessee 



Am j i7iy U1 "i 9 "?7 arm " ) The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 327 

Ernest, Harold Langsdorf ...Anesthetics Pennsylvania 

Evanson,Axel Alfred (Ph.G.) . Tests on Two Types of Chem- 
ical Disinfectants North Dakota 

Farrell, Robert Joseph Characteristics of Urine Pennsylvania 

Fenstermacher, Clarence 

Hoover Process for Extracting Gold by 

Potassium Cyanide Pennsylvania 

Foran, Ralph Richard Superfluous Drugs Pennsylvania 

Forbes, William Clifford The Sterilization of Hair and 

Shaving Brushes Alabama 

Frick, Charles Keyser Fluorescence of Cathartic Drugs. Pennsylvania 

Fuhr, Harry Godshall Potassium Permanganate ...... Pennsylvania 

Garrell, Frank Emanuel The A. Ph. A. Recipe Book with 

Formulas for Toilet Creams. . Pennsylvania 
Gold, Martin Hollenbach The Diatomaceae and Other Or- 
ganisms in the Philadelphia 

Water Supply Pennsylvania 

Grandy, Seth Parker ( P. C.) .. Influenza Pennsylvania 

Gross, George Richard Disinfectant Value of Liquor 

Formaldehydi Pennsylvania 

Grove, Arthur Landis The Manufacture of Intestinal 

Antiseptic Tablets Pennsylvania 

Hallman, Albert Jefferson The Dangers Hidden in a Home 

Medicine Chest Pennsylvania 

Harrison, Thomas West 
Danville Salvia Pennsylvania 

Harrison, Joseph Whipple 

Eugene The Manufacture of Alkaloids 

by Lloyd's Reagent New York 

Hawbaker, Omar Coriaria Myrt'ifolia Pennsylvania 

Hert'zler, Norman Brubaker . . Liniments, Involving Saponifica- 
tion Pennsylvania 

Hocker, Alvin Roy The Microscopical Structure of 

Hyoscyamus Niger Pennsylvania 

Holloway, John Wilson 

(P.C.) Greaseless Vanishing Creams ..Pennsylvania 

Huber, Hiram Franklin Stock Preparation Costs Pennsylvania 

Huth, Harry Godfrey Pharmaceutical Agitation ...... Wisconsin 

Ibberson, Fred E'arl Calamine Pennsylvania 

Jones, Herbert Sight Red Cabbage as an Indicator . . Pennsylvania 

Jordan, Herbert Victor 

(P.C.) Sugar Pennsylvania 

Kane, Bernard Phenol Pennsylvania 

Kapler, Amos William The Tanning of Leather Pennsylvania 

Kelchner, Lawrence Samuel . . Commercial Glucose Pennsylvania 

King, Jacob Harris (P.C.) ..Filter Paper Pennsylvania 

Koch, Chauncey Astor The Geological Formation of 

Sulphur and the Advancement 

in the Industry Pennsylvania 

Krauss, Edward Japanese Aconite Pennsylvania 

Laucks, Frederick Scholl Comparative Methods for the 

Assaying of Ipecac Pennsylvania 

Leibowitz, Jacob Louis The Quantitative Separation of 

Strychnine and Brucine Pennsylvania 

Ligan, Robert Franklin (P.C.) . The Steel Industry Pennsylvania 

Lowther, Frederick Samuel . . Salicylic Acid Pennsylvania 

McCann, Thomas Joseph Soda Mint and Pepsin Tablets. . Pennsylvania 

McClure, Edward Everett 

Powell The Determination of Phos- 
phoric Acid Pennsylvania 



3 2 8 The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy { Am jjf y m ^ arm - 

McKeel, Charles Baynor Products of Southern Pine No. Carolina 

Maier, Albert Thomas Hydrogen Dioxide New Jersey 

Maust, Jonas Gilbert Glycerole Hypophosphites Com- 
pound Pennsylvania 

Milner, Louis Physiological Testing of Enteric 

Coating Pennsylvania 

Murray, Lindley Rhea The Determination of Borax in 

Borax Soaps Pennsylvania 

Nace, Earl Gray Toilet Waters Pennsylvania 

Nagle, Philip Eugene Liquor Magnesii Citratis Pennsylvania 

Nelson, Carl Harold Black Antimony Pennsylvania 

Newcomer, Leo L Colloidal Suspensions Pennsylvania 

Null, Harry Watson The Commercialization of Oxy- 
gen Pennsylvania 

Parvin, Edwin Cyrus Liquor Magnesii Citratis New Jersey^ 

Pittman, Gerald Sutvan Face Powders Pennsylvania 

Powell, James Clayton Alkali Lands Pennsylvania 

Pryor, Charles Taylor The History of the Volatile Oils. Pennsylvania 

Rex, Walter William Logwood Pennsylvania 

Rodes, Harry Beard Glycerite of Hydriodic Acid . . . Pennsylvania 

Rosenfeld, Lawrence Marx . . Cupri Sulphas Pennsylvania 

Rupp, Robert Adam Moulds Pennsylvania 

Rupp, Walding George Triticum Ohio 

Schoenthaler, Russell John . . Acidum Hypophosphorosum . . . New Jersey 

Shinn, Edward Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. Illinois 

Shoop, James Harper The Drugs Affecting the Urine 

and Urinary Apparatus Pennsylvania 

Siegfried, Charles Francis . . . Tincture of Nux Vomica Pennsylvania 

Skeath, Alexander Hamilton 

Butler Acetic Acid Pennsylvania 

Snyder, William Henry (P. C.) . Production of Industrial Alco- 
hol Pennsylvania 

Sutton, William Henry, Jr. . . The Chemistry of Low-Freezing 

Brines New Jersey 

Thomas, John Carter Home Manufacture and Uses 

of Unfermented Grape Juice. Delaware 

Wagner, Raymond Charles 

Bernard The Manufacture and Uses of 

Serums, Bacterins and Vac- 
cines Pennsylvania 

Webster, Leslie Sharpless Saturated Solution Boric Acid.. Pennsylvania 

Wishnefsky, Harry Caffeine, Theobromine and Theo- 
phylline New Jersey 

Zercher, Charles Stanley Aromatic Waters Pennsylvania 

Ziegler, Paul Fleager Commercial Cleaning Fluids . . . Pennsylvania 

The following graduates were awarded the degree of Pharma- 
ceutical Chemist (Ph.C.) : 



Angstadt, Harry Franklin Pennsylvania 

Brosius, George N Pennsylvania 

Buchman, Evan Pennsylvania 

Frederick, Charles R , Pennsylvania 

Heine, Edward Pennsylvania 

Jones, Chester Kimmerer Pennsylvania 

Persing, William E. Pennsylvania 

Woehrle, Paul Philip Pennsylvania 

Pennsylvania 



Am jiy ur ^7 arm ' } The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 3 29 

To the following graduates the degree of Pharmaceutical Chem- 
ist (P.C.) was awarded together with the subjects of the theses 
submitted : 

Name Thesis 

Brown, Paul Revere The Value of Pharmacognosy 

to the Retail Pharmacist Pennsylvania 

Cost'ello, Miss Genevieve 

Marie Vanilla Pennsylvania 

Devitt, John Digitalis Pennsylvania 

Duron, Guillermo Enrique ...Capsicum Pennsylvania 

Heekman, Paul Willard Some of the Lotions Suggested 

for the Recipe Book of the 
American Pharmaceutical As- 
sociation Pennsylvania 

McNelis, Miss Anna Camillus. Ampoules Pennsylvania 

Mulford, Henry Kendall, Jr... The Deterioration of Digitalis. . Pennsylvania 
Richman, Samuel Thompson. . The Histology of Two Spurious 

Cubebs New Jersey_ 

Sister Mary Beatrice Pilocarpus Pennsylvania 

Sister Mary de Chantal Incompatibility Pennsylvania 

Smith, Donald Benner Hair Dyes and Color Restorers. Pennsylvania 

Steinsnyder, Barnett Benzinum Purificatum New York 

Stickle, Morton Donaldson .. Sterilization of Camphorated Oil. Honduras 
Tyson, Jacob Homer Nature's Methods of Seed Dis- 
semination Pennsylvania 

Way, Miss Helen Organotherapy New Jersey 

The degree of Graduate in Pharmacy (Ph.G.) was awarded the 
following graduates : 

Name Thesis 

*Abalo, Aristides Cuba 

* Adams, Elwood C. , Pennsylvania 

*Ahrendts, Conrad Henry Pennsylvania 

Anderson, James Philip Spiritus Aetheris Nitrosi Ohio 

*Asheraft, Bernard Alfred Pennsylvania 

Bambrick, Martin Joseph . . . Petrolatum Pennsylvania 

Baron, Samuel Theobroma Cacao Pennsylvania 

*Beckett, Thomas Aloysius .- Pennsylvania 

Bienstock, Nathan Samuel . . Retail Pharmacy Advertising . . Connecticut 

Bohn, Frederick Henry Soda Foam Producers New Jersey 

Bowman, Walter Jennings . . Pill Excipients Pennsylvania 

Bowron, Dilley Arthur Sterilization Ohio 

Brodman, Mrs. Bessie Liss ..Hydrogen Dioxide in Mixtures. Pennsylvania 

Buckwalter, Clarence Clifton. Stramonium Leaves Pennsylvania 

Burbage, George Andrew Sterilization .. Maryland 

Carter, William Baker Veterinary Preparations Pennsylvania 

Carter, William James Nux Vomica Pennsylvania 

Clarke, Ray Shearer Commercial Colloidal Silver . . . Pennsylvania 

Cole, Charles Woodson Assaying of Magma Magnesia. . Pennsylvania 

Cooperman, Daniel Merchandising Maryland 

Cribbs, Frank Albert Preservation of Volatile Oils . . Pennsylvania 

*DeBlasio, James John Pennsylvania 

Devers, Miss Margaret ...... Maize Oil Pennsylvania 

*Dunston, William Harold Pennsylvania 

* Thesis not required. 



330 The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy { Am j u J 1 y Ur ; 9 ^ arm - 

Evans, Hunter Leon Tincture of St'rophanthus Pennsylvania 

*Folk, Howard George Pennsylvania 

Foust, Clarence Herr Glycyrrhiza Pennsylvania 

Frazer, Donald Morrow Prescription Dispensing — Pow- 
ders Ohio 

Fundora, Florentino Lope . . . Tincture of Iodine Cuba 

Gardner, Stanley Preston . . . The Arsenic Test of the U. S. P. Pennsylvania 

*Garr, Hyman David Pennsylvania 

Gehman, Walter Warren ...Decolorized Tincture of Iodine. Pennsylvania 

Gershenfeld, Joseph Charles. Cocoanut Oil Pennsylvania 

Griesing, Howard William . . Ambrine Pennsylvania 

*Hacker, Raymond Colby Ohio 

*Hafer, LeRoy Irvin Pennsylvania 

Haldeman, Glenn Arthur Intestinal Antiseptics and Dis- 
infectants Ohio 

*Hall, Edward Willard Pennsylvania 

Hamilton, David Ambrose, Jr. Honey and Its Uses in Phar- 
macy Pennsylvania 

Hammill, Arthur Vincent 

Francis Drug Store Advertising Pennsylvania 

Heath, Raymond George Commercial Papain Pennsylvania 

Helnore, John Charles r . . New Mercurial Preparations . . Wisconsin 

^Hernandez, Antonio 

Alejandro — Mena ...Kaolin, Relation to Diphtheria 

Bacillus Growth Cuba 

Imler, Richard Monroe Liquid Petroxolin Pennsylvania 

Karn, John William Ampoules Wisconsin 

*Kelley, John Forrest Pennsylvania 

Knoepfel, Harry John Kieselguhr Pennsylvania 

Krechmer, Max Ellis New Kinds of Syphons New Jersey 

Langeluttig, Joseph Ellis Pennsylvania 

McCarney, Merle Assay of Lime Water Pennsylvania 

*Macias, Francisco P Cuba 

Meagher, Matthew Clarence. Antiseptic Dental Cream Pennsylvania 

*Medvedkin, Jacob Louis Pennsylvania 

Meyers, Louis Fred Suppositories Pennsylvania 

Milburn, Arland Roland Sugar Cane and By-products . . Delaware 

Miller, Robert William Acidum Nitrohydrochloricum' 

Dilutum ...Pennsylvania 

Mills, John Herman, M.D. . . Castela Nichelsoni, var. texana. Florida 

^Morgan, Thomas Asaph .Pennsylvania 

Moyer, Raymond John Chemical History Pennsylvania 

*Moylan, Joseph Aloysius Pennsylvania 

*Mulherin, James Patrick Pennsylvania 

*Nefr, Aaron Pennsylvania 

Nicholl, Elmer Thomas Window and Show Case Deco- 

• rating Pennsylvania 

Nichols, Adley Bonisteel Terra Silicea Purificata Wisconsin 

*Potts, Earl Luther Pennsylvania 

Powell, Miss Edythe Bird . . Hydrogen Peroxide in Milk . . . Pennsylvania 

^Ramirez, Jose — Flores Cuba 

*Reynes, Jose Santiago Cuba 

Rinn, Miss Hazel Marie Suppository Making Pennsylvania 

Rishton, Myron Parker Plantago Rugelii Pennsylvania 

Rodis, Louis Facts Regarding the Pennsyl- 
vania Pharmacy Laws and the 
Harrison Narcotic Law New Jersey 

*Ruff, Ulysses Gilbert. Jr Pennsylvania 

*Schneck, William Owen Pennsylvania 

Schultz, Miss Anna L Tooth Washes Pennsylvania 



Am j i/iy ur i 9?7 arm " ) e Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 3 3 1 

Seltzer, Robert Hood Window Dressing Pennsylvania 

Shaak, John Franklin Cotton Seed Oil New Jersey 

*Shaw, John Donald New Jersey 

Ethyl Chloride as a General and 

Shaw, Neal Wendle Local Anesthetic Ohio 

Sherman, Alexander Medicinal and Other Soaps Pennsylvania 

*Shiley, Harry Allen Pennsylvania 

♦Skloff, Myer ...Russia 

Smith, Miss Rose Frances . . Pharmacognosy of Green Gin- 
ger and the Superiority of 
Preparations of the Fresh 

Drug Pennsylvania 

Steidle, Carl Frederick Potassium Bromide Pennsylvania 

Steigrod, Harry Archie Lime Water Pennsylvania 

Solution Peptonate of Iron and 

Sunday, Jesse Hartzell Manganese Pennsylvania 

*Tesman, Jacob Pennsylvania 

Thomas, Miss Bessie 

Estella Dakin-Carrel Solution and Am- Pennsylvania 

brine Pennsylvania 

Tuck, Henry Cornelius Peppermint Pennsylvania 

Usher, William Francis Iodine and Official Preparations. Pennsylvania 

Wagner, Clarence Kinney . . . Zinc, Metallic and Oxide Pennsylvania 

Warricks, James Robert Synthetic Oil of Bitter Almonds. Pennsylvania 

♦White, Ray Ellsworth Pennsylvania 

Young, Joseph Roy Bacteriology in Pharmacy Pennsylvania 

The following students who have passed all Second Year Ex- 
aminations and are eligible for the Degree of Ph.G. when the other 
graduation requirements shall have been met received a Certificate 
attesting to these facts. 

Name Thesis 

Barab, Harry The Composition of Certain 

Face Powders Pennsylvania 

Bass, Albert Abe Physiological Standardization of 

Digitalis Pennsylvania 

♦Blumberg, Maurice New Jersey 

*Braker, Norman Clifton Pennsylvania 

*Braslavsky, Albert Pennsylvania 

Carroll, John Francis Cork, It's Origin and Uses Pennsylvania 

Cotanch, James Gilbert The Tryptic and Peptic Power 

of Elixir of Lactopeptine and 
Elixir of Digestive Com- 
pound New York 

Dabney, Maurice Benjamin .. Vaccines, Serums and Other 

Bilogical Products Pennsylvania 

Di Silvestro, Miss Elisa Vitamines Italy 

Dompf, Solomon Harry Pepsin and Its Preparations . . . Russia 

Dudley, Leonard Freeman . . The Tinctures of the Eighth and 

Ninth Revisions of the U. S. P. New Hamp're 

Dunmire, Wilbert Jacob Cost of the Tinctures of the 

N. F Pennsylvania 

Edgar, Roy Alfred Cream of Camphor Pennsylvania 

♦Ettelman, Abraham 

Guedalyah Pennsylvania 

♦ Thesis not required. 



332 The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy { Am j u J iy Ur ; 9 ^7 arm " 

Fox, Miss Bessie Carrie Belle. Albuminates and Peptonates ...Connecticut 

^Friedman, Charles Jonas Pennsylvania 

*Gehman, Matthew Stanley Pennsylvania 

^Herman, Abraham Lincoln Pennsylvania 

Hess, Claude Thomas Buttermilk Pennsylvania 

Hidlay, William Clair Deodorized Oleic Acid Pennsylvania 

''Hoff stein, Benjamin Herman Pennsylvania 

*Hotchkiss, Harry Edward New York 

*H6vsepian, Haig S Armenia 

Hysore, Charles Alphenas . . Fat Free Galenicals Pennsylvania 

Jackson, Clifford Payne The Modification of Milk for 

Infants Pennsylvania 

*Klingaman, Claude Raymond Pennsylvania 

Lehrfeld, Manuel Magnesium and Its Compounds. Pennsylvania 

Lippincott, Melcour Restore. The Purification of Fatty Oils. . New Jersey 

Mackler, Miss Rose Magnesium Sulphate New Jersey 

*Miller, Earl Thomas Pennsylvania 

Schwartz, Harry Leet Effervescing Salts Pennsylvania 

*Snyder, Charles Asemowitz Pennsylvania 

Stapleton, Richard Michael. . Coal and Its Marketing Pennsylvania 

Stoneback, William Jennings. Balsam Apple New Jersey 

Thorne, Miss Elizabeth 

Kat'hryne Wild Beach Plums New Jersey 

Unterberger, Louis Manufacture of Paper Pennsylvania 

Weir, William Partee Talc Virginia 

Wepfer, Emil Albert Trifolium Pratense Wisconsin 

Certificates of Proficiency in Chemistry were awarded the fol- 
lowing graduates : 

Coble, Charles L Pennsylvania 

Sands, Paul D., P.D Pennsylvania 

Certificates of Proficiency in the Food and Drug Course were 
awarded the following graduates : 

Harvey, Gilbert Leon Pennsylvania 

Ottinger, Harry Philip Virginia 

Certificates in Bacteriology were awarded the following: 

Name Where From 

Carbo, Pedro Cuba 

Coble, Charles L Pennsylvania 

Day, John Frederick '. Pennsylvania 

Dickhart, Wallace H Pennsylvania 

Flores, David Cent. Amer. 

Forbes. William Clifford Alabama 

Gross, George Richard Pennsylvania 

Henderson, Clarence Harry California 

Henning, Edward F., P.D Pennsylvania 

Hernandez, Antonio — Mena Cuba 

Horton, James Stanislaus Pennsylvania 

Marxuach, Acisclo Porto Rico 

Menkemeller, William, Jr W. Virginia 

Mulford, Henry Kendall, Jr Pennsylvania 

Neiffer, Grover Wellington Pennsylvania 

* Thesis not required. 




333 



Norton, Charles 

Ramirez, Hermogenes C. . . . 

Reynes, Jose S 

Rutter, Lee Deitrich, P.D. . 
Shaffer, James Walter, P.D, 

Smith, Russell C 

Smith, Donald B 

Sorber, Benjamin A 

Stickle, Morton D 

Stoppel, Albert 



Pennsylvania 
Cuba 



Cuba 



Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania 
New Jersey 



Minnesota 



Award of Prizes. 



Doctor in Pharmacy (P.D.) Course. 



The grade of distinguished was attained by Miss Amanda E. 
Clapham. The following graduates received the grade of merito- 
rious : Lawrence Karl Boehme, Axel Alfred Evanson, Ph.G., Helen 
Way and Harry Wishnefsky. 

The Materia Medica Prize, $25, offered by Prof. Clement B. 
Lowe, for the best examination in Materia Medica, and in recog- 
nition of Materia Medica Specimens with a meritorious thesis, was 
awarded to Amanda E. Clapham, the following students receiving 
honorable mention in connection therewith: Abraham Davidson, 
Martin H. Gold, Walding G. Rupp and Helen Way. 

The Microscopical Research Prize, a compound microscope, 
offered by Prof. Henry Kraemer for the most meritorious thesis in- 
volving original Microscopic work, was awarded to Martin H. Gold, 
the following receiving honorable mention : Leland N. Brown, Paul 
R. Brown, John Devitt, Guillermo E. Duron, Walter J. Ellis, Charles 
K. Frick, Thomas W. D. Harrison, Omar Hawbaker, Alvin R. 
Hocker, Edward Krauss, Samuel T. Richman, Walding G. Rupp, 
Edward Shinn and Sister Mary Beatrice. 

The Dispensing Prize, $20 in gold, offered by Prof. E. Fullerton 
Cook for the best examination in Operative Pharmacy and Dis- 
pensing, was awarded to Earl G. Nace, the following students re- 
ceiving honorable mention: Ernest W. Adams, Adam C. Croff, 
Frank E. Garrell, Russell J. Schoenthaler, Charles F. Siegfried, 
Donald B. Smith and William H. Sutton, Jr. 

The Maisch Botany Prize of $20 in gold, offered by Mr. Joseph 
Jacobs, of Atlanta, Ga., for Histological Knowledge of Drugs, was 
awarded to Martin Hollenbach Gold, the presentation being made by 
Mr. George M. Beringer, Alvin R. Hocker receiving honorable 
mention. 

The J. B. Moore Memorial Prize, a Troemner Agate Prescrip- 



334 The Ph iladelphia College of Pharmacy { Am 'jl°y r \ J^ arm - 

tion Balance, offered by the Reverend J. J. Joyce Moore in memory 
of his father, J. B. Moore, to the member of the third year grad- 
uating class presenting the best thesis representing original work in 
the Department of Pharmacy, was awarded to Rudolph W. Adler, 
the presentation being made by Prof. LaWall. 

The Commercial Pharmacy Prize, $20 in gold, offered by Prof. 
Joseph P. Remington to the graduate who passed the best examina- 
tion in Commercial Pharmacy at the final examination for the de- 
gree, was awarded to Herbert S. Jones, the presentation being made 
by Dr. Adolph W. Miller, the following receiving honorable men- 
tion : Ernest W. Adams, Rudolph W. Adler, Lawrence K. Boehme, 
Paul R. Carroll, Amanda E. Clap-ham and Edwin C. Parvin. 

The Instructors' Prize, $20, offered by the Instructors of the 
College for the highest term average in the branches of Pharmacy, 
Chemistry and Materia Medica, was awarded to Amanda E. Clap- 
ham, the presentation being made by Prof. Stroup, the following 
receiving honorable mention : Rudolph W. Adler, Lawrence K. 
Boehme, Paul R. Carroll and Charles F. Siegfried. 

The Pharmacy Review Prize, one year's membership in the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, offered by Prof. Charles H. 
LaWall for the best term work in Theory and Practice of Pharmacy, 
was awarded to Walding G. Rupp, the following receiving hon- 
orable mention : Lawrence K. Boehme, Ralph R. Foran and Harry 
Wishnefsky. 

The Kappa Psi Fraternity Prize, a gold medal, offered by the 
Eta Chapter of the Kappa Psi Fraternity to the graduate making 
the highest general average during the three years' course at the 
College, was awarded to Lawrence K. Boehme, the presentation 
being made by Mr. Harry K. Mulford, the following receiving hon- 
orable mention : Amanda E. Clapham, Ralph R. Foran, Herbert L. 
Jones, Helen Way and Harry Wishnefsky. 

Graduates in Pharmacy (Ph.G.) Course. 

The grade of distinguished was attained by Matthew C. Meagher, 
and the following graduates merited the grade of meritorious : 
William J. Carter, Margaret Devers, Donald M. Frazer, Howard 
W. Griesing, John H. Mills and Rose F. Smith. 

The William B. Webb Memorial Prize, a gold medal and certifi- 
cate, offered for the highest general average in the branches of 
Committee, Operative Pharmacy and Specimens, was awarded to 
William P. Weir, the presentation being made by Mr. Warren H. 



Am juh Ur 'i 9 P i7 arm ' ) The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 335 

Poley, the following receiving honorable mention in connection 
therewith : Frederick H. Bohn and Charles A. Hysore. 

The Microscopical Research Prize, a compound microscope, of- 
fered by Prof. Henry Kraemer for the most meritorious thesis in- 
volving original microscopic work, was awarded to Rose Frances 
Smith, the following graduates receiving honorable mention : John 
H. Mills, William J. Stoneback, Elizabeth K. Thorne and Emil A. 
Wepfer. 

The Operative Pharmacy Prize, $20 in gold, offered by Prof. 
Joseph P. Remington for the best examination in Operative Phar- 
macy, was awarded to James G. Cotanch, the presentation being 
made by Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler, the following students receiving 
honorable mention: Harry Barab, Claude R. Klingaman, Melcour 
R. Lippincott, George McCrea Miller, Neal W. Shaw and Harold 
F. Staub. 

The Mahlon N. Kline Theoretical Pharmacy Prize, a Troemner 
Agate Prescription Balance, for the best examination in Theory and 
Practice of Pharmacy, was awarded to Rose Frances Smith, the 
presentation being made by Mr. Joseph W. England, the following 
students receiving honorable mention : Donald M. Frazer, Elmer T. 
Xicholl and Edythe B. Powell. 

The Commercial Pharmacy Prize, $20 in gold, offered by Prof. 
Joseph P. Remington to the graduate who passed the best examina- 
tion in Commercial Pharmacy at the final examination for the de- 
gree, was awarded to John H. Mills, the presentation being made 
by Dr. Robert P. Fischelis, the following students receiving honor- 
able mention: Nathan S. Bienstock, William J. Carter, Donald M. 
Frazer, Howard W. Griesing and Charles Hysore. 

The Instructors' Prize, $20, offered by the Instructors of the 
College for the highest term average in the branches of Pharmacy, 
Chemistry and Materia Medica, was awarded to Merle McCarney, 
the presentation being made by Dr. Alfred Heineberg, the follow- 
ing students receiving honorable mention: William J. Carter, How- 
ard W. Griesing and Matthew C. Meagher. 

The Pharmacy Review Prize, one year's membership in the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, offered by Prof. Charles H. 
La Wall for the best term work in Theory and Practice of Phar- 
macy, was awarded to Howard W. Griesing, the presentation being 
made by Dr. Charles E. Vanderkleed, the following receiving hon- 
orable mention: Margaret Devers, Elisa di Silvestro, Hyman D. 
Garr and Merle McCarney. 



336 



Obituary. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1 9 17. 



OBITUARY. 

Julius Otto Schlotterbeck. 1 

Julius Otto Schlotterbeck was born in Ann Arbor in 1865. After 
attending graded and high schools in that city, he entered the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, from which he was graduated with the degree 
of Ph.C. in 1887. One year later he was made assistant instructor 
in pharmacognosy and pharmacy in the university. In 1891 he was 
made assistant instructor in pharmacy and was granted a B.S. de- 
gree. From 1893 to 1895, he filled this position, after which he 
spent two years in the University of Berne, Switzerland, grad- 
uating summa cum laude in 1897 with the degree of doctor of 
philosophy. 

He returned to the University of Michigan immediately after, 
accepting the position of assistant professor of pharmacognosy and 
pharmacy, which he held until 1904, when he was made professor 
of these studies. In 1905 he was appointed dean of the college of 
pharmacy by the board of regents. 

Dr. Schlotterbeck created an enviable reputation as a scientist 
by discovering several vegetable alkaloids. For nearly twenty-five 
years he was associated with Frederick Stearns & Company as con- 
sulting expert and he had been a member of the firm of the J. Hun- 
gerford Smith Company. He was a member of the committee of 
revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia, a (fellow) member 
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a 
member of the American Pharmaceutical Association, former sec- 
retary and president of the Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties, 
a member of the American Chemical Society, was prominently asso- 
ciated with the Detroit branch of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association and former president of the Michigan State Pharma- 
ceutical Association. He was a frequent and valued contributor to 
leading scientific journals and had published many important papers, 
possibly a majority on phyto-chemistry. 

Dean Schlotterbeck is survived by the widow, Mrs. Eda C. 
Schlotterbeck, and three children ; Prescott, nineteen, a freshman 
in the literary college of the University of Michigan; Miriam, six- 
teen, a high school student, and Carl, seven. 

1 A tribute to the memory of Dr. Schlotterbeck by Frederick Stearns & 
Company, with whom he was associated as consulting expert chemist for a 
quarter of a century. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1917. 



Obituary. 



337 



Funeral services were held from the late residence, at 1907 
Washtenaw avenue, Ann Arbor, Sunday, June 3. Interment was 
in Forest Hill Cemetery, Ann Arbor. 

Just at the noontide of his life, when his brilliant pharmaceu- 
tical ability had become universally recognized, with well-earned 
honors accumulating more and more rapidly, his children budding 
into young manhood and womanhood and his host of friends ever 
widening and becoming more endeared to him, Dr. Schlotterbeck 
was summoned to the Final Analysis. 

In the crucible of life must be compounded both joy and sorrow, 
love and loss. So all must feel who knew him. 

To associate with Dr. Schlotterbeck was always a pleasure and a 
gain. His friends of classroom, post college days, scientific societies 
and among the pharmaceutical manufacturers considered it ever a 
pleasure to cultivate his society and learn from the precepts emanating 
from his masterly mind. 

His departure left a sense of vacancy, realization that an excep- 
tional teacher, a profound scientist and an admirable man had left 
an empty chair. 

Probably no characteristic of this man — called after five months 
of almost continued suffering, from laboratory and friend and 
hearth and classroom to that land from whose bourne no traveler 
returns — stood out in more bold relief than loyalty. 

And not only was he loyal in every deed and thought, but he 
engendered the spirit of this quality in all with whom he came in 
close contact. 

The faculty and students of the University of Michigan ever 
took pride in asserting their staunch loyalty to this man of science 
and thousands will always be loyal to his memory as they meditate 
on the rude stroke of the reaper, which cutting down this virile life 
at its zenith also struck heart blows felt from farm to teeming 
metropolis, from desert span to ocean waste. 

Dr. Schlotterbeck was a home man — the passion of science never 
built a barrier between him and his fireside. 

Platitude and epigram anent the passing of the loved and lost 
from the fertile valley of life, beyond the barren great divide of 
eternity, find no place in a memoriam to Dr. Schlotterbeck ; his loss 
calls from every member of his great family of students, coworkers 
and friends a spontaneous tribute. And that tribute in tears, in 
words, and in thought, is paid by all those who knew him well. 



338 



Obituary. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1917. 



It is as if the Master Pharmacist had emptied a vial of sorrow 
into the graduate of their lives. 

Dr. Schlotterbeck possessed faith and vision — the work which he 
accomplished will live long years after dust has returned to dust. 

Ability, loyalty, faith and vision, these were the outstanding 
traits of his character. These he defined in his daily work, he lived 
them and inspired others to live them. Through his loyalty, vision 
and ability he made better men and women and better pharmacists 
by his faith in man and in pharmacy. 

The work of Dr. Schlotterbeck is bequeathed as a rich heritage 
to those wherever they may be, who have worked with him and 
learned to know and therefore to admire him. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MILITARY ASSOCIATION 
ORGANIZED. . 

The first step in what promises to be the most active campaign 
yet undertaken for obtaining recognition for pharmacists in the 
Army and other branches of the government service was taken at a 
meeting of the allied pharmaceutical bodies of Philadelphia held at 
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, Monday evening, June 26th, 
1917. A permanent organization was formed with Mr. George M. 
Beringer president, and Robert P. Fischelis secretary-treasurer. 
The Association will be known as the Pharmaceutical Military Asso- 
ciation. An Executive Committee consisting of the following mem- 
bers of the various associations represented was appointed by the 
president : J. W. England and Walter B. Smith of the Philadelphia 
Drug Exchange; Ambrose Hunsberger and Eugene G. Eberle of 
the Philadelphia Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion ; Samuel C. Henry and J. C. Peacock of the Philadelphia Asso- 
ciation of Retail Druggists, Henry Kraemer and Robert P. Fischelis 
of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy ; Dr. W. D. Robinson and 
Mr. George M. Beringer, ex officio. This committee is to co- 
operate with the Committee on War Defense of the Pennsylvania 
Pharmaceutical Association, consisting of Dr. F. E. Stewart, chair- 
man, Professor J. A. Koch, Louis Frank, J. W. England and John 
K. Thum. Future meetings of the association will be held at regular 
intervals and immediate steps will be taken to get in touch with the 
proper government authorities to further the objects of the asso- 
ciation. 



THE AMEEIC 

JOURNAL OF P 



AUGUST, 1Q17 




THE STABILITY OF IODINE OI 



By L. E. Warren, Ph.C, B.S. 

(Contribution from the American Medical Association Chemical 

Laboratory.) 

In general, the literature on the keeping qualities of iodine oint- 
ment, and on the stability of iodine if mixed with ointment bases, is 
confusing. The recorded evidence is often contradictory. The at- 
tention of the writers was brought to this condition by studies of 
several proprietary preparations, Iodex, 1 Iod-Izd-Oil, 2 Iocamfen, 3 
and Iocamfen 3 Ointment. 

Iodex was sold under the claim that it is 

"... an embodiment of vaporized iodine, in an organic base, reduced 
and standardized at 5 per cent, by incorporation with a refined petroleum 
product." 

The exact composition of Iodex is a trade secret. Analysis 
showed that it contains petrolatum-like substances and combined 
iodine, the latter probably in combination with oleic acid. Tests for 
free iodine were made in five specimens of Iodex. In one of these 
no free iodine was present ; in the others the merest traces were 
found. 

Two years ago a preparation called "Iod-Izd-Oil" was ex- 
amined. This was claimed to contain 2 per cent, of free iodine in 
liquid petrolatum. At the time of the examination the age of the 
preparation was not known, but it had been obtained just prior to 
the analysis, and was thought not to be very old. The analysis 

1 Rep. Lab. A. M. A., 8, 89 (1915). 

2 Rep. Lab. A. M. A, 8, 106 (1915). 
z Rep. Lab. A. M. A., g, 118 (1916). 



340 



The Stability of Iodine Ointments. {Am jour. Pharm. 

J 3 K Aug. 19 1 7. 



showed that it contained but about 0.43 per cent, of iodine, all of 
which was in a free state. The fact that all of the iodine present 
was in the free state appeared to indicate that iodine is relatively 
stable in liquid petrolatum solutions. 

Iocamfen is a liquid composed of iodine, camphor and phenol. 
It was claimed to contain 10 per cent, of free iodine. Analysis 
showed that it contained 9.3 per cent, of total iodine (of which 7.5 
per cent, was present in an uncombined state), 66.1 per cent, of 
camphor and 19.7 per cent, of phenol. After storing for several 
months a second assay of Iocamfen showed no appreciable loss in 
iodine content. This would indicate that iodine is relatively stable 
in presence of phenol and camphor, although immediately after mix- 
ing there is some loss of free iodine. The Iocamfen Ointment was 
supposed to contain 50 per cent, of Iocamfen (equivalent to 5 per 
cent, of free iodine) in a lard-wax-cacao-butter base. The analysis 
showed that the ointment contained but 0.4 per cent, of free iodine, 
the balance being in combination. From the results of the ex- 
amination, and from corespondence with the manufacturers (Scher- 
ing and Glatz), it became evident that the only plausible explanation 
for the loss of free iodine in the preparation of Iocamfen Ointment 
from Iocamfen lay in the combination of the free iodine with the 
ingredients of the ointment base. It seems likely that the free iodine 
originally present in Iocamfen for the most part had gradually gone 
into combination with the fatty substances after the ointment had 
been prepared. 

The literature was then examined to determine the consensus of 
opinion concerning the stability of iodine in iodine ointment. In the 
older literature the belief that iodine ointment is unstable appears 
to be quite general. Such statements as the following are typical : . 

The ointment should be prepared only when wanted for use, for it under- 
goes change if kept, losing its deep, orange-brown color, and becoming pale 
upon it's surface. 4 

It is better to prepare it only as it is required for use. 5 
This ointment must not be dispensed unless it has recently been pre- 
pared. 6 

In 1909 Lythgoe, 7 of the Massachusetts Board of Health lab- 
oratory, reported an examination of four samples of iodine ointment. 

4 U. S. Disp., ed. 19, p. 1315. 

5 Am. Disp., ed. 2, p. 2022. 

6 U. S. Pharmacopeia, IX, p. 481. 

7 Rep. Mass. Bd. Health, 41, 477 (1909). 



Am jour. Pharm. i The Stability of Iodine Ointments. 

Aug. 1917. J 



341 



Three were found to be pure, the fourth was low in iodine. Ex- 
periments showed that iodine ointment deteriorates rapidly ; con- 
sequently, no further collections of samples were made. 

In 1 91 2 Pullen 8 reported that he had prepared two specimens of 
iodine ointment according to the British Pharmacopeia, one being 
from new lard and the other from a specimen of lard at least two 
years old. Assays for free iodine were carried out immediately 
after the preparations were made, and at intervals afterward up to 
four months. The following values were found : 



Pullen found that the loss in free iodine could be accounted for 
by the iodine which had gone into combination with the fats of the 
ointment base. 

Pullen also found that if the potassium iodide and glycerin were 
omitted in the preparation of the ointment, the loss in free iodine 
was very rapid, the preparation containing practically no free iodine 
(only y 2 o) after a few hours. He concludes that the use of potas- 
sium iodide and glycerin is necessary for the preservation of the 
ointment. He obtained specimens of iodine ointment in drug stores, 
and assayed them for free iodine. It is to be presumed that the 
ages of the several specimens were not known. The results are 
found in the following table : 

Specimen No. 1 2.74 per cent. 

Specimen No. 2 2.85 per cent. 

Specimen No. 3 2.62 per cent. 

Specimen No. 4 2.48 per cent. 

Specimen No. 5 2.53 per cent. 

Specimen No. 6 2.79 per cent. 

8 Pharm. Jour., 89, 610 (1912). 



Iodine introduced 

Iodine found immediate!}" after making 
Iodine found after twenty-four hours . 

Iodine found on the third day 

Iodine found on the seventh day 

Iodine found on the fourteenth day . . . 

Iodine found after one month 

Iodine found after two months 

Iodine found after four months 



Sample I. 
Ointment from new 
lard, Per Cent. 



4-0 

3-95 
3-30 
3.18 
3-15 
3.00 
3.00 
2.90 
2.92 



Sample II. 
Ointment from old 
lard, Per Cent. 

4.0 




342 



The Stability of Iodine Ointments. 




Fried 9 prepared iodine ointment according to the U. S. P. VIII 
formula, and assayed it at intervals. His results are tabulated here- 
with : 



Iodine ointment has been official in the U. S. Pharmacopeia 
since 1870. Briefly, the method now used for making the prep- 
aration is as follows : 

Four Gm. of iodine, 4 Gm. of potassium iodide and 12 Gm. of glycerin 
are weighed into a tared mortar and the mixture triturated until the iodine 
and potassium iodide are dissolved and a dark, reddish-brown, syrupy 
liquid is produced. Eighty Gm. of benzoinated lard are then added in small 
portions and with trituration after each addition. The mass is then tritu- 
rated until of uniform consistence.* 

* The time required to complete the process after the initial portion of 
lard had been added should be about twenty minutes. 

Iodine ointment is officialized also in several foreign pharma- 
copeias, although the iodine strength of the several preparations is 
not uniform. The formula in the British Pharmacopeia is exactly 
like that in the U. S. Pharmacopeia except that pure lard is directed 
to be used instead of benzoinated lard. Some of the foreign pharma- 
copeias also specify that the preparation must be freshly prepared 
when wanted. In the earlier editions the U. S. Pharmacopeia di- 
rected the ointment to be prepared by using water as the solvent for 
the potassium iodide. In the U. S. Pharmacopeia VIII the formula 
was changed so as to employ glycerin, and that solvent is now official. 
Water is still prescribed as the potassium iodide solvent by the 
Pharmacopeias of the Netherlands and of France. 

From the examination of the literature it seems probable that 
iodine ointments which contain petrolatum products only as the oint- 
ment bases are apt to be relatively stable, so far as the content of 
free iodine is concerned. On the other hand, ointments the bases of 



ter cent 



Iodine introduced 

Iodine found immediately after making 

Iodine found one hour after making . . 

Iodine found one day after making . . . 

Iodine found five days after making . . . 

Iodine found ten days after making . . . 

Iodine found thirty days after making . 

Iodine found ninety days after making 

Iodine found eight months after making 



3.89 
3.51 
348 
3-o6 
2.84 
2.81 
2.81 
2.81 



4.00 



9 P harm. Jour., 89, 610 (1912). 



Am. jour. Pharm. j jj ie Stability of Iodine Ointments. 

Aug. 19 1 7. J j j 



343 



which contain fats of the unsaturated fatty acid series, such as oleic 
acid, do not satisfactorily preserve the iodine in the free state. In 
the latter class it seems likely that the iodine enters into combination 
with the unsaturated fatty acids. Accordingly, on theoretical 
groundsman ointment base composed of pure stearin (if such sub- 
stance were available) but softened by an admixture of liquid 
petrolatum would preserve the iodine satisfactorily. Cocoanut oil 
(iodine No. 8) ought to be suitable also if mixed with hard paraffin. 

Since the literature was not sufficiently concordant to warrant 
positive conclusions concerning the stability of ointments containing 
free iodine, it seemed worth while to conduct experiments with 
preparations of known origin. Accordingly a number of prepara- 
tions containing free iodine were made under varying conditions and 
each was assayed for its free iodine content immediately after its 
manufacture and from time to time later. 

Leaf lard of the best quality obtainable was purchased from a 
butcher. This was rendered in an open dish on the steam bath. The 
preparation was of a fine color, and uniform consistence and had a 
faint but not unpleasant odor. Two specimens of lard were fur- 
nished by the research department of Armour and Company. An 
effort was made to procure specimens of lard having iodine ab- 
sorption numbers as far apart as possible, i. e., one with a low and 
the other with a high iodine value. This was done in order to de- 
termine whether the keeping qualities of the ointments prepared 
from the two would be alike. 

One of the specimens (a) was described as 

"Natural lard; iodine value, 57.1. Leaf lard used exclusively for but- 
terine and benzoinated lard." 

The other specimen was described as 

"Prime steam lard. Good, commercial grade of lard for general use; 
iodine value, 69.0." 

The iodine absorption numbers of the three specimens were de- 
termined by the U. S. P. process, and were found to be as follows : 

Laboratory rendered specimen 57.1 

Armour specimen (a) 57.65 

,Armour specimen (b) 67.55 

Each specimen was benzoinated according to the process de- 
scribed in the U. S. P. IX and 100 Gm. of iodine ointment were pre- 



344 



The Stability of Iodine Ointments. { Am - / our - Pharm - 

- y J Aug. 1917. 



pared from each according to the U. S. P. process. Another spec- 
imen was made from benzoinated lard and iodine only* without the 
addition of either glycerin or potassium iodide. This was made to 
contain 4 per cent, of iodine. 

Immediately after preparation each of these iodine ointments 
was assayed for free iodine, and each was reassayed at intervals 
later. The method for the determination of iodine in the ointment 
was that employed in this laboratory for the determination of iodine 
in Iocamfen Ointment. 10 It is essentially the same as was employed 
by Pullen for the determination of uncombined iodine in iodine oint- 
ment. 11 As carried out in this laboratory for iodine ointment it is 
as follows : 

From 5 to 8 Gm. of the ointment were weighed in a small porcelain cap- 
sule, the capsule and contents placed in a 16 oz. salt mouth bottle together 
with 20 Cc. of chloroform, 10 Cc. of potassium iodide solution and 40 Cc. of 
water. Tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate was slowly added with agitation 
until the pink color of the chloroform layer had nearly disappeared. A little 
soluble starch was then added and the titration continued until a blue color 
in the aqueous layer could no longer be obtained by repeated shaking. 

The findings for the several assays are tabulated herewith : 

Table I. 

Iodine Content of Iodine Ointments. 



Age at time of assay. 



Freshly made.. 
After 3 days . . . 
After 7 days. . . 
After 3 weeks. . 
After 7 weeks. . 
After 3 months 



U. S. P. oint- 
ment from 
laboratory 

rendered lard 
(% I)- 


U. S. P. oint- 
ment from 
commercial lard 
Grade I 
(%T). 


U. S. P. oint- 
ment from 
commercial lard 
Grade II 
(%D- 


Ointment from 
lard and iodine 
only (laboratory 

rendered lard) 


3-32 


3-26 


3-30 


0.32 


3-25 






0.23 


2.99 


3-17 


3.15 




3-OI 


3-19 


3-07 




3.12* * 


3.10 


3.02 




2.98 


2.88 


2.88 ' 





* This slight rise in iodine content followed by a fall could not be ac- 
counted for. The specimen was believed to have been very thoroughly mixed 
at the time of manufacture. • 



That the fatty constituents of the ointment contained iodine 
after the preparation had been made for some time was demon- 
strated. Some of the material was examined as follows : 

* In order to facilitate the incorporation of the iodine with the fatty base 
the iodine was first powdered by trituration with alcohol and drying the 
powder in the air. 

10 Rep. Lab. A. M. A., 0, 118 (1916). 

11 Pharm. Jour., 89, 610 (1912). 



Am. jour. Pharm. j jj ie Stability of Iodine Ointments. 

Aug. 1917. > -> ' 



345 



A portion of the ointment which had been made for nearly three months 
was shaken in a separator with chloroform and a dilute mixture of potas- 
sium iodide and sodium thiosulphate solutions. After all of the free iodine 
had been removed the chloroformic solution of the fats was washed several 
times with a very dilute solution of sodium thiosulphate. The chloroformic 
solution was filtered, evaporated and the residue dried over sulphuric acid.* 

The separated fat was then tested for iodine by Kendall's method. 12 
It was found to contain iodine in considerable amounts, but quanti- 
tative determinations were not made. 

The Pharmacopeia of the Netherlands directs that iodine oint- 
ment shall contain 3 per cent, of potassium iodide and 2 per cent, 
of iodine instead of equal proportions (4 per cent, of each) as pre- 
scribed by the U. S. Pharmacopeia. Likewise the French Pharma- 
copeia directs that 10 per cent, of potassium iodide and only 2 per 
cent, of iodine shall be used. Both of these pharmacopeias use 
water instead of glycerin as the solvent. Loose combinations of 
iodine and potassium iodide, such as is represented by the compound 
having the formula KI 3 , have been described. The quantity of 
potassium iodide prescribed by the U. S. Pharmacopeia for the 
preparation of iodine ointment is not sufficient to form such a com- 
pound as KI 3 with all of the iodine directed to be used. Since some 
of the pharmacopeias use larger proportions of potassium iodide 
(more than sufficient to form the compound, KI 3 ), it seemed worth 
while to determine whether an ointment containing a greater pro- 
portion of potassium iodide than that required by the U. S. Pharma- 
copeia would be more stable than the official article. Accordingly 
a specimen was prepared to contain 4 per cent, of iodine, 8 per cent. 

* The resultant fatty residue was of a brownish-green color. It no 
longer had either the taste, color or odor of lard. It v/as noted that the 
fats, after removal by this method from the freshly prepared ointment', were 
nearly white. As the ointment aged the fat became successively darker in 
color. 

12 The method depends upon the conversion of all of the iodine com- 
pounds into iodate by fusion with sodium hydroxide and oxidation with 
potassium nitrate. The melt is dissolved in water, a little sodium bisulphite 
added, the solution cooled and neutralized with phosphoric acid, using methyl 
orange as indicator. An excess of bromine water is added, and the mixture 
boiled to expel carbon dioxide and bromine. A little sodium salicylate is 
added, the solution cooled, an excess of potassium iodide added, and the lib- 
erated iodine titrated with tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate in the usual 
way. One sixth of the iodine found is obtained from the material assayed, 
the balance being furnished by the potassium iodide added. Jour. Biochem., 
19, 251 (1914)- 



34 6 The Stability of Iodine Ointments. { Am 'l°™\^™ m - 

of potassium iodide (twice the U. S. P. requirement), 12 per cent, 
of glycerin and 76 per cent, of lard. This was assayed for its free 
iodine content immediately after preparation, and found to contain 
3.68 per cent. Nine days later it contained 3.70 per cent. Another 
specimen of the same iodine strength prepared from grade No. 2 of 
commercial lard assayed 3.69 per cent, at the initial assay, and seven 
days later 3.40 per cent. From these experiments it seems likely 
that the free iodine content of the U. S. Pharmacopeia iodine oint- 
ment could be raised somewhat by increasing the proportion of 
potassium iodide. 

The results of these studies confirm the findings of Pullen and 
of Fried in all essential particulars. It appears that during the 
process of manufacture of iodine ointment about 20 per cent, of the 
free iodine goes into combination with the fatty constituents of the 
ointment. On standing for a month approximately an additional 5 
per cent, goes into combination, after which there is practically no 
loss in free iodine content. In other words iodine ointment which 
is a month old is a relatively stable preparation. It appears to make 
no noticeable difference upon the rate and amount of iodine ab- 
sorption whether the lard from which the ointment is made has a 
high or a low iodine absorption value. The composition Of iodine 
ointment, which has been made sufficiently long to have reached 
equilibrium, is approximately as follows : 

'Free iodine 3 per cent. 

Iodine combined with fat 1 per cent. 

Potassium iodide 4 per cent. 

Benzoinated lard (containing iodine) . . : 80 per cent. 

The U. S. Pharmacopeia requirement that iodine ointment shall 
be freshly prepared when wanted appears to be unnecessary. Prob- 
ably most pharmaceutical manufacturers are aware of this, for 
many of them include the preparation in their trade lists. The pres- 
ence of an iodide appears to be necessary, to prevent practically all 
of the iodine from entering into combination with the fat.* 

* In order to determine whether the iodine which is in combination with 
fat is absorbed through the skin, a few experiments were carried out. The 
dark-colored iodine-containing fat (obtained from the ointment and washed 
free from potassium iodide by the method described above) was rubbed 
thoroughly into the. skin of the forearm. It was allowed to remain for four 
hours, after which the limb was scoured with soap suds. Beginning at the 
time of the application the urine was collected for forty-eight hours. This 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 



} Aspirin and Sodium Salicylate in Powders. 



DETERMINATION OF ASPIRIN AND SODIUM 
SALICYLATE IN POWDERS. 

By Reginald Miller, Chemical Laboratory, New York City Dept. of Health. 

Among samples received at the Laboratory were those consist- 
ing of aspirin and sodium salicylate. The following method has 
been found satisfactory, and its publication may assist others who 
are doing similar work. 

Aspirin. — Weigh the collective contents of several packages, mix 
thoroughly. (If sample is not a fine powder, grind it in a mortar 
until it is.) Take a weighed portion corresponding to that of one 
package, transfer to a small beaker, add an equal volume of clean 
sand, and 8 or 10 mils of ethyl ether, stir the mass with a glass rod, 
allow to settle, decant through a small dry filter paper, repeat the 
extraction about ten times, collect the filtrates in a weighed glass 
dish, evaporate to dryness. Weigh. 1 

Residue should respond to the following tests : 

Cone, nitric acid — yellow, gradually deeper. 

Froede's reagent — immediate purple coloration. 

Formaldehyde sulphuric acid — faint red color after one or two . 
minutes. 

Selenious sulphuric acid — No change in color. 
Cone, sodium hydroxide — No change in color. 
Solium Salicylate. — To the beaker containing the sand and the 
portion insoluble in ether, transfer the filter paper (that was used 

was evaporated to small bulk and the residue tested for iodine by Kendall's 
method. Small amounts of iodine were found. These findings were taken 
to indicate that the iodine-containing fat is absorbed to some extent by the 
skin. It is generally believed that potassium iodide is not absorbed by the 
unbroken skin. Therefore it seems reasonable to suppose that the principal 
iodine effect's obtainable from iodine ointment are those due to the free 
iodine contained in the preparation, supplemented to a slight extent by the 
iodine which is contained in the fatty ointment base. Jour. Biochem., ig, 
251 (1914). 

1 The aspirin may be checked by taking a weighed portion of the original 
sample (about .100 G.), dissolve it in 95 per cent, alcohol (neutral) and 
titrate it with & sodium hydroxide, using phenolphthalein as the indicator. 
One mil of sodium hydroxide = .0180 G. of aspirin. If substances are 
present which interfere with the determination directly on the powder, take 
a weighed portion of the residue (about .050 G.) and titrate with the $7 
alkali. 



348 Changes in United States Pharmacopeia. { Amm ^^ T ' 1 ^ xaL 

in aspirin determination) add dilute sulphuric acid (about 10 per 
cent.) until the mass is moistened throughout, 2 repeatedly extract 
with ethyl ether, making about twelve extractions, filter through a dry 
filter paper and collect filtrates in a weighed glass dish. Evaporate 
to dryness, weigh the residue, which is salicylic acid. 3 

Ferric chloride added to an aqueous solution, gives a bluish 
violet coloration. 

A small portion of salicylic acid heated with several drops of 
methyl alcohol and sulphuric acid (cone.) will give the characteristic 
wintergreen odor. 

Sodium salicylate is computed from the salicylic acid by multi- 
plying by the factor 1.1651, which gives U. S. P. sodium salicylate 
of 99.5 per cent, purity, or by the factor 1.1593, which gives C. P. 
sodium salicylate. 



REASONS FOR SOME OF THE CHANGES IN THE 
FORMULAS OF GALENICALS MADE IN THE 
NINTH REVISION OF THE UNITED 
STATES PHARMACOPEIA. 1 

By George M. Beringer, Ph.M. 

At the meeting of the Philadelphia Branch of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association held in November, 1916, the writer pre- 
sented a paper under the above title. As the program for that 
meeting was a symposium on the Pharmacopeia and there was 
assigned to me the title " Extracts, Fluidextracts and Tinctures," my 
communication was primarily restricted to the changes made in 
these classes of official galenicals. The favorable comments elicited 
by the publication of that paper appear to indicate that a continua- 
tion of the subject to the other galenicals of the pharmacopeia would 
be an appropiate topic for presentation at this meeting. 

The reasons for some of the changes made in the revision of the 
pharmacopeia are so easily understood as to be classified as " self- 

2 The sulphuric acid must be in excess, in order to completely decom- 
pose the sodium salicylate. 

3 The salicylic acid may be checked by titration, using ^ barium hydrox- 
ide and phenolphthalein as the indicator. One mil of fry barium hydroxide 
= .013805 G. pure salicylic acid. 

1 Read at the meeting of the New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association, 
Hotel Breslin, Lake Hopatcong, June 14, 1917- 



Am.^jour^Pharm. \ Changes in United States Pharmacopeia. 349 

apparent," but for other changes it may be difficult to assign a 
tangible explanation. 

The decision whether an article or formula shall be admitted to, 
retained in, or deleted from the official list of titles is presumed to 
be based upon the medical practice of the time and the general or 
extended use of such medicament. The late Professor C. S. N. 
Hallberg assiduously gathered statistics from all over the United 
States to determine the facts regarding the use of hundreds of drugs 
and preparations with the expectation that the statistics so gathered 
would be available and accepted by the Committee of Revision as 
the basis for deciding the admission, retention or dismissal of 
articles on the official list. The decisions of the committee seem 
to indicate that these data were not given the consideration it had 
been expected they would receive and that the decisions on such 
matters were largely based on personal practice and preferences. 
Consequently, it is hard to reconcile as consistent the changes made 
by the additions and deletions. It is, for example, difficult to explain 
why acidum camphoricum was dismissed and acidum phenylcin- 
chonicum has been admitted, and why apocynum and fluidextract 
of apocynum were deleted and aspidospermum and fluidextract of 
aspidospermum have been introduced. 

On the basis of American medical practice and use, it is even 
more difficult to explain the expulsion from the official list of such 
popular formulas as cataplasm of kaolin, antiseptic solution, Gou- 
lard's cerate, compound resin cerate, compound acetanilid powder, 
mixture of rhubarb and soda, compound spirit of ether, compound 
syrup of hypophosphites, and ointment of red mercuric oxide. How 
fortunate it is that we have in the National Formulary a second 
legal authority and that it has incorporated these formulas and so 
retained authoritative legal standards for these. It may be that the 
knowledge that the National Formulary would probably adopt these 
dismissed formulas may have influenced the decisions of the phar- 
macopeia revision committee. Whatever may have been the cause, 
these actions demonstrate the necessity for the two legal standards 
and how fortunate it was that the National Formulary was system- 
atically revised. The increased importance thus accorded to the 
National Formulary now makes imperative that it be permanently 
maintained on a high scientific basis. 

The improvements in the directions for the preparing and the 
proper storing of galenicals in order to insure permanency and 



350 Changes in United States Pharmacopeia. { An \ J ™ r ^ h „ arm - 

efficiency of the products is in evidence throughout the U. S. P. 
IX. As examples, chloroform water, creosote water, orange flower 
water and rose water are directed to be prepared with recently 
boiled distilled water. 

In aqua hamamelidis, the impractical and inaccurate formula 
of the U. S. P. VIII has been omitted. The production of this 
preparation can not be undertaken by the pharmacist and it can 
only be carried on as a commercial operation in favorable localities. 
The Pharmacopeia has rightly eliminated the process and standard- 
ized the product so far as possible and supplied appropriate tests 
for adulterants. 

The readiness with which the public accepts and the drug trade 
adapts itself to the legal pronouncements of the pharmacopeia has 
been shown by the universal acceptance of the official standard for 
poison tablets of corrosive sublimate. The prompt disappearance 
from the drug stores of the formerly extensively used white disk 
shape of sublimate tablets has minimized the danger of accidental 
poisoning from this source, which was for a time so prolific of 
fatalities. 

The number of cerates has been reduced from six to three and 
the formulas of two of these retained are notably improved. The 
U. S. P. VIII directed 20 per cent, of white petrolatum to be used 
in the formula for cerate. Petrolatum in this mixture of wax and 
lard did not prove to be satisfactory or yield a uniform smooth 
product; hence, the return in the formula to white wax and benzoin- 
ated lard was decided upon. 

In the U. S. P. VIII formula for cantharides cerate, the 
powdered cantharides was directed to be macerated "in a warm 
place for forty-eight hours with the liquid petrolatum." Liquid 
petrolatum is not a good solvent for cantharidin and no attempt 
was made by this formula to liberate the combined cantharidin or 
to obtain the maximum effect from the cantharides used. In the 
improved formula of the ninth revision glacial acetic acid is directed 
to liberate the cantharidin and likewise to aid in its solution in the 
turpentine. The formula is very , satisfactory and with good can- 
tharides will yield an efficient epispastic. 

In cantharidal collodion, we note another improved formula 
based upon our knowledge of cantharides and the proper solvents 
for its constituents. In the U. S. P. VIII formula for this, the 
cantharides was directed to be exhausted with chloroform and the 



Am 'Aug r 'ig^ aTm ^ Changes in United States Pharmacopeia. 351 

extract so obtained mixed with flexible collodion. The resulting 
product usually gelatinized or precipitated in a short time and 
became worthless. The extraction with a mixture of acetone and 
acetic acid now directed yields an active and permanent preparation. 

In flexible collodion of the revision, by the use of camphor and 
castor oil in appropriate proportions a closely adhering stronger 
and more flexible film is produced than that yielded by the old 
formula with larger quantities of Canada turpentine and castor oil 
and does so at considerable saving in cost. 

Elixir glycyrrhiza is now the official title instead of elixir ad- 
juvans, the slight increase in the amount of the fluidextract of 
glycyrrhiza directed only rounding out the proportion of I to 7 
of elixir. 

In modern pharmaceutical practice, emplastra do not play a very 
important role. The preparation of adhesive plaster and belladonna 
plasters now used can only be attempted on a large scale and with 
special machinery ; hence, formulas for these are omitted. 

Lead plaster, instead of being prepared by decomposing soap 
by lead acetate, as in the U. S. P. VIII is now directed to be made 
by boiling with water equal weights of lead oxide, olive oil and lard. 
If ingredients of proper quality be used, the resulting product will 
no doubt be satisfactory. 

In infusion of digitalis, we note a change of doubtful propriety, 
namely, the omission of alcohol. The argument used in favor of 
this change was that the alchohol played no part in the extraction 
of the drug or the therapeutic activity of this preparation and that 
it gave a false impression as to the stability SO' that the infusion 
probably would not be made and used as fresh as it should be. 
While it must be acknowledged that the alchohol" is not necessary 
for the making of the infusion, it is nevertheless uncertain if it did 
not serve a useful purpose in the formula. Infusion of digitalis 
is not administered while freshly made and warm and in large doses, 
as are many of the common infusions. The physician usually 
directs a dose of from one to four fluid drachms 2 several times a 
day and prescribes sufficient for several days. The 10 per cent, 
of alchohol formerly directed was sufficient to preserve the infusion 
for this limited period and I am not convinced that it did not like- 

2 It is to be noted that the average dose of the U. S. P. VIII was given 
as 2 fluid drachms and the U. S. P. IX now states : Average dose 1 fluid 
drachm. 



352 Changes in United States Pharmacopeia. { Am - J™ r -*^ Tm - 

wise exert some therapeutic action by stimulating the absorption of 
the digitalis. Complaint has already been made that the infusion 
made by the new formula, without the alcohol, very soon spoils. 
Our experience with the other digitalis galenicals proves that the 
glucosides of this drug are readily hydrolyzed even in a menstruum 
of diluted alcohol, and to avoid rapid deterioration in the tincture 
and fluidextract, the Pharmacopeia has increased the alcoholic con- 
tent of these preparations. Yet on theoretical grounds, not sub- 
stantiated by either practical experiment or therapeutic testing, 
the alcohol was stricken from the infusion, one of the most impor- 
tant of diuretic and cardiac remedies. 

Ammonia liniment is directed to be made by agitating I volume 
of ammonia water with 3 volumes of sesame oil and this simple 
procedure yields a perfect preparation. The U. S. P. VIII patriot- 
ically endeavored to utilize in this formula an American product, 
cotton-seed oil, and in order to saponify this added oleic acid and 
alcohol, thus presenting a wasteful and ridiculous formula. 

In mucilage of acacia, the Eight Revision directed the use of 33 
per cent, of lime water in order to overcome the natural acidity of 
acacia. The lime water content at times created incompatibility as, 
for example, when the mucilage of acacia was directed to be used 
to suspend calomel. The revision rightly omits the lime water and 
directs that this mucilage should be frequently made and not dis- 
pensed if it has deteriorated. 

In oleate of mercury, the use of alcohol in place of water will 
shorten the time required and diminish the danger of reduction of 
the mercury. 

The change made in the formula for soft soap, cotton seed oil 
being directed in place of linseed oil, has likewise been directed by 
economic reasons rather than by scientific. The new formula is de- 
fective and the product is deficient in that very necessary property 
of a soap, namely, detergency. 

In the mint spirits, the respective peppermint or spearmint, used 
for coloring and clarifying, is first washed with water which re- 
moves the brown and yellow colorings as well as much extraneous 
dirt and the resulting spirit is more uniformly of a bright green 
color. 

The acid content of syrup of hydriodic acid was slightly in- 
creased so as to make the official syrup not below the strength 
claimed for some of the proprietary syrups. 



Am jour. Pharm. i Lead in Medicinal Zinc Oxide. 

Aug. 19 17. J 



353 



In syrup of calcium lactophosphate and in syrup of hypophos- 
phites, the addition of 50 mils of glycerin to the liter adds materially 
to the stability of these syrups. 

In syrup of wild cherry, we note a return to the method of adding 
the glycerin to the first portion of the menstruum instead of to the 
percolate. While this procedure may yield a deeper colored syrup 
that may be richer in tannin, it is doubted if this should be the proper 
aim and it is questioned whether the hydrocyanic acid content is not 
actually diminished. 

In the ointments, a few changes are noteworthy. Such minor 
changes as those made in belladonna ointment and in diluted mer- 
curial ointment are readily understood and will cause little comment. 
In diachylon ointment, white petrolatum is substituted for olive oil, 
which yielded an ointment of too fluid a consistence. Ointment of 
phenol is reduced from 3 per cent, phenol to about 2 per cent, and 
ointment is directed as the base instead of white petrolatum. The 
changes made in the formula may cause some trouble with customers 
to whom it may be difficult to explain the difference in the appear- 
ance of carbolic ointment. 

The elimination of all wines from the Pharmacopeia was prob- 
ably due to a misunderstanding of the requirement of the Brussels 
International Protocol. Physicians will continue to prescribe the 
wines of antimony, colchicum, ipecac, etc., and pharmacists will 
furnish these as heretofore. In the formula for compound mixture 
of glycyrrhiza, the substitution of the equivalent amount of tartar 
emetic dissolved in water for the wine of antimony is directed and 
this was the only change in the official formulas necessitated by the 
deletion of the class of wines from the Pharmacopeia. 



LEAD IN MEDICINAL ZINC OXIDE. 1 

By Charles H. La Wall. 

Zinc oxide has been a medicinal substance of importance for 
several hundred years. It was official in the first U. S. P. with a 
method of preparation from the metal, which would give a modern 
pharmacist something to exercise his professional skill upon, if he 

1 Read at the annual meeting of the New Jersey Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, June 14, 1917. 



354 



Lead in Medicinal Zinc Oxide. (Am jour. Pharm. 

Aug. 19 1 7. 



were now, as he was then, dependent entirely upon his own exer- 
tions for his supply of many of his chemicals. 

For many years the supplies of zinc oxide entering the pharma- 
ceutical trade were of high quality, and while it was necessary occa- 
sionally to reject a lot, there was not a great deal of trouble in 
obtaining supplies which were in full compliance with the U. S. P. 
in every respect. 

This condition has recently changed, and I think I can safely 
assert that ninety per cent, of the zinc oxide on the market at the 
present time will not only not answer the U. S. P. test for absence 
of heavy metals but that in the majority of instances lead is present 
in an amount ranging from 0.1 per cent, to 0.5 per cent, calculated 
as metallic lead. 

This condition has come about through the well-known fact that 
few if any pharmacists test their supplies and still fewer pay any 
attention to such statements of the label as " U. S. P. in all respects 
except the heavy metal test." 

No statement has appeared in recent literature calling attention 
to this condition, nor do the standards of any of the prominent 
pharmacopeias of the world make any allowance for such large 
amounts of this impurity in zinc oxide. The latest editions of the 
following pharmacopeias were consulted : Austrian, Belgian, British, 
Danish, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Netherland, Norwegian, 
Swedish, Swiss, Spanish and our own U. S. P. 

In all of these there is a specific test for the absence of lead, 
the test being made in a slightly acid solution of the oxide with solu- 
tion of hydrogen sulphide, the requirement being that a white pre- 
cipitate be produced. The German Pharmacopeia has in addition 
a specific test for absence of lead with potassium chromate solution 
in an acid solution of the oxide. 

In applying the hydrogen sulphide test, found in all of the 
Pharmacopeias quoted above, some difficulty is often experienced in 
observing the darkening due to lead on account of the interference 
of the light colored zinc sulphide which comes down and obscures 
the test and frequently makes it necessary to add repeated amounts 
of hydrogen sulphide and then make the final observations in com- 
parison with a sample to which a known amount of lead has been 
added. 

A very satisfactory method of detecting and estimating the lead 
which seems to be present occasionally as the sulphate, in part at 



Am. jour. Pharm. j Lead in Medicinal Zinc Oxide. 

Aug. 19 1 7. -* 



355 



least, is to dissolve 5 grammes of the sample of zinc oxide in a slight 
excess of diluted sulphuric acid, with gentle heat ; collect and wash 
the precipitate with distilled water ; then pour through the filter 
containing the precipitate a concentrated solution of ammonium 
acetate (about 25 per cent.) freshly made, and to this filtrate 
which now contains the lead in a soluble form add a slight excess 
of solution of potassium chromate which will precipitate insoluble 
lead chromate which may be collected on counterpoised filters, or on 
a Gooch crucible mat, washed, dried, weighed and calculated as to 
its percentage. A more expeditious method which gives very good 
results with the amount of lead usually found at the present time 
is to simply dissolve 5 or 10 grammes of the sample in an excess 
of acetic acid and then perform the precipitation with potassium 
chromate in this solution directly, and collect, wash and weigh the 
precipitate as before. This latter modification will give low results, 
however, where part of the lead is present in the form of sulphate, 
as is often the case, as the sulphate will remain behind when the 
solution is made in acetic acid. 

It would seem to be advisable for pharmacists to make an 
inspection of their stocks of zinc oxide and to firmly reject all 
samples containing lead in excess of the U. S. P. requirements. If 
this be generally done the manufacturers of zinc oxide will have to 
find some way of supplying the pharmaceutical trade with the lead- 
free zinc oxide to which they have been accustomed and to which 
they are entitled. Just as long as pharmacists continue to take 
whatever is offered to them, no matter how plainly it may be labeled 
as to deviation from the official requirements, just as long will this 
sort of thing continue. Zinc oxide containing from' 0.1 to 0.5 per 
cent, of lead is certainly not a proper article to use in making the 
ointment, and concerted action on the part of pharmacists all over 
the country would bring about a speedy improvement of this 
condition. 



356 



Contamination of Wild Cherry Bark. |Am jour. Pharm. 

J J S Aug. 1917. 



CONTAMINATION OF WILD CHERRY BARK WITH 
METALLIC IRON. 1 

By Charles H. La Wall. 

A rather unusual contamination of wild cherry bark with par- 
ticles of metallic iron was recently observed, which may be worth 
recording because of the unsuitability of such bark for making the 
official preparations of wild cherry and because of the possibility 
that other lots of the same kind of ground bark may be on the market 
and that other pharmacists may have experienced the trouble de- 
scribed below and were unable to account for it. 

A lot of wild cherry bark, ground to the official degree of fine- 
ness, was purchased by Prof. E. F. Cook, director of the operative 
pharmacy laboratory of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, for 
use by the class in making syrup of wild cherry. There was nothing 
suspicious or unusual-looking about the drug and it was used by 
nearly 100 students in making syrup of wild cherry by the U. S. P. 
IX method, which involves a preliminary maceration of the ground 
drug with the glycerin-water menstruum for twenty-four hours. 
The next day the drug in every one of the percolators was black and 
the percolate which came through upon beginning the operation 
looked more like ink than an infusion of wild cherry. 

An investigation of the drug showed an ash slightly high but 
not abnormally so, and in this connection it may be appropriate to 
note the fact that for some reason the U. S. P. requirement for ash, 
which is part of the text of other vegetable drugs, is lacking in the 
case of wild cherry. The ash showed indications of an abnormally 
high proportion of iron, which was confirmed by comparative colori- 
metric tests upon the sample in question with another sample which 
showed no discoloration in making the infusion, dissolving the ash 
of each in diluted hydrochloric acid, oxidizing with a drop or two 
of nitric acid and adding potassium sulphocyanate T. S. The 
normal sample of wild cherry gave but a faint pink color while the 
abnormal sample yielded a deep red solution. 

A 10-gramme portion of the wild cherry was mixed with 100 Cc. 
of distilled water in a large-sized beaker and the contents, after 

1 Read at the meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, 
I9I7- 



Am '\™ r 'w? Tm } Emphasizing Value of Pharmacy. 



357 



thoroughly mixing, were given a rotary motion and allowed to 
settle. Upon observing the sediment which collected in the center 
of the bottom of the beaker, a number of small black particles were 
noted, which, when withdrawn and subjected to appropriate tests, 
were identified as particles of metallic iron, clean and free from 
oxidation. 

Two separate io-gramme portions of the powder were then 
taken and a small horseshoe magnet, which had previously been 
weighed, was used to remove the particles of iron quantitatively. 
One portion showed 0.025 Gm. and the other portion 0.028 Gm. 
of magnetic particles of unoxidized iron. The presence of this 
iron can probably be accounted for by the use of a mill with iron 
grinding surfaces. 



THE NEED OF EMPHASIZING THE VALUE OF 
PHARMACY. 1 

By Eugene G. Eberle. 

That repetition is a power in shaping the affairs of men was 
recognized from earliest periods and has continued a means for 
influencing the thoughts and therefore the activities of men and 
nations. What is said to a person once is readily forgotten, but 
continued impressions of the same view makes it a part of the 
individual's reasoning and action. I am not saying this as an 
apology for attempting to convey to you in this effort a message 
which is old and has been repeated many times in one way or 
another, and one that I have spoken and indited on many occasions 
and repeated several times in recent months, namely, that pharmacy 
is a profession, and that professional recognition of druggists can 
only be rightly expected when they practice pharmacy. 

A great deal has been said anent this subject recently, and more 
specifically in connection with the establishment of a pharmaceutical 
corps in the United States Army. Some things have been men- 
tioned in opposition to the movement and considerable silence ob- 
tains on both sides of the question. If pharmacists want profes- 
sional recognition a sufficient interest must be persistently and 
insistently exhibited by them, showing that they really desire it. 
Neither silence, apathy nor indifference are positive arguments. 

1 Read before the Pennsylvania State Pharmaceutical Association, June 
19-21, 1917. 



358 



Emphasizing Value of Pharmacy. { Am - l™ r -^ vm - 



That there is a tendency to ignore pharmacy is evidenced by the 
Government in not having provided even in our present crisis, when 
the cooperation of every industry and profession is necessary, a 
place in the army organization for the professional services of 
pharmacists, on a basis that will prove their value and require of 
pharmacists to show their ability to be of service. 

The government is not alone in this lack of consideration or con- 
fidence, it obtains with related organizations in promotions wherein 
pharmacy should have a part. A letter of Dr. Edward Kremers to 
the American Pharmaceutical Association under date of March 27, 
191 7, points out such attitude or disregard by constituted bodies or 
associations ; pharmacy was ignored in the Committee of One Hun- 
dred, organized for the purpose of starting a movement looking 
toward the establishment of a Department of Health and Sanita- 
tion with a cabinet officer at the head. Again, in the Committee of 
the National Research Council, appointed by the National Academy 
of Sciences, pharmacy was not included, though even astronomy 
was thus honored. A movement has been started for organizing an 
institute for the history of science and civilization, where again one 
looks in vain for the name of a pharmacist. The concluding state- 
ments by Doctor Kremers are quoted in full : 

" All that I wish to point out is that the emphasis of commercial phar- 
macy, while it ma}- place a dollar in our pockets to-day, is ruining our future 
as a calling. Not only are we ignored in the national movements referred 
to, but we are losing locally. Fifteen years ago, the food and dairy com- 
missions took over part of the duties of our state boards of pharmacy and 
thereby deprived our calling of so much home rule. To-day the state boards 
of health are ready to take over what little self-government remains. 

" Our state boards were told twenty years ago that unless they made a 
serious business of drug-store inspection, this aspect of self-government 
would be turned over to our food and dairy commissions. For some years 
past they have been warned that the tendency to concentrate state commis- 
sions and related offices would affect them and that they should get ready 
to take a leading part in this constructive movement. They have heeded 
neither warning and are now facing control by the medical profession as 
well as food and dairy commissions." 

A profession is a vocation in which a professed knowledge of 
some department of science or learning is used by its practical ap- 
plication to affairs of others, in serving their interests or welfare 
in the practice founded on it. Accepting of this definition, pharmacy 
can certainly enroll. For this association, it is unnecessary to give 



Am -^ T \^ n 7 avm -} Emphasizing Value of Pharmacy. 359 

examples of pharmacists who can eminently qualify or of those 
who in the past have measured up to this definition. But may we 
not say to ourselves, and repeat frequently, that we should have a 
higher professional appreciation of pharmacy, of all who serve 
devotedly and a greater reverence for those whose work has given 
us a profession. 

A few weeks ago a visitor from this section of the country was 
one of the speakers at a banquet in San Antonio, Texas ; it was 
probably expected of him that he should dwell upon another topic, 
for in his introductory remarks, he said : 

" I am going to take a woman's privilege and change my mind. The 
thing which brought me to Texas is dear to my heart, but there is another 
thing which is far, far dearer to it. I am coming to you. loyal citizens of 
Texas, with an appeal upon my lips. I am going to beg your indulgence 
and 3'our interest in behalf of a friend who needs more friendships. This 
one has many sons and daughters ; he has reared them to competence and 
great estate, but they have not always remembered this. My friend is the 
United States, my country', your country, our country. And to-night for a 
little time I am going to ask you to forget San Antonio, Bexar County, and 
Texas and give your loving thought to the United States which stands for 
and behind each of them." 

The speaker then referred briefly to community pride, expressed 
in a more distinctly commercial form which leads to campaigns of 
preferential movements. If these are held within rational bounds 
the promotion is commendable and valuable, but when it funda- 
mentally lacks economic soundness, it defeats the purpose, — also 
when the interest of the community is the sole thought of the 
citizenship then the national spirit suffers, and this is essential in 
our present crisis. 

It seems to me that these thoughts can be made more or less 
applicable to pharmacy and also to association interest. You will 
replace the words of the speaker "the friend who needs more 
friendships " by pharmacy and the American Pharmaceutical As- 
sociation, and I will in a limited way endeavor to make use of them. 
If the remarks are not applicable to you, they may have application 
elsewhere and are not altogether unworthy of attention. 

Practically, ever since there have been places for dispensing 
medicines and selling drugs other articles have formed part of the 
stock of the apothecary, for reasons that require no explanation. 
We are accustomed to speak of two divisions in the drug business, 
the commercial and the professional. The stocks of drug stores 



360 Emphasizing Value of Pharmacy. { Am - J^ v '^ tm ' 

are characterized by environments and the inclinations of the owners, 
how these are constituted, what proportion of the business is com- 
mercial or professional varies accordingly, and your information on 
the subject is likely more authentic than mine. This much may be 
said, however; that the necessity for a living profit or desire for 
doing a large volume of business has developed the commercial side 
of the drug business relatively more than the professional. This 
is a natural sequence, predominating attention to one side must of 
necessity weaken the other, and economic conditions have had a 
large part in shaping the drug business. In the constant attention 
to the development of the business there is apt to be a neglect of 
pharmacy, but it has or deserves to have a more important place 
in the drug business than the immediate revenue which may be 
derived from it warrants, but there is another side to the proposi- 
tion. The public buys merchandise in drug stores because of their 
convenient locations and services ; there is, however, the dominance 
of well-founded opinion, that accuracy and dependability obtain in 
connection with pharmacy. This contributory value or asset de- 
serves our thoughtful consideration, we need more of the spirit of 
pharmacy. However much our efforts may be directed toward an 
increasing trade, whenever special or selective privileges are desired, 
we at once turn our attention to the argument that we are pharma- 
cists, that special training has qualified us for certain work that 
should only be delegated to pharmacists. Pharmacy is the alma 
mater of the drug business, and is entitled to our constant con- 
sideration, not only in time of trouble when there is urgency for a 
qualified witness in our behalf. Pharmacy may need the side-lines 
of the drug business for its continuance, but surely the successful 
conduct of these departments is dependent on pharmacy. Repeat- 
ing, the importance of the professional side of the drug business 
cannot be measured by the direct income supplied thereby but more 
so in that pharmacy characterizes the business. 

Another thought : in the constant application to business affairs 
we forget those who are more intensely devoted to the research 
work of pharmacy and lend only little encouragement to our phar- 
macy schools. The value of pharmacy to the world rests not only 
on our own efforts, but on the labors of those who make and have 
made present-day progress attainable. We should not be unmind- 
ful of those of our profession whose achievements have influenced 
pharmacy and the related industries and of those whose discoveries 



Am 'A J u" r 'ifi h 7 arm ' ^ Emphasizing Value of Pharmacy. 361 

afford relief to the wounded, save and conserve the lives in count- 
less homes and on the fields of battle. Our profession must live 
in the reverence we have for our precedents, in the work they made 
possible for us to do, because of it, and our own endeavors. A pro- 
fession without ideals is dead, is useless. 

We may point with pride to past records of pharmacy, but we 
ourselves must sustain its reputation, continue to improve it and 
make it increasingly valuable to the world. The votaries are the 
makers of the business they are engaged in, and in turn the char- 
acter of it tells who and what they are. 

Repeating my own words of a former address, associated service 
profits the individual who lends a helping hand in the promotion of 
the common interests of pharmacy more than if he had directed his 
activities without concerning himself with the interests of others, 
and this is relatively true as between associations. It should be the 
spirit of those engaged in the drug business whether they are most 
concerned in commercial lines or in professional pharmacy and 
should be the inspiration upon which we shall be lifted step by step 
to greater, broader and more hopeful things while laboring for our 
own interests, those of pharmacy and the welfare of human kind. 
Applying the^same thought to cooperation among associations, such 
endeavor, if properly directed, should produce enhanced relative 
value, comparable to work of members within an association — the 
" work together proposition " is an essential factor for greatest suc- 
cess. We are generally agreed that the common interest of an as- 
sociation should be the interest of the individual member: so the 
interest of different associations having the same or closely related 
objects in common can be directed by harmonious cooperation for 
profit of each association and every individual is thereby benefited. 
It is this thought I want to impress, that the individual effort is 
enhanced by association work, so also " the work together " of as- 
sociations has an increased relative value. The various drug asso- 
ciations should provide a plan linking them to the alma mater of as- 
sociations, the American Pharmaceutical Association, and thereby 
greater work can be accomplished for pharmacy, the drug business 
in general and in the interests of those whom we serve. Such 
organization will afford greater opportunity for cooperation of the 
allied interests, to shape and regulate the drug business in general 



362 Emphasising Value of Pharmacy. { Am, ^°" r - I ^ i h 7 arm - 

on a rational basis and at the same time conduct or direct research 
work for all concerned. 

In applying the points made at the beginning, pharmacy is the 
alma mater, from which have sprung the children — the various de- 
partments of the drug business. Too much consideration of these, 
too much enthusiasm because of their prosperity is apt to bring 
neglect of pharmacy. The realization of the dereliction comes 
when an effort is made to secure recognition on account of what 
should be the most important part of the drug business and is, too 
often perhaps, a very small part of it. The American Pharma- 
ceutical Association and pharmacy have no easy task, they need and 
are entitled to the support of every one in the drug industries, 
because of their importance in sustaining them. I am loathe to 
decry commercial enterprise when it is kept within seemly bounds, 
but it must not be forgotten that however important and essential, 
the commercial departments of the drug store are still superstruc- 
tures in the drug business resting upon and dependent for life on 
pharmacy. 

Continued success demands efficient direction, and this is not 
possible in the drug business when pharmacy is not heartily sup- 
ported. No department of the store should be planned without 
giving consideration to the pharmacy of it. This is real team work 
that requires watchful coaching; using a base-ball aphorism, "team 
score has right of way over the individual record." Make it apply 
both to pharmacy and the American Pharmaceutical Association. 
The present seems to be a most opportune time for securing a better 
recognition of the services of pharmacy and pharmacists; let us 
use our pharmaceutical energy and professional enthusiasm in that 
direction. 

" If ever you feel that you gladly would shirk 
The task that is set for the day, 
Some fellow will offer to take on 3-our work 
While you go your own chosen way." 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) Some 
Aug. 19 1 7. ' 



363 



SOME PHARMACOPEIAL ENGLISH. 1 

By George M. Beringer, Jr., P.D. 

The writer's attention was recently directed to the following 
advertisement which appeared in a leading New York daily : 

" Girls wanted to sew buttons on the second floor." 

Still more recently, he has been amused to find English of the same 
character scattered throughout the Pharmacopeia. 
In the preface, the statement is made that 

" The Convention recommended the insertion of microscopical descrip- 
tions of powdered drugs." 

What a joy such descriptions would have been to students looking 
for " short cuts." What is meant, however, is that the Conven- 
tion recommended the insertion of descriptions of the microscopical 
characteristics or elements of powdered drugs. 

We are told that trichloracetic acid contains not less than 99 
per cent, of C 2 H0 2 C1 3 " when dried in a desiccator over sulphuric 
acid." To the novice it would appear that the desiccator and not 
the drug must be placed over the acid. It would have been better 
to have said : when dried to constant weight, over sulphuric acid, 
in a desiccator. 

Adeps lanse is directed to be the " purified fat of the wool of 
the sheep (Ovis aries Linne, Fam. Bovidse) freed from water." 
Are the sheep to be freed from water or is it the fat that is to be 
so freed? If the sentence read: the purified and water-freed fat of 
the wool of the sheep, there could be no doubt. 

Likewise, adeps lanse hydrosus is stated to be " the purified fat of 

the wool of the sheep ( ), combined with not less than 

25 per cent, nor more than 30 per cent, of water." The sheep would 
hardly combine with such an amount of water, therefore, it would 
be better to say : a combination or mixture of not less than 25 per 
cent, nor more than 30 per cent, of water with the purified fat of 
the wool of the sheep. 

In giving directions for the testing of ether for peroxides, the 
operator is instructed to " shake the ether, , . , in a 

1 Read at the meeting of the New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association, 
Hotel Breslin, Lake Hopatcong, June 14, 1917. 



364 Some Pharmacopeia! English. { Am ' a™ t ' iq^?™' 

glass stoppered cylinder previously rinsed with the ether under ex- 
ami-nation." Does this mean that the operation of rinsing the 
cylinder must be under examination? If so, by whom? To the 
initiated, of course, it is plain that, with the ether, which is being 
tested, is meant. 

There is one direction in connection with the preparation of 
liquor calcis which is destined to become famous : " Pour the liquid, 
holding the undissolved calcium hydroxide, in suspension, into a 
tightly-stoppered bottle." Unfortunately, we are not told how this 
difficult feat can be accomplished. It should read: into a bottle 
capable of being tightly stoppered. 

The faulty construction is particularly noticeable in the defini- 
tions of many of the newer drugs of animal origin. Thus, hypo- 
physis sicca is "the posterior lobe obtained from the pituitary body 
of cattle, cleaned, dried and powdered." Why is it necessary to 
clean, dry and powder the cattle in order to obtain this small por- 
tion? Why not say, The cleaned, dried and pozudered, posterior 
lobe of the pituitary body of cattle? 

Suprarenalum siccum are "the suprarenal glands of animals 
used for food by man, cleaned, dried, free from fat, and powdered." 
Must man suffer such torture in order to be medicated with supra- 
renal glands? 

It is also noteworthy that all the animals used for food by man 
are included. Fowl and fish are animals, but a well-posted veteri- 
narian informed the writer that there is no mention in the litera- 
ture of their having suprarenal glands. If they have such glands, 
the glands are not used medicinally. 

The definition of thyroideum siccum is constructed on similar 
lines : " the thyroid gland of animals, which are used for food by 
man, freed from connective tissue and fat, dried and powdered." 
One might imagine the horror in the soul of a foreigner, with only 
an academic knowledge of English, should he interpret this state- 
ment literally. What amazement would be his at such strange 
American customs ! 

The directions for preparing albumen test solution read: 

" Carefully separate the white of a strictly fresh hen's egg from the yolk." 

In the directions for the determination of the ash of vegetable 
drugs, the following is given : 



Am 'Aug r 'i9i h 7 alm ' J Some Pharmacopeial English. 



365 



" Finally determine the weight of the ash, deducting the weight of the 
ash from the filter." 

What is meant is: deducting the known weight of the filter ash 
from the weight of the total ash. 

In the directions for the biological assay of cannabis, the state- 
ment is made that 

" It is best to make preliminary tests upon several dogs with average- 
sized doses." 

What part of the dogs are the doses? Why not say "using aver- 
age-sized doses " ? The statement is also made that 

" Before administration the animal should not be fed for twenty-four 
hours in order to hasten absorption." 

To whom is the animal to be administered? Why not say "before 
administration of the drug, and, better yet, change the position of 
the phrase. 

There must be a hoodoo about cannabis for, in the preface, the 
following appears : 

" The biological assay for pituitary solution and cannabis and its prepa- 
rations is a requirement." 

Does the same assay answer for both drugs ? The form should be : 
The biological assay of pituitary solution and of cannabis is required. 

In the paragraph on ■" Nomenclature " after mentioning the in- 
sertion of abbreviations of official titles, the following is given : 

" It was believed that these will be of service, etc." 

Here we have an entirely unnecessary and incorrect change of the 
tense of the verb. 

The Pharmacopeia of the United States of America, in so far 
as the science and art involved are concerned, is as nearly perfect 
as human knowledge and ingenuity can make it. In fact, it has 
been called by certain foreign pharmacists the " autocrat among 
Pharmacopeias." It is, therefore, all the more to be regretted that 
the English of the work is not more perfect. 

The writer has not attempted to note all the errors of this char- 
acter in the book. In connection with such as he has noted, how- 
ever, he has attempted to give constructive criticism, in the hope that 
more attention may be given to the English of the next revision. 



366 Twenty- fifth Anniversary of { Am - Z™ r \gj? rm ' 

TWENTY-FIFTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE H. K. 
MULFORD COMPANY. 

In 1887, H. K. Mulford, recently graduated from the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy, purchased the drug store at 18th and 
Market Sts., Philadelphia, from the then owners, Remington and 
Sayre. He conducted the business under the firm name of H. K. 
Mulford and Company. 

Two years later Milton Campbell bought a half interest in the 
business and in 1890 E. V. Pechin associated himself with them. 
Like Mr. Mulford, the new partners were graduates of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy. At this time the firm's largest assets 
were an invincible determination to do business as well as it was 
possible to do it, and in an outlook far wider than might be expected 
from their age and experience. 

It may be interesting to note that the little corner drug store at 
1800 Market St. had an interesting history. Professor Joseph P. 
Remington, Dean of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, may 
well be deemed the Nestor of his profession. Dr. Lucius E. Sayre 
is the present Dean of the Faculty and Professor of Pharmacy in 
the University of Kansas Their predecessor, W. J. Simes, was the 
first rectifier of camphor in America, the store passed to him from 
Henry Bower, a pioneer manufacturer of glycerin, and he in turn 
took title from Samuel Eastlack, the first manufacturer of medicated 
lozenges. 

This business history dating back to 1826 was necessarily a 
stimulant to the young firm and results show that early in their 
career they resolved to live up to their ancestry, and that they held 
steadfast to their resolution is evidenced by the fact that today, after 
a lapse of twenty-five years, the young men who presided over the 
retail drug store are the arbiters of the destinies of a two million 
dollar corporation, a corporation favorably known in every quarter 
of the globe. 

Mr. Milton Campbell is the president, Mr. H. K. Mulford the 
vice-president, and Mr. E. V. Pechin the secretary of the H. K. 
Mulford company. 

This, in itself, is quite uncommon, and when we add the state- 
ment that the original members of the firm have through good and 
bad times, through all troubles and reverses, through all periods of 



Am.^Tour.^Pharm. j fj %e u . x. Mulford Company. 367 

prosperity kept their heads and grown nearer each to the other in 
trust and friendship, it becomes apparent that the celebration of the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of their business career is a red-letter day 
indeed. 

It is proper at this time to review the work of the company dur- 
ing its adolescence in order to determine to what extent the am- 
bitions of the past have become the attainments of the present. 

The success has been undoubted, almost unprecedented in the 
history of manufacturing pharmacy. The acorn of 1891 is the 
sturdy oak of 191 6, and it becomes us to seek the cause of this 
continued and rapid growth. We believe the answer may be found 
in a single word — service. 

The firm has from the first day conducted its business with a 
determination of doing it as well as possible, believing that more 
than a business — a trust — had been committed to the care and guid- 
ance of its members. For some years the H. K. Mulford Company 
was engaged in the manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations 
only, and the improvements instituted in the production of com- 
pressed and friable tablets, effervescent salts, elixirs (at one time a 
leading specialty), fluid and solid extracts, tinctures and ointments 
gave prominence to these productions of the firm at an early period 
of its history, and the Keystone label became recognized as the 
standard of quality. At the time of which we are now writing it 
was the custom to throw a veil of secrecy around the formula and 
preparation of pharmaceutical specialties and to claim virtues for 
them that existed only in the imagination of their proprietors. 

The H. K. Mulford Company, recognizing that pharmacy was 
but a department of the science and art of medicine ; realizing its re- 
sponsibilities to the medical profession and the public ; believing 
itself bound by the Hippocratic Oath, and, regarding medical ethics 
as a unity, one and indivisible, placed the formula of every prepara- 
tion on its container and confined its statements to quotations from 
physicians, who prescribed them. Here as always decency had its 
reward. 

While the work of the Mulford laboratories in pharmacy and 
pharmacology alone would entitle the firm to the very highest stand- 
ing, it did not remain content with those spheres of activity, and 
in the year 1894 instituted the first commercial laboratory in the 
United States for the preparation of biological remedies. 

The first product of the new laboratories was diphtheria anti- 



368 



Twen ty- fifth A nniversary of { Am - l™ r \ £ h 7 arm - 



toxin. The physician specifies " Mulford " if he desires the most 
potent and sterile product. If he would use an American product 
in 1894 he specified Mulford for the reason that it was the only 
source of supply, today he demands the Mulford brand because he 
knows that it is an absolutely safe source of supply. 

It is not an idle play with words to say that " diphtheria anti- 
toxin " suggests "Mulford" and "Mulford" "diphtheria anti- 
toxin." We believe that this first born product of the Mulford 
biological laboratories is today the most concentrated, safe and 
sterile product of its kind. 

The H. K. Mulford Company was the pioneer in the work of 
physiological testing and chemical standardization of pharmaceutical 
products, and the present status of these methods of determining 
drug values may be said with due modesty to be largely owing to 
the work of the Mulford laboratories. Here the firm has always 
led, and at the present time it physiologically tests and standardizes 
every drug lending itself to those methods. Much of the results of 
this work have been given to the medical profession through the 
medium of " working bulletins " and the demand for these for use 
of medical schools is quite large, and, it is needless to say, cheerfully 
supplied, as a contribution to medical progress. 

This Mulford Working Bulletin System receives universal recog- 
nition, is kept thoroughly up-to-date and, we may further state in 
this connection, that one of the most common, and we are glad to 
add, most pleasant duties of our scientific staff is to afford informa- 
tion of the character outlined above, to the medical, veterinary and 
pharmaceutical professions. 

Not only was the H. K. Mulford Company the pioneer pro- 
ducer of diphtheria antitoxin on a commercial scale, but it has been 
and still is a consistent and continued worker on the problem of its 
improvement, and the product of today concentrated, sterilized, 
highly potent, furnished in sterile containers, leaves little to be 
desired. 

The production of diphtheria antitoxin was quickly followed by 
tetanus antitoxin, antistreptococcic serum, the tuberculins (human 
and veterinary), until at this anniversary period the Mulford bac- 
teriological laboratories furnish practically every known and used 
bacteriological remedy, all of them prepared with Mulford care 
and of Mulford quality. 



Am Jour. Pharm. I fj ie H % J£ m Mlllfoi'd Company. 

Aug. 19 1 7. ' J 1 - 



369 



A notable instance of the improvements made in bacteriological 
therapeutics is found in the work of the Mulford Veterinary 
Laboratories, on hog cholera serum, as they have succeeded after 
long and expensive experimentation in furnishing for the first time, 
two sera, one a potent, sterile serum, free from corpuscular debris, 
the other a trebly concentrated clear, potent sterile hog cholera 
serum globulin. The value to the community of this work alone is 
incalculable. 

In 1908 the firm established a veterinary department to meet its 
very large and increasing veterinary business, and the Mulford 
combined Price-List and Visiting List, the Mulford Veterinary Bul- 
letin, and the Mulford veterinary products are known and appre- 
ciated in all parts of the world. 

The firm also publishes the Mulford Digest, dealing with prob- 
lems of interest to the physician and bacteriologist. 

Perhaps the most striking evidence of the growth, solidity and 
altruistic prescience of the company is to be found in the beautiful 
and complete biological and bacteriological laboratories at Glenolden, 
Pa. Here, on about one hundred and seventy-five acres of charm- 
ing, rolling suburban country, watered by a clear, never-failing 
brook, and shaded by noble trees, the firm has built the most artistic 
and sanitary biological laboratories to be found in the world. No 
expense has been too great to make this plant at once ideally beau- 
tiful and useful, and it is most interesting to the visitor, passing 
from one complete unit to another, to observe that every provision 
has been made for the pleasure, health and comfort of the em- 
ployees. Base ball grounds, tennis courts, dining hall, lecture room, 
rest rooms, testify to the firm's desire to make the work of its 
scientific staff as pleasant as possible, and Ave may add that a course 
of lectures are given every season, on subjects bearing directly or 
indirectly on the work in hand, many of the lecturers being scientists 
of national reputation brought to Glenolden at great expense. 

On portions of this beautiful estate drugs are grown alike on a 
commercial and experimental scale, the firm being desirous to assure 
itself of the highest quality for use in pharmaceutical laboratories, 
and also to further the interests of pure science, by the endeavor 
to so cultivate the different plants as to increase their yield of active 
principles. This work is necessarily an expense, not a profit, and 
we may add that much of the work of the bacteriological, biological 
and pharmaceutical laboratories is devoted to the elucidation of 



37 o The H. K. Mulford Company. { Am \l™ T \gi? rm - 

problems of purely scientific interest. As examples of these we are 
justified in mentioning the making of auto vaccines, from strains of 
bacteria furnished by the medical and veterinary professions, the 
manufacture of rare sugars used in bacteriological work, research 
work in chemistry and pharmacy, that almost never yields com- 
mercial results, although helpful to the science of medicine, the main- 
tenance of a library, whose shelves are crowded with the best 
results of medical thought ; and the training of its employees, by a 
source of lectures and demonstrations on scientific subjects, and 
in languages that may be useful to them in making a career. 

The scientific staff is large, we believe we may say of national 
reputation, most of them are engaged in teaching departments of 
medicine in schools of the highest grade, they are voluminous and 
constant contributors to medical and scientific literature and they 
are absolutely untrammeled. Freedom of speech and thought is 
encouraged, and every facility is afforded them for research work 
of the most varied and advanced types. 

As the business of the H. K. Mulford Company has grown it 
has been necessary to establish branch houses in convenient centers 
where full stocks of the Mulford products may be obtained, with a 
minimum of friction and delay, and the physician or veterinarian, 
whether in New York, Seattle, San Francisco, Mexico, London, 
Japan, Adelaide, or Buenos Aires, has equally ready access to the 
products of the house. 

What of the future? What will be the extent? What will be 
the status of The H. K. Mulford Company when in 1941 it cele- 
brates the fiftieth anniversary of the foundation of the house? 

We cannot tell. This much however seems assured : the same 
policies will prevail, the firm will still clearly recognize that it is 
engaged in a useful, educational propaganda, doing whatever is 
possible for the advancement of medical knowledge and the en- 
couragement of medical research, and so, on this our twenty-fifth 
birthday, with every assurance and every hope for continued 
progress of that great factor in medical, pharmaceutical, chemical 
and bacteriological'science we leave you with best wishes. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
Aug. 19 1 7. J 



Book Reviezvs. 



371 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

A Course in Food Analysis, by Andrew L. Winton, Ph.D. 
First edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1917. $1.50 
net. 

Dr. Winton is well known as the author of several standard 
works on the microscopy of technical products and as an analyst of 
long experience. He has been well trained and understands very 
well what a practical course in food analysis should include. No 
one is better qualified to write a work of this kind and its appear- 
ance at this time is extremely fortunate. The object of the book is 
to equip the chemical student so as to become a professional food 
analyst. The value of a good microscopical course is not generally 
appreciated in courses in chemistry. The use of the microscope in 
connection with technical analyses is always of some benefit and not 
infrequently is of paramount importance. 

Dr. Winton's book contemplates a course of forty laboratory 
periods, which supplementing the courses in qualitative and quanti- 
tative analysis, will furnish an adequate insight into the composition 
and microscopic structure of products needed in everyday life. 
There are ten chapters, which include the consideration of the prin- 
cipal food substances. They are as follows: (1) Introduction. (2) 
Dairy Products : Milk ; Butter ; Cheese ; Condensed Milk ; Ice 
Cream. (3) Meat, Fish and Eggs. (4) Natural Vegetable Foods 
and Mill Products, including Cereals ; Legumes ; Oil-seeds ; Vege- 
tables ; Fruits ; Nuts ; Spices ; Flour ; Yeast and Baking Powder. 
(5) Microscopic Examination of Vegetable Foods, including Wheat 
Starch; Oat Starch; Bean Starch; Corn Starch; Potato Starch; 
Cassava Starch ; Wheat ; Rye ; Oats ; Corn ; Buckwheat ; Peas ; Cot- 
ton Seed ; Flax Seed ; Black Pepper ; Cayenne Pepper ; Cinnamon ; 
Ginger; Coffee; Cocoa; Tea and Mixtures. (6) Saccharine Prod- 
ucts, including Sugar ; Molasses ; Syrups and Honey ; Maple Prod- 
ucts and Fruit Syrups. (7) Fats and Oils, including Edible Fats 
and Oils. (8) Fruits, Fruit Products ; Liquors and Vinegars, in- 
cluding Fruit Juices ; Wine ; Cider and Other Liquors ; Vinegar and 
Various Fruit Products. (9) Flavoring Extracts, including Vanilla 
Extract and Substitute Lemon Extract ; Orange ; Almond ; Winter- 
green ; Peppermint and Spice Extracts. (10) Coffee; Tea and 
Cocoa, including Substitutes ; Chocolate and Cocoa. The selection 



372 



Book Reviews. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

AUg. 19 1 7. 



of material is excellent and there is a very happy combination of 
microscopical technique and chemical methods of analysis. The 
students that will be most benefited by this work are the chemists, 
and this is probably the first time that a work has been published in 
this country which could be recommended generally for university 
and college courses. Henry Kraemer. 

Science and Learning in France, with a Survey of Oppor- 
tunities for American Students in French Universities. An Appre- 
ciation by American Scholars. A Society for American Fellow- 
ships in French Universities. 1917. 

This work is dedicated to the scholars of France, worthy custo- 
dians of their country's intellectual greatness. It is prepared in a 
time when France has reached the heights of moral greatness and 
is offered with heartfelt admiration and sympathy in the name of 
the scholars of America. The editor-in-chief is Dr. John H. "Wig- 
more, of Northwestern University. He with a corps of authors 
have placed before the American public the contributions of France 
in all fields of scientific knowledge. The purpose of this volume 
is to show the status of France in the forefront of the world's 
progress and to furnish American university students all informa- 
tion bearing on graduate work in France. 

Each chapter sets forth briefly, for a particular field: (1) The 
record of French scholarship during the past century ; the notable 
achievements ; the eminent leaders ; the special lines of development ; 
in general, the share of France in the world's progress. (2) The 
courses of instruction given, now or recently, at the universities of 
France, particularly at the University of Paris ; the names of the 
most important scholars, with mention of their principal contribu- 
tions and of the special fields of research over which they preside. 
(3) The facilities available for study and research, including the 
libraries, laboratories, archives, and museums, the auxiliary insti- 
tutes, special schools, and learned societies and committees. 

There is also an introduction, describing the general intellectual 
spirit of France'and Paris, and the interest and attractions that capi- 
tal and country offer to the foreign scholars; and an Appendix, 
describing the organization of French universities, the standards of 
preparation expected of the student, the system of degrees, the 
custom as to residence and attendance, the regulations as to fees 
and the like ; and other facts useful to the visiting student. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Aug. 19 1 7. 



Book Reviews. 



373 



The book has been made possible by the liberality of the Society 
for American Fellowships in French universities, which has borne 
all expense of publication. 

The master minds of France have not only enriched their own 
country, but have stimulated, developed and sustained the best 
thought throughout the world. The American people have always 
been grateful and thoroughly appreciative of Lafayette and the 
other noble French men whose unselfish efforts made possible the 
establishment of this republic. Many of our institutions of learn- 
ing have been modelled after the famous schools of France. The 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in its early days showed a strong 
leaning toward the French attitude in the development of the Ecole 
Superieure d'Pharmacie. The American Journal of Pharmacy 
was inspired by the Journal de Pharmacie et Chimie and for many 
years the prevailing abstracts were from French authors. The 
School of Pharmacy of Paris, with its group of eminent scientific 
men, is the leading institution of pharmacy in the world. " A nota- 
ble figure is that of Guignard, pioneer in modern morphology, whose 
discoveries and technique in this field are surpassed in no labora- 
tory. His material includes chiefly the higher plants, but asso- 
ciated with him is Radais, an authority in cryptogams. The whole 
range of plant morphology, therefore, is presented by these two 
investigators.''' 

Similarly in chemistry we have Behal, an organic chemist, who 
among other subjects, has studied unsaturated compounds and creo- 
sote, author of " Traite de Chimie organique " (2 vols., Paris, 1909- 
191 1, 3d ed.) ; Gautier, known for various investigations in organic 
chemistry, in chemical toxicology, and in hygiene, author of " Cours 
de Chimie organique" Paris, 1906, 3d ed.), "Ptomaines et leuco- 
maines " (Paris, 1866), and " L' Alimentation et les regimes chez 
1'homme sain et chez les malades " (Paris, 1904); D. Berthelot, 
author of important researches on the theory of gases, the determi- 
nation of molecular weights, and photochemistry ; Moureu, a stu- 
dent of the rare gases of the atmosphere, and an eminent organic 
chemist, author of ''Notions fondamentales de Chimie organique" 
(Paris, 1902) ; Bourquelot, whose researches upon enzymes are 
well known, author of "Les Ferments solubles" (Paris, 1896), 
Villers, Guimbert and Lebeau. 

H. K. 



374 



Book Reviews. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Aug. 19 1 7. 



Incompatibilities in Prescriptions. For Students in Phar- 
macy and Medicine and Practicing Pharmacists and Physicians. 
By Edsel A. Ruddiman, Ph.M., M.D. Fourth edition, thoroughly 
revised. New York : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ; London : Chapman 
& Hall, Limited. 1917. 

Dr. Ruddiman's work is very well known and has met with great 
success. The subject is one of a fundamental character and Dr. 
Ruddiman has handled it very aptly. The arrangement is very ex- 
cellent, so that when one meets with incompatibilities in prescrip- 
tions he can usually determine the nature of it, and provide a rem- 
edy. In the fourth edition a number of new remedies have been 
included and a number of prescriptions have been increased. 

The table in previous editions, giving the average price charged 
for prescriptions has, through the courtesy of the editor of the 
N. A. R. D. Journal, been replaced by the schedule adopted by the 
National Association of Retail Druggists. 

H. K. 

White's Vest Pocket Sundae Formulary. A collection of 
original and carefully selected standard formulas for the prepara- 
tion of plain and fancy sundaes and the manufacture of dressings 
and toppings, arranged in alphabetical order so that they may be 
instantly accessible. Over 1,500 formulas. By E. F. White. 200 
pages, 3x6 inches. The Spatula Publishing Company, Boston. 
Price $1. 

The author of this compact and handy little volume is the best 
known writer on subjects connected with the soda fountain in Amer- 
ica. He says in his preface : " The time has come when a book 
is needed which the dispenser can carry in his pocket so that he may 
have instant access to simple directions for preparing hundreds of 
sundaes. There are so many he cannot possibly carry them in his 
head. The traveler from another city steps to the counter and asks 
if a sundae popular in his city is served. Often all the necessary 
ingredients are at' the dispenser's disposal, but he is compelled to say 
' No,' when a glance into a pocket guide would enable him to prepare 
it, and thus give greater satisfaction to the customer. Again, this 
is the day of new things. People like something a little different 
and many dispensers like to put something new on their menus as a 
special every day or every week. This guide will give a new for- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Aug. 1917. 



Book Reviews. 



375 



mula for every day for four years or for every week for twenty-five 
years." 

The book is certainly unique in that notwithstanding its great 
number of pages it is only about a quarter of an inch thick and may 
easily be carried in the vest jocket. Any dispenser who wishes to 
get out of the ruts will find this unusual book just the thing to help 
him accomplish his object. 

New and Non-Official Remedies, 191 7, Containing Descrip- 
tions of the Articles which have been Accepted by the Council on 
Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American Medical Association Prior 
to January 1, 19 17. 

We have in times past referred to this publication as a handy 
" little " volume, but if it keeps on growing and enlarging its sphere 
of influence, so to speak, this term will cease to fit it. We always 
look forward to the appearance of this book. It and the supple- 
ments appearing from time to time in the Journal of the American 
Medical Association are things that we have depended on for some 
years to keep us informed as to the newer remedies. Without this 
book on our work shelf we would feel lost. Not only will be found 
the newer remedies but also the most up-to-date results of investi- 
gations of the well-known and tried drugs known to scientific - 
medicine. 

When in search of information bearing on the therapeutic activ- 
ity of new drugs and preparations in the interest of his medical 
clientele the conservative pharmacist will do well to consult this 
book. No claims are permitted in it that cannot be demonstrated 
as facts or backed up by reasonable evidence. In short, for the 
seeker after proprietary medicinal knowledge this book is a reliable 
and ready source of information. 

The present volume, like its predecessors, is right up to date. 
On page 141 there is a full description of the Carrel-Dakin solution 
and the technic for making it, and on the preceding page a full de- 
scription of sodium para-toluenesulphochloramine, or chlorazene, as 
it is sometimes called. This is really no new thing as it was made 
first by Chattaway in 1905. 

John K. Thum. 



376 



Book Reviews. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Aug. 19 1 7. 



Annual Reports of the Chemical Laboratory of the 
American Medical Association, Volume 9, January-December, 
1916. 

The volume under consideration is composed of reports of work 
performed the past year and not the least interesting of these reports 
are those bearing on " Wine of Cardui." From page 39 to 103 the 
analysis of this nostrum is gone into very thoroughly. The reports 
of more than nine different chemists are given in detail. 

After careful reading of these one is convinced that the inves- 
tigation of this much-vaunted preparation was thorough in every 
way and helped very materially in the great moral victory won by 
the Association in the suits brought against it by the Chattanooga 
Medicine Company. It is unnecessary to add that many of these 
analyses of " Wine of Cardui " were made by chemists having no 
connection with the laboratory of the American Medical Association. 

Part I of this volume contains a reprint of a paper by W. A. 
Puckner, Phar.D., read at the Detroit meeting of the Association 
held in June, 191 6. Dr. Puckner is the director of the laboratory. 
In this paper he relates very clearly and fully the scope of the work 
performed by the laboratory and its great usefulness to the medical 
profession, and that, despite the limited facilities at its disposal. 
Notwithstanding this the laboratory is glad at all times to answer all 
inquiries for information. In some of the problems brought to its 
attention, as for instance, those of a purely local nature, it tries to 
gain the cooperation and the investigation of such problems by city 
or state authorities. 

It is becoming increasingly evident that the work done by this 
laboratory, to say nothing of the importance and usefulness of the 
Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry, is appreciated by the medical 
profession more and more every day. J. K. T. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

Minutes of the Quarterly Meeting. 

The quarterly meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
was held June 25, 1917, at 4 p.m. in the Library, the President, 
Howard B. French, presiding. Sixteen members were present. 
Regrets were received from Joseph L. Lemberger and H. K. Mul- 
ford for inability to be present. 



Am Au- ur i 9 ^7 arm " ^ Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 377 

The minutes of the annual meeting held March 26 were read 
and approved. 

The minutes of the Board of Trustees for meetings held in 
March, April and May were read by the Registrar, J. S. Beetem, 
and approved. 

The Committee on Necrology, by its chairman, Professor Henry 
Kraemer, presented their annual report, giving in detail biographical 
sketches of Martin I. Wilbert, Samuel E. R. Hassinger and Fred- 
erick Gutekunst, members who had died during the year, when, 
on motion, the report was referred to the Committee on Publication 
(see American Journal of Pharmacy, page 379). 

Report of Delegates to the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association 
Meeting Held at Pittsburgh, June 19-21. 

In the absence of the chairman, Professor J. W. Sturmer, Dr. 
F. E. Stewart reported verbally that the meeting was a very suc- 
cessful one. The attendance was large, many interesting papers 
were read and the social features as usual were very much enjoyed. 
Dr. Stewart further said that one of the most discussed subjects 
was the status of the pharmacists in the army and navy. The rank 
and pay of pharmacists in the navy had been very much improved 
of late years, but for the army, there was much yet to be desired 
for the pharmacists. An interesting and instructive discussion fol- 
lowed the remarks of Dr. Stewart on this subject, which was par- 
ticipated in by Messrs. Beringer, French, La Wall, Kraemer, Lowe 
and Dr. Stewart. In this connection President French stated he 
had forwarded to army headquarters a series of resolutions that 
had been adopted applying to this subject, which had been acknowl- 
edged by the government in a reply by General Crowder in which 
he denned the present status of the pharmacists in the army and 
navy. 

Report of the delegates to the New Jersey Pharmaceutical As- 
sociation at its meeting held at Lake Hopatcong was made verbally 
by Mr. George M. Beringer. There was a very interesting pro- 
gram; legislation of state and national interest was largely consid- 
ered. The illustrated lecture by Professor Kraemer and a paper 
by Professor E. F. Cook added much to the success and enjoyment 
of the meeting. Mr. Beringer further said the Association was a 
strong one, and very much alive and active in promoting pharmacy 
and the field was a good one in which to urge the advantages of the 



378 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am - A {° CT ur, I9 ^ arm - 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy to those seeking an education in 
advanced pharmacy. 

Professor Henry Kraemer presented the bank book, cancelled 
check and correspondence relating to the contributions made by 
members of the College and others for Belgian pharmacists who 
had suffered from the present war. Also a letter from Professor 
P. van der Wieler acknowledging the receipt of the draft forwarded 
by Professor Kraemer, the treasurer of the fund, thus closing the 
account. 

Mr. Beringer said he noted the absence of the dean, Professor 
Joseph P. Remington, because of illness, and moved that the Sec- 
retary be directed to convey to him the sincere regret of the mem- 
bers at his enforced absence, which motion was unanimously 
adopted. 

President French alluded to the coming meeting of the Confer- 
ence of Pharmaceutical Faculties to be held at Indianapolis August 
27-28, and said the major faculty of the College were members of 
the Conference and that previously they had attended the Confer- 
ences only in an advisory capacity ; that it was always understood 
that they were not to commit the College to any line of action. 

President French then made the following appointments : 

Committee on Necrology : Professor Henry Kraemer, chairman ; 
Edwin M. Boring and C. A. Weidemann (reappointed). 

Committee on Nominations: Professor C. B. Lowe, chairman; 
C. Stanley French, Mitchell Bernstein, F. E. Stewart and C. A. 
Weidemann. 

Delegates to the American Pharmaceutical Association at In- 
dianapolis August 27— September 1 : Professor J. W. Sturmer, chair- 
man ; E. F. Cook, Henry Kraemer, Chas. H. La Wall, Frank X. 
Moerk, Freeman P. Stroup, Dr. F. E. Stewart, Charles E. Van der 
Kleed. 

Mr. Beringer asked as to the status of these delegates, as it had 
been said that only delegates to the house of delegates would be 
recognized, to which the Secretary replied that for some years past 
the Secretary of the American Pharmaceutical Association had for- 
warded to him blank forms of credentials with the request to send 
the names of appointed delegates. 

Professor Kraemer exhibited same handsome specimens of squill 
bulbs, and read the following letter : 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Aug. 19 17. 



Committee on Necrology. 



379 



New York, June 20, 1917. 
Dear Professor Kraemcr: The other day at the florist's who gets all my 
spare change, and some that I can ill spare, I ran across some bulbs of Scilla 
maritima, as it was so labeled by him, but I think it is now called Urginea 
Scilla. I took a few home and am sending you a couple, thinking you might 
care to try them. I don't know that they are a novelty, but I have never 
before seen them offered for horticultural purposes. 

Yours cordially, 

Caswell A. Mayo. 

The bulbs attracted considerable attention when Professor 
Kraemer remarked they were official squill bulbs, when, on motion, 
the Secretary was directed to convey the thanks of the College to 
Mr. Mayo for his gift. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Recording Secretary. 



COMMITTEE ON NECROLOGY. 

Probably never in the history of pharmacy has our profession 
been struck so hard by reason of the deaths of its members as during 
the past year. Our College has been among those thus afflicted 
and has suffered severe losses. 

The death of Mr. Wilbert was so sudden it shocked the entire 
pharmaceutical world. He was in the prime of life, and just about 
ready to participate in some of the undertakings that would mean 
great advancement for American pharmacy. The appreciative 
memoir of Mr. Wilbert by Mr. Thum and which was published in 
the American Journal of Pharmacy in February records the 
career of one of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy's most 
ablest sons. The resolutions offered by various pharmaceutical, 
professional and scientific organizations reveal the esteem in which 
he was held by all of those with whom he labored. 

Frederick Gutekunst. 

Frederick Gutekunst, acknowledged as the dean of American 
photographers and who had a world-wide reputation, died on April 
27, 191 7. He graduated from the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy in 1853 and was at the time of his death the representative of 



3 8o 



Committee on Necrology. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Aug. 19 17. 



the oldest classes of the alumni. The name Gutekunst means 
" good art." His father came from Germany about the early part 
of the last century and settled in Germantown. After receiving a 
common-school education, young Gutekunst worked for Avery 
Tobey, a druggist at 121 5 Market Street. While in this store he 
gave some attention to chemistry and electricity — the latter a science 
which had not then advanced much beyond electro-plating, electro- 
typing and telegraphy. Daguerreotypes, although they had been 
made for several years, were still regarded as great curiosities. 
Mr. Gutekunst conceived the idea of making copper electrotypes 
from daguerreotypes, and succeeded in doing so, though the process 
did not become of commercial value. 

Mr. Gutekunst graduated from the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy in 1853, ms preceptor at that time being William M. 
Powell, of Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. He very soon gave up 
the drug business and took up photography as his life work. True 
to his name he became the world's most noted photographer. He 
began business at No. 706 Arch Street and later moved to 704 on 
the same street. In 1864 he moved to 712 Arch Street, where he 
remained in business until the time of his death, April 27, 191 7. 
He also had a studio at 1700 North Broad Street. 

Mr. Gutekunst had photographed more of the world's celebrated 
people than perhaps any man in this country. Among the person- 
ages who sat before his camera were Presidents of the United 
States, famous generals, ecclesiastics, actors and actresses, littera- 
teurs and statesmen. He had received decorations from kings and 
emperors. 

Among those whose portraits he made were the scientists, Lords 
Kelvin and Herschell, and Professors Tyndall and Leidy, Baron 
Takaki, Wu Ting Fang, Presidents Grant, Cleveland and McKinley, 
Generals Sherman, Meade, Longstreet, Beauregard, Hancock, Rose- 
crans and a full score more of the commanders on both sides in the 
Civil War; Admirals Read, Schley, Melville, Casey, McNair and 
Watson among the old seadogs who worried their country's enemies. 

Clergymen who sat for him included Archbishops Bailey and 
Ryan, Bishops Phillips Brooks, Chatard, Foss, Davis, Fowler, Cole- 
man, Kendrick, Hortsmann, McCabe, Potter, Simpson, Talbot, 
Whitaker, Walden, Bowman and a dozen more wearers of the 
purple of the church. Henry W. Longfellow, E. C. Stedman, Walt 



Am '\u« r 'iw arm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 381 

Whitman, Bayard Taylor, Sir Edwin Arnold and Thomas Dunn 
English are among the poets in the Gutekunst gallery. 

Edwin Booth and Edwin Forrest and Charlotte Cushman and 
the elder Salvini are stars in the histrionic constellation ; Theo- 
dore Thomas and Damrosch, masters of music. Prince Louis of 
Savoy, Prince Ranjitsinhji and the Prince of Turin are among the 
representatives of royalty; Jay Cooke, Anthony J. Drexel, A. J. 
Cassatt and J. Pierpont Morgan, leaders in finance ; Edwin A. Abbey 
and Benjamin Constant are among the artists in the collection. 

Cardinals Gibbons, Satolli and Martinelli w T ere among the princes 
of the Catholic Church whom he had photographed. 

Besides many medals and honors awarded him at expositions, 
Mr. Gutekunst was the recipient of various testimonials in the way 
of gifts from rulers of nations and other eminent personages. Be- 
cause of his famous panoramic picture of the Centennial Exposition, 
the Mikado of Japan sent him a pair of gold-lined bronze vases, 
King Victor Emmanuel' of Italy a gold medal and Emperor Francis 
Joseph of Austria a decoration. 

He also had in his collection autograph letters from many dis- 
tinguished- men, who wrote to congratulate him on his success in 
making their portraits One of his letters shows that the name of 
Gutekunst had been carried even into the semi-civilized wilds of 
Africa. It was from the son of a king of the Zulu tribe. When 
Mr. Gutekunst read that a full-blooded African prince had carried 
off the George William Curtis first prize for oratory at Columbia 
University, New York, the photographer sent his own portrait of 
Mr. Curtis to the prince, who wrote to Mr. Gutekunst : " I can see 
clearly that you wish to teach me a great lesson. You wish me to 
carry back to my bush home the memory and life of this great 
American, in order that his bold stand for truth and for the 
great principles of living, and his wonderful wisdom, which is so 
well reflected in his inspiring countenance, may quicken our dark 
lives and give us manners, wisdom and power." 

A eulogistic letter from the late Dr. Horace Howard Furness, 
the great Shakespearean scholar, was among Mr. Gutekunst's most 
valued possessions. 

General Sherman wrote that with the Gutekunst photograph of 
General Grant before him it was next best to again seeing him in 
the flesh. Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote that he considered the 
portrait of Professor Tyndall as lifelike as his own. Grace Green- 



3 82 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { ^a^^ 31 " 1 "' 



wood wrote to thank Mr. Gutekunst for keeping alive the features 
of Charlotte Cushman. Professor William Ramsey, of the Uni- 
versity of London, wrote that the portrait of Lord Kelvin surpassed 
in fidelity the portrait that was painted by Orchardson. 

It was Mr. Gutekunst's practice to go home to lunch daily and 
eight weeks before his decease he sustained a fall while descending 
the steps of his residence to return to his place of business, 712 Arch 
Street. His wife, who was Sarah Coxe, died ten years ago. He is 
survived by two unmarried daughters, who reside with him, and a 
sister, Miss Mary Gutekunst. 

Samuel E. R. Hassinger. 

Mr. Hassinger, one of the old-time modest and retiring druggists 
of Philadelphia, died suddenly on February 21, 1917. He was 
born in Halifax, Pa., September 17, 1845. He received his pre- 
liminary education in Pittsburgh and Oil City, in which two towns 
he also learned the drug business. He came to Philadelphia in 
September, 1868, receiving employment from Mr. John Connor, 
a prominent druggist of his day. As young Hassinger was am- 
bitious to secure a higher education he matriculated at the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy, graduating in 1870. This was a 
famous class, as it contained the names of a number of men who 
afterwards obtained considerable distinction and met with unusual 
business success. Upon the death of Mr. Connor, he purchased the 
store at 23d and Fairmount Ave., and continued in active manage- 
ment until his demise. Mr. Hassinger was interested in pharma- 
ceutical organizations and attended their meetings whenever his 
duties permitted. He was a life member of the Philadelphia Col- 
lege of Pharmacy, the American Pharmaceutical Association and 
the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. He is survived by 
his widow, daughter and son. 

Henry Kraemer. 

June 25, 1917. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Aug., 19 1 7. 



Current Literature. 



383 



CURRENT LITERATURE. 

French Inspection of Nursery Plants. 

David R. Lewis, St. Etienne, France, states that interest in the 
prevention and control of plant diseases and inspection by scientific 
officials under state authority is increasing in France. The number 
of horticultural establishments (nurseries) and vine growers who 
submitted to phytopathological inspections in 191 6 were double those 
of 1914. The value of plants exported for these years to countries 
requiring certificates of inspection showed a corresponding increase 
even under the unusual conditions prevailing. 

Nurserymen feel assured of the continued growth of these figures 
by the guaranty of the French government that buyers of other coun- 
tries will he protected against dangerous parasites and diseases in 
plants imported from France. 

The establishments submitting to control are divided into dis- 
tricts and expert service of inspection is furnished by entomolo- 
gists and cryptogamists in charge of the director of the entomolog- 
ical station of Paris, the cost of the supervision being cared for by 
a small fee per annum for each nursery, and a charge made on plants 
exported. Efforts are now being made to greatly extend the service. 

M. G. S. 

Paper Pulp from Australian Lalang Grass. 

According to the Indian Trade Journal, March 2, a well-known 
agricultural and technical chemist in Queensland has conducted very 
successful experiments in manufacturing paper pulp out of lalang 
grass, commonly known as blady grass, on account of its great blades 
which are 4 or 5 feet long. It resembles very closely the esparto of 
Spain and North Africa, and when dried before making it into pulp 
yields as high as 60 per cent, of first-class paper-making pulp. 

The expert states that esparto is the best pulp known and the 
blady-grass product is within 10 per cent, of the same value. There 
are millions of tons of this grass growing in Queensland. Three 
crops a year can be cut from it. Experiments are also being carried 
on with Chinese barr (Urena) and Queensland hemp (Sida Retusa), 
which produce 30 per cent, of first-class paper pulp. Lantana, which 
is regarded as a great pest, makes an excellent wrapping paper. 
Screwpine or pandanus, which also grows prolifically, is likewise 
being experimented with. 

M. G. S. 



384 



Current Literature. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Aug., 19 1 7. 



Improvement of Guayule, the Desert Rubber Plant. 

Much of the interest in the desert rubber plant, Partheniitm argen- 
tatum, has centered at the Desert Laboratory since the publication 
by the Institution of Professor F. E. Lloyd's book on this wild plant. 
The volume in question (Carnegie Inst. Wash. Pub. No. 139, viii 
+ 213 pp., 46 pis., 20 figs.), " Guayule: A Rubber Plant of the Chi- 
huahuan Desert," embodies the results of an organized attempt to 
bring under cultivation a hitherto feral desert plant, together with an 
extensive ecological study of the same under normal and cultural 
conditions. Careful consideration is given to the question of rate 
of growth and reproduction of the guayule in its native habitat, and 
a large body of pertinent data is given. The various conditions of 
climate, soil, vegetational environment, and parasitism affecting the 
plant are presented in this connection. The life-history, habit, and 
anatomical and histological structure of the wild and cultivated 
forms are minutely described and compared, in order to secure exact 
knowledge concerning the relation between growth and the rate of 
rubber secretion. 

The wild shrubs are collected in great quantities in Mexico and 
the rubber, which grades much lower than Para, is extracted by such 
simple processes as to make it a very profitable operation. The task 
of developing methods of cultivation has now been successfully ac- 
complished by Dr. W. B. MacCallum and in making a genetic 
analysis of the plant he has established the fact that it includes a 
large number of elementary species which do not readily interbreed. 

The company under whose auspices the experiments in cultivation 
were carried out has purchased 7,000 acres near Tucson, and guayule 
is now being established on this land. This effort is notable in that 
it is a successful attempt to bring a wild plant under profitable cul- 
tivation, and that it is the only rubber-producing plant within the 
borders of the Lnited States. 

Barium-Free Salt. 
Economical Method of Eliminating the Poison from Brine. 

A method of removing barium from brine used in the manu- 
facture of salt has been worked out by the Bureau of Chemistry of 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture. This method is now used 
successfully by one large commercial manufacturer, and it is believed 
will prove both profitable to other manufacturers and a safeguard to 
the consumer. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. | 
Aug., 19 1 7. J 



Current Literature. 



385 



In a number of cases animals have been poisoned by salt made 
from the brines of the Ohio River valley in West Virginia and Ohio. 
This salt has been found to contain frequently considerable amounts 
of barium chlorid. The Bureau of Chemistry has fixed a maximum 
of 0.05 per cent, as a tentative standard for food salt. In practice, 
it has been found that what is known as No. 1 grade salt may contain 
from 0.02 to 0.23 per cent, of barium, and the barium chlorid con- 
tent of Xo. 2 grade may vary from 1.02 to 10.75 P er cent - The No. 
2 grade is not ordinarily sold for table or dairy purposes, and in 
recent years it has been customary to label it " Not for food pur- 
poses," or " Do not feed to stock." 

This naturally interferes with the demand for No. 2 salt and 
there is a great temptation for the manufacturer to dispose of it by 
substituting it for or mixing it with No. 1. No. 1 grade salt is the 
trade name for the product that first crystallizes out when the brine 
is evaporated in long, shallow tanks or grainers. After the impurities 
in the brine become too concentrated as a result of this process, the 
brine is run into other grainers and evaporation continued. The salt 
from the second grainers is called No. 2, or off-grade salt. There is 
no definite rule for determining when the production of No. 1 salt 
should cease and No. 2 begin, and there is, therefore, a temptation 
for the salt manufacturer to continue evaporation in the first grainers 
longer than the concentration of impurities in the brine warrants. 
The new method of getting rid of barium remedies this to a great 
extent by permitting a greater production of what can be truly called 
No. 1 grade salt. It also aids in the elimination from the market of 
salt that may be a dangerous product. 

This method calls for the addition of a solution of salt cake 
(sodium sulphate), the acidity of which has been neutralized with a 
small amount of lime, to the brine in large settling tanks. Air is 
blown through in order to stir thoroughly the mixture and to decom- 
pose the bicarbonate of iron naturally present. This forms a flock 
and produces a rapid sedimentation of the insoluble barium sulphate 
formed. The cost of the treatment is estimated at about 1 cent per 
barrel of salt, which is more than offset by the increased value of 
the product. In one large salt factory this process has been in 
operation for over a year, and it has been found that only insignifi- 
cant traces of barium remain in the No. 2 salt which is, therefore, a 
safe product for food purposes. 



3 86 



Current Literature. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Aug., 19 1 7. 



Factors Affecting the Yield and Quality of Peppermint Oil. 
The effect on the yield and quality of peppermint oil of cultural 
and climatic conditions is discussed in professional paper No. 454, 
by Frank Rabak, chemical biologist, Bureau of Plant Industry. 
This bulletin, recently published by the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture, is based on experiments in raising and distilling peppermint 
plants conducted from 1908 to 1912. Conditions of soil and climate, 
the author finds, are influential factors in the formation of oil and its 
constituents in the peppermint plant. Light sandy or loamy soil ap- 
peared to be most favorable for the production of an oil of high 
quality. 

Distillation experiments were conducted with a view to deter- 
mining the effect on oil yield of drying the plants previously to 
putting them in the stills. It was found that the yield of oil from 
fresh plants apparently decreases as the plant matures. Drying the 
plants before distillation results in a considerable loss of oil. The 
largest proportion of oil is found in the leaves and flowering tops. 
In experiments in distilling plants and parts of plants at different 
times of growth, the author found that the percentage of esters in the 
oil, which give the oil its fragrant minty odor, increases as the plants 
approach maturity. The menthol content of the oil bears a close 
relationship to the ester content. The free acidity and ester content 
of the oil distilled from dry plants is considerably higher than in the 
oil from fresh plants. The drying of the plants causes conditions 
favorable to making esters, while the percentage of free and total 
menthol in oil produced from dried plants is also uniformly high. 
It was found also that the formation of esters and menthol takes 
place most readily in the leaves and tops of the plants. 

In another test it was found that the effect of shade upon the 
peppermint plant is to decrease the making of esters and the for- 
mation of menthol. Experiments with plants allowed to freeze indi- 
cate that frost noticeably increases esterification and the formation 
of menthol. 



THE AMEBIC. 

JOURNAL OF PltA^MAGY 



SEPTEMBER, igr t 

PLANT TEXTURES— " CONSIDER THE' 

By John Uri Lloyd, Phar.M., Cincinnati, O. 

" Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow ; they toil not, neither do 
they spin ; and yet I say unto you, that even Solomon in all his glory was 
not arrayed like one of these." — Matthew 6 : 28, 29. 

The Lily. — In this text the great Wisdom Master challenged not 
Solomon alone, but whoever sat in high places. And if in his esti- 
mation the mighty ruler, Solomon, was humbled in comparison with 
the tiny lily of the field, one might ask, who in worldly power can 
presume to glorify himself ? 

Through the passing centuries the artistic beauty of the modest 
lily of the field has ever brought confusion to the wearer of gorgeous 
raiment. Clad though he be in purple and gold, vainly does the 
potentate compete with a tiny plant that comes and goes in the sol- 
itude of a grass bound meadow. 

While the lily as a whole, in its simplicity of leaf and the modest 
charm of its drooping, tiny white bells, bids even royalty be humble 
in its presence, we unconsciously accept that the Master's eulogy 
applies to beauty of blossom, of form, color and surface, only. 
Can our views not be enlarged? Is this limitation just? 

Let us pass now to another Wisdom Book of the past, taking 
therefrom the text, 

"All things are ceaselessly active; no man can enumerate all, 
Nor can all be seen by the eye." 2 

1 No claim is made herein to originality of facts. Taking for our text a 
tiny plant, our aim is but to lead thought in an informal way, step by step, 
to the immensity of the subject. But, for want of space, a fraction, only, has 
been introduced of the possible opportunity afforded by this plant. Inas- 
much as the subject appeals both to pharmacy and medicine the author re- 
serves the privilege of presenting the paper to readers in both fields. 

2 The Book of Ecclesiastes, by Paul Haupt. Johns Hopkins Press, 1906. 



388 



Plant Textures. 



[ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
September, 1917. 



Hidden Charms. — Within the crown of each tiny cup on the 
spike of the lily of the valley, 3 rests a structural marvel in which, in 
miniature, stamens and pistil are arranged in perfect symmetry, 
hidden from the casual observer. Resting in the shadows cast by 
the embracing leaves, content are the tiny bells to face, ever, the 
earth. Not one looks upward into the glare of the sun. Typical of 
modesty are they in that their hidden charm needs be sought by him 
who aims more fully to comprehend the Wisdom lesson given so 
many centuries ago. 

Shall thought be restricted to floral beauty alone? Does not the 
Master's injunction, " Consider the lilies of the field, how they 
grow," include more than this ? Are we not bidden to look beyond 
that which meets the eye? 

"How They Grow!' — But for the humble, hidden earth stem 
(the rhizome), there could be neither leaf nor blossom. "In all its 
glory " the plant must depend for its bud and flower upon its earth- 
covered support. Creeping in darkness, content to do its part un- 
seen, the root draws from the cold earth moisture and nourishment 
for the support of the structure that, in the breezes of heaven, enjoys 
the sunlight and the shade. When we consider " How they grow," 
the earth stem is all important. 

Its Micro Lace Work. — Comes next to thought a questioning as 
to what lies beneath the skin, whether it be of root, leaf or flower. 
And in this questioning should we not also include the skin as a 
textural part of the whole? Does not the thinnest section of the 
plant of whatever part examined under the microscope disclose a 
network so exquisite as to eclipse even the beauty of the flower? 
So delicate is this as indeed, by contrast,, to make even the flower- 
bell a clumsy piece of mechanism. In its tiniest fragments each 
portion of the plant presents a wonder- world to him who views 
this maze of the infinitely little. And as our viewpoint changes 
does not the scene shift? If the micro-slice be transversely made 
one phase of this exquisite mechanism is disclosed; if diagonal, 
another ; if lengthwise, still another ; each not less entrancing than 
the others. 

"A mighty maze, but not without a plan." 

And now comes to him who views such as this the marvel of it 
all. Perfect harmony in contexture exists between like sections of 

3 This I accept to be the " Lily of the Field " of our text. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. j 
September, 19 17. J 



Plant Textures. 



389 



separated plants, be their home near or far, on mountain, plain or 
valley. .Built of one pattern each yet carries in itself a distinct in- 
dividuality. Nor is this all. 

Wonders in Cell Life. — Pass that which can thus be seen, 
whether by the unaided eye, or in its micro-networks of lace. Are 
there not yet finer lines? Turn to the minute cells that make the 
lace-fibers. Each in itself constitutes an interlaced complexity. 
Behold them, in groups or singly, whether moving freely in the 
plant blood, or securely locked within the tissues. Beautiful struc- 
tures are they, some transparent almost as water to the ordinary 
microscope, others shaded or colored green. Do not these tiny 
structures make possible the lily's growth? As they come and go, 
spring into existence, become fixed or burst and die, is not the plant 
guided to maturity from root to flower? Born into life but to die, 
their birth and death create and support the creature as a whole, 
that in turn gives to each transient cell a home in which to have its 
being and then pass away, much like the coral insect that makes of 
the masonry it builds, its tomb. Who that views these cell groups, 
too numerous for computation, too intangible in their development 
for human comprehension, too mysterious in their activities for the 
grasp of man's intellect, can but question further possibilities? 
Each cell is in itself a community of activities. Within it we dis- 
cover structures such as nuclei and protoplasmic masses, each being 
a home in miniature in which the dwellers are as interlaced entities 
that play well their part. Can there be further wonders ? Are there 
recesses yet to be explored ? Did not Milton write : 

"And in the lowest deep a lower deep?" 

Life Points. — Grind to a pulp the living plant or any part there- 
of. 4 Gone are leaf and flower and root. Burst the cells, mix their 
contents. Squeeze from the texture of the plant the juice that once 
coursed freely in its veins and rested in its cells, then filter. To 
the eye it is but as water; to the microscope that brought to view 
what we have previously seen, it is transparent and limpid. No cell, 
no fragment of material of any kind is visible. 5 

4 To cover and digest with water a few fresh slices of any part of the 
plant is as satisfactory a process. 

5 In a lecture in 1890 before the New York College of Pharmacy, titled, 
" Infinities in Pharmacy," I attempted to indicate the relationship that existed 
between vegetable structures and manipulative processes. In this I empha- 
sized coming possibilities, using this sentence : " Yet we know not what in- 
finity of other results is possible to other forms of manipulation." 



39° 



Plant Textures. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
September, 19 17. 



Turn now to the ultra microscope. Perfect transparency of 
solution by means of other light and methods here becomes as dark- 
ness. Focus the instrument in its highest power, in the bright illu- 
mination of the arc light on a film of distilled water. Absolute dark- 
ness prevails. Use next a film of this transparent juice of the lily 
of the field. Behold, a multitude of tiny, dancing points of light, 
each twinkling and revolving as though circling, planet-like,- in an 
orbit of its own. Let us consider some phases of what now lies 
before us. 

Stars of the Infinitely Little. 6 — So thin is the layer of juice in 
which these starry points appear, a mere film between two glass 
planes, that but for it they would rest upon each other. Yet so deep 
is it to the eye of the ultra microscope as to be in comparison a 
swirl of currents and eddies, much like a whirlpool in a lake. In 
this spin the tiny, glittering, diamond-bright points, possessed of 
motion of their own — an ever constant, twinkling whirl. They move 
where flows the current, which to them is a maelstrom. Ever active 
are they in their orbits, but, unlike bacteria, they have not power to 
resist the ocean in which they float. Comparable are they with the 
"star dust" of space. As in the " immeasureable great" the stars 
of heaven become brighter as the power of the telescope increases, 
so these tiny points, in the " infinitely little," twinkle more brightly 
as the power of the microscope increases. So very minute are they 
that to focus those on the surface of the film is to lose those beneath. 
To bring to view those beneath the surface is to pass successively 
myriads that lie in the film's depths. So numerous are they that 
although the field is but a pin-section magnified to the size of a dime, 
these sparkling, gyrating points are seemingly as numerous as before 
the telescope are the stars in the heavens. 

Perpetual Motion.- — Comes now the greatest marvel of it all. 
Never do these microscopic entities, in their natural setting, lose 
their motion. Preserve a portion of the juice and turn to it from 
time to time. Still do they whirl, twinkle, move on their axes. 
Death seems not to be their part. Almost might one accept that the 
molecule of life activity has here been revealed. The life spirit in- 
herent in the minuteness of dead matter has seemingly been dis- 
closed. 

6 No claim is made to the discovery of the " Brownian Movements," now 
so familiar to those concerned in physical chemistry. Our aim here is but 
to adapt these, as a link, to this story of the lily of the field. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
September, 1917. 



Plant Textures. 



391 



Who would venture to presage the part that these vitalized ulti- 
mates, compared with which a microscopic cell or a bacterial seg- 
ment is of mammoth proportions, take in the life functions that build 
the lily of the field? 7 

The Half Not Told. — Have we searched the innermost crypts, 
even now possible, in this attempt to present the story of the lily of 
the field? Let us ask. Have we herein mentioned the alchemy 
that creates either the exquisite perfume exhaled by the flower, or 
the active, toxic alkaloid contained in its structural root? Have we 
directed thought to the green pigment of the leaf or to the processes 
of the active cells that, in the sunlight, give to its verdure paint a 
useful setting ? Have we considered the function of the pigment so 
essential to vegetable life? Have we noted the formation or func- 
tion of dissolved juice content, such as sugar, or of cell content, 
such as acid or astringent ? Have we attempted to show how " in- 
organic " becomes " organic " in the metamorphosis that forms this 
life tissue ? Have we ever ventured to ask what lies in the transpar- 
ent serum in which the star dust of micro-infinities dances, unseen 
by the eye even of the ultra-microscope, evasive to the most sensitive 
chemical reagent? Have we not ample reason to rest content in 
what is mentioned, accepting that " enough is enough ? " May we 
not conclude that, in any study yet made of any plant of the myriads 
known, when one considers the possibilities outside our present 
limits, "the half has not been told?" Again let me quote from 
"Infinities in Pharmacy." 

" Painful as the admission may be we stand dumb before the 
mystery of the simplest plant in its living entirety." 

7 There are persons who view such studies as these as unnecessary to 
pharmacy. Likewise, there are those who consider plant pharmacy to be 
but a " rule of thumb " process in which the crudest churl stands shoulder to 
shoulder beside the deepest student. 



392 Crucial Test of Therapeutic Evidence. { A ™ e J t °mbm h il? 7 

THE CRUCIAL TEST OF THERAPEUTIC EVIDENCE. 1 
By Torald Sollmann, M.D., Cleveland. 

According to the good old truism, the last and crucial proof of 
the pudding is in the eating thereof ; and so, the last and crucial test 
of a therapeutic agent is its consumption by a patient. There is, 
however, one essential difference : When the pudding is eaten, with 
a sense of satisfaction, we know that it was good, or at least an 
eatable pudding. 

If the patient improves after taking a remedy, we do not yet 
know that he improved on account of the remedy. The post hoc 
type of reasoning or logic is not respectable ; but it is all too apt to 
creep in unawares, unless one takes great precautions indeed. 

Clinical evidence needs especially to be on its guard against this 
pitfall, for the conditions of disease never remain constant ; nor is it 
possible to foresee with certainty the direction which they are going 
to take. It is just this point which makes the clinical evidence so 
much more difficult to interpret than laboratory evidence, in which 
the conditions can be more or less exactly controlled, and any 
changes foreseen. It is on this account, also, that clinical experi- 
ments must be surrounded with extra painstaking precautions. 

In brief, while the "proof" of a remedy is on the patient, that 
is not the whole story, but merely an introduction. The real prob- 
lem is to establish the causative connection between the remedy and 
the events. The imperfect realization of this has blocked thera- 
peutic advance, has disgusted critical men to the point of therapeutic 
nihilism, and has fertilized the ground for the commercial exploita- 
tion of drugs that are of doubtful value or worse. 

This has been impressed on me particularly by my service on the 
Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry. In the course of its work of 
passing on the claims advanced for commercial remedies, this coun- 
cil is forced to inquire critically into the basis of the claims of manu- 
facturers. 

It is interesting to note the qualitive differences in the evidence 
for the various kinds of claims : The chemical data are usually 

1 Read before the Section on Pharmacology and Therapeutics at the 
Sixty-Eighth Annual Session of the American Medical Association, New 
York, June, 1917, and reprinted from the Journ. A. M. A., July 21, 1917, pp. 
198, 199. 



A Sptember, h i"l7. Crucial Test of Therapeutic Evidence. 393 

presented in such a form that it is possible to tell at a glance whether 
or not they are based on demonstrated facts, which could usually 
be verified or refuted without special difficulty. The deductions 
are usually such as can be legitimately drawn from the data, or else 
they are obviously absurd. All this agrees with the relatively exact 
status of chemical science. 

In passing to data and deductions from animal experiments, a 
distinct change is noticeable : Not only are the data less reliable, and 
less worthy of confidence, but they are more often stated in a less 
straight forward manner. The presentation of the data often 
shows evidence of manipulations of the results, so as to make them 
most favorable to a preconceived conclusion that would recommend 
the drug. This is not always intentional, but is partly due to the 
less exact nature of animal experimentation, which leaves a wider 
play to the arbitary interpretation of the reporter. A certain amount 
of this is unavoidable. No serious objection can be raised, pro- 
vided the experimenter presents all the essential data, and discusses 
fairly all of the interpretations that would apply to them. 

On the whole, it is usually possible to form a fairly definite 
estimate of the value of experimental data. 

When one comes to the clinical evidence, an entirely different 
atmosphere obtains. When the Council demands evidence of the 
usefulness of a remedy, the manufacturers generally respond with 
every sign of enthusiasm. They may have ready a series of articles 
already published, or they instruct their agents to bring in letters 
from physicians. The last method seems to meet the most cordial 
response, judging from the deluge of letters and opinions that floods 
the Council. 

The quality of the published papers is a fair reflection of the 
deficiencies of what is still the common type of clinical evidence. 
A little thought suffices to show that the greater part cannot be taken 
as serious evidence at all. Some of the data are merely impressions 
— usually the latest impressions of an imperssionable enthusiast — 
the type of man who does not consider it necessary to present evi- 
dence for his own opinions ; the type of man who does not even 
realize that scientific conclusions must be based on objective phe- 
nomena. 

Some of the papers masquerade as " clinical reports," sometimes 
with a splendid disregard for all details that could enable one to 
judge of their value and bearing, sometimes with the most tedious 



394 Crucial Test of Therapeutic Evidence. { A ™ e pteSer ^9™'. 

presentation of all sorts of routine observations that have no relation 
to the problem. 

The majority of reports obtained by the agents belong to these 
classes, notwithstanding the fact that they are often written for the 
special use of the Council, and therefore with the realization that 
they are likely to be subjected to a thorough examination, and there- 
fore presumably representing the best type of work of which the 
reporter is capable. So, at least, one would suppose. 

It is also possible, however, that some of these reports are written 
merely out of thoughtlessness, or perhaps often to get rid of an im- 
portunate agent. This is illustrated by the following correspon- 
dence, taken literally from the files of the Council. 

A letter from a prominent physcian "A," endorsing a certain 
preparation " D," having been submitted to the Council, the secretary 
was directed to write to Dr. A as follows : 

"Dear Dr. A: — The B Company of C has requested the Council on 
Pharmacy and Chemistry to admit its preparation D to New and Nonofficial 
Remedies. As part evidence for the value of the preparation, the company 
submitted a letter from you which contains the following : 

" So far as my experience has thus far gone, they are certainly superior 
to a number of other iodin compounds now on the market, and I should judge 
that they ought to take a superior place in therapy involving the use of iodin. 

"The referee of the Council in charge of D writes that he was inter- 
ested by your letter and asks that I inquire : As compared with sodium or 
potassium iodid, what would you say are the differences between, and real 
advantages of, D and the alkaline iodids? Did you make any comparative 
experiments and keep a record of them? If so, the referee would like to 
receive an account of your trials. In what direction could D be expected to 
occupy a superior place in iodin therapy? 

" I hope that you can give the information asked by the referee and thus 
aid the Council in arriving at a correct estimate regarding the value of D." 

The following reply was received from the physician in response 
to the foregoing : 

"Dear Professor Puckner: — In reply to yours of January 19, I did not 
proceed far enough in the investigation of D to draw conclusions of any 
particular value for the purpose of the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry; 
and I so stated in my letter to the proprietors of that remedy. 

Answers to the questions you put in your letter require an amount of 
investigation of the remedy far beyond anything I undertook. As a matter 
of fact, I returned about five sixths of the capsules sent me, because of lack 
of time and opportunity to carry out the extensive clinical experiments that I 
plainly saw would be required to give an opinion at all worth while. I believe 
you had better not consider me in the matter at all." 



^'ptembef^gi™' ^ Crucial Test of Therapeutic Evidence. 395 

The report was furnished by a physician for whom I have a high 
personal regard. I introduce it here, not so much in a spirit of 
criticism, but as a justification of the opinion that I have formed 
of clinical evidence obtained by manufacturers through their clinical 
adjutors. 

When commercial firms claim to base their conclusions on clin- 
ical reports, the profession has a right to expect that these reports 
should be submitted to competent and independent review. When 
such reports are kept secret, it is impossible for any one to decide 
what proportion of them are trustworthy, and what proportion 
thoughtless, incompetent or accommodating. However, if this were 
done it is quite possible that such firms would find much more dif- 
ficulty in obtaining the reports. Those who collaborate should realize 
frankly that under present conditions they are collaborating, not so 
much in determining the scientific value, but rather in establishing 
the commercial value of the article. 

Often the best type of clinical reports — those in which the ob- 
servations are directed to the significant events and not to mere side 
lines, and in which the significant events are correctly and adequately 
reported — generally lack one important essential, namely, an ade- 
quate control of the natural course of the disease. 

Since this cannot be controlled directly, it must be compensated 
indirectly. For this purpose, there are available two methods : 

The first is the statistical method in which alternate patients 
receive or do not receive the treatment. This method can usually 
only be of value when a very large series of patients is available. 
Even then, its value is limited or doubtful, because it cannot take 
sufficient account of the individuality of cases. 

The second method consists in the attempt to distinguish un- 
known preparations by their effects — the method that might be 
called the " comparative method " or the " blind test." 

In this, the patient, or a series of patients, is given the prepara- 
tion which is to be tested, and another preparation which is inactive, 
and the observer aims to distinguish the two preparations from their 
effects on the patient. Surely if the drug has any actions at all, it 
will be possible to select correctly in a decided majority of the ad- 
ministrations. 

The same principle can be applied in distinguishing the superior- 
ity of one preparation over another. In this case, the two prepara- 
tions would be given alternately to different patients, and the ob- 



396 



Carrel-Dakin Solution. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
<• September, 1917. 



server would try to distinguish them by their effects. Here again, 
if one drug is really superior or otherwise different from another, 
to a practical important extent, the observer will surely be able to 
make the distinction. 

This method is really the only one that avoids the pitfalls of 
clinical observation ; it is the only method that makes the results 
purely objective, really independent of the bias of the observer and 
the patient. It is the only method, therefore, which determines 
whether it was really the pudding that was eaten and not some other 
dessert. 

In principle this method does not usually offer any very great 
difficulties. It is, of course, necessary that the two preparations to 
be compared shall resemble each other so closely or shall be flavored, 
etc., so that they cannot be distinguished by their physical prop- 
erties. This is usually not a very difficult matter. The method 
does not jeopardize the interests of the patient, for it is understood 
that no drug would be tested in this way unless there is some 
reason to believe that it has a value. When the patient's condition 
is such as to demand treatment, then he would be receiving either 
the standard drug or the drug which the experimenter believes may 
be superior to the standard. 

Conclusions. 

The final and crucial test of a remedy is on the patient; but the 
test must be framed so as to make it really crucial. Most clinical 
therapeutic evidence falls far short of this. The "blind test" is 
urged to meet the deficiencies. 

CARREL-DAKIN SOLUTION. 1 

By John K. Thum. 

It was while working on native black oxide of manganese, which 
chemical investigators before Scheele had studied more or less un- 
successfully, that he discovered in short order four new substances 
— chlorine, oxygen, manganese and baryta — and of these four, the 
first two have undoubtedly been of the utmost importance for the 

1 Reprinted from the Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, Vol. VI, No. 5, May, 191 7. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. j 
September, 1917. J 



Carrel-Dakin Solution. 



397 



proper understanding of chemical processes. This happened in 
1774. Scheele termed the first substance " oxymuriatic acid"; 
thirty-seven years later, Sir Humphry Davy classified the first of 
these substances as an element and gave it the name "chlorine." 
Although Gay-Lussac and Thenard were the first to suggest that 
from its behavior it might be regarded as an element, Davy 
proved it. 

The practical value of this discovery and the important role that 
chlorine has played in the development of chemistry cannot be over- 
estimated, and now that its value as a germicide has been proved 
and its practical application made possible by the researches of 
Carrel, the danger of death from infection has been wonderfully 
reduced. Knowledge of the disinfecting and germicidal action of 
chlorine is not by any means recent. Chlorine water has been 
recommended for years locally as a stimulant and disinfectant for 
wounds and ulcers. However, its irritating nature and the severe 
pain produced when applied to wounds has militated against its gen- 
eral use in surgical procedure. Some years ago it was discovered 
that very attenuated solutions of this gas were efficient for the 
sterilization of swimming pools, but its use for this purpose has 
been discarded for the copper sulphate treatment of the water. 
Like in everything else the personal equation plays a very important 
part in the handling of chlorine gas for the disinfection of a swim- 
ming pool ; while one man would exercise great precaution and care 
in carrying out the technic for the treatment of the water, others 
would be rather lax in varying degrees, with the result that while the 
water would probably be thoroughly sterilized, it would also be ex- 
ceedingly irritating and painful to the eyes. In the copper sulphate 
treatment of the water this condition is not so prone to occur. 

It may be of interest to know that as early as 1846 the disin- 
fecting properties of chlorine were proven by the successful em- 
ployment of it in eradicating an epidemic of puerperal fever in 
Vienna. In this case bleaching powder was used. Undoubtedly 
the ideal germicide for combating infection that occurs in most 
wounds is one that has the power of destroying not only bacteria 
but spores as well, and is only local in its action and, therefore, with- 
out danger to the host. It seems that the hypochlorites have this 
power. As a matter of fact they have been recognized by public 
health workers as the most potent germicides that we have, and yet 
their use in general surgery has been limited for reasons that are 



398 



Carrel-Dakin Solution. 



| Am. Jour. Pharm. 
^ September, 1917. 



obvious. The various hypochlorite solutions are all more or less 
unstable as to chlorine content and, while they can be made more 
stable by making them more alkaline, this militates against their use 
on the tissues. 

The first practical application of chlorine in surgical procedure 
for the eradication and control of infection was undertaken by Brit- 
ish surgeons shortly after the beginning of the great war. They im- 
mediately recognized their helplessness when the large number of 
wounded began to arrive from the front with wounds of every de- 
scription and all terribly infected. They worked with hypochlorous 
acid in one-half per cent, aqueous solution, made by adding 12.5 
grammes of chlorinated lime and the same quantity of boric acid to 
a liter of distilled water and allowing the mixture to stand over 
night. This was then filtered and used as a surgical dressing. In 
the British Medical Journal, July 24, 191 5, p. 129, they give their 
results ; while these are good, other workers seem to have been un- 
able to duplicate them. 

In their experiments they failed to take into account the extreme 
variability of chlorinated lime and this may be the main reason 
why results have been unsatisfactory in different workers' hands. 

Dakin's solution then made its appearence. This is now re- 
ferred to as Dakin's Original Solution. This solution is very easily 
made : 140 grammes of dried sodium carbonate are dissolved in 10 
liters of water, and 200 grammes of chlorinated lime are added; 
the mixture is well shaken at intervals during one hour ; the super- 
natant liquid is then siphoned off and filtered, preferably through 
paper. This solution is somewhat alkaline, but this alkalinity is 
modified by the addition of 40 grammes of boric acid. This prepa- 
ration however, did not prove altogether satisfactory. Sometimes 
it worked admirably and at other times not. There were times that 
patients complained that the solution was very irritating and painful, 
although the original technic followed in its manufacture was 
always scrupulously duplicated. Of course, the fault laid with the 
chlorinated lime. While the formula was always rigidly adhered 
to, the chlorinated lime seldom had the 25 per cent, chlorine content 
that was required to make a 0.5 per cent, solution. When one re- 
members that the different brands of chlorinated lime available in 
the open market vary considerably, and that even different packages 
of the same brand will run all the way from 25 to 35 per cent, in 
available chlorine content (at least that was the range found by us 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
September, 19 17. -* 



Carrel-Dakin Solution. 



399 



of packages put up in this country, and in Europe it must be greater, 
as the range of chlorine content of packages bought on the open 
market there run all the way from 20 to 37 per cent.), it is perfectly 
obvious as to why results should be so variable in different surgeons' 
hands. 

Now Dr. Carrel's method for combating infection is simply a 
more or less continuous irrigation of the wounds with a modification 
of Dakin's solution, or, to be more exact, a modification of the well- 
known Labarrque's solution, officially known as Liquor S.odce Chlori- 
nate?. This official solution of sodium hypochlorite contains 2.5 per 
cent, of available chlorine and is markedly alkaline. This makes 
its use as a dressing for infected wounds prohibitive, it being ex- 
ceedingly irritating and painful. Dilution of this solution with 
water to reduce it to 0.5 per cent, of available chlorine (the strength 
of the Carrel-Dakin solution) is impracticable, as it is still too alka- 
line. Such a diluted solution, first neutralized by the addition of 
boric acid, has been used but with very unsatisfactory results, it 
rapidly losing its chlorine, and proving otherwise objectionable. 

Of course, making the preparation in this manner simplifies 
matters very much and also saves time, a factor of some importance 
where large quantities must always be available. It was Daufresne 
who pointed out the disadvantages of neutralization with boric acid, 
to which he attributed much of the irritation and painfulness, and 
the extreme variability of the chlorinated lime was also noted by 
the same observer. 

Naturally, this illuminating fact put an entirely new aspect on 
the matter and brought forcibly to mind that estimation of the 
chlorine content of each new lot of chlorinated lime was absolutely 
essential before concordant results could follow. 

Accordingly Daufresne evolved the following technic for making 
this preparation, and this only, and no other, should be used when 
Dakin's or Carrel-Dakin solution is called for : 



Chlorinated lime (25 per cent, chlorine) 

Sodium carbonate, dried 

Sodium bicarbonate 



184 Gm. 
92 Gm. 
76 Gm. 



Into a 12-liter bottle put the chlorinated lime and five liters of water 
and shake frequently during a period of six hours ; dissolve the two 
sodium salts in five liters of water and after six hours add this 
solution to the mixture of chlorinated lime and water and shake 



400 Carrel-Dakin Solution. / Am. jour. Pharm. 

■ *■ September, 1917. 

well for several minutes. Allow to stand for at least half an hour 
until reaction is complete and then siphon oft the supernatant liquor 
and filter through paper. The solution, undiluted, is then ready 
for use. 

When the chlorine content of the chlorinated lime is above or 
below 25 per cent., the proportions of the three ingredients entering 
into this solution must be increased or reduced accordingly. To 
avoid the necessary calculation that this entails, Daufresne has pre- 
pared the following table : 

Quantities of Ingredients for Ten Liters of Dakin's Solution 

Titer of Chlorinated Lime. Anhydrous Sodium Sodium Bicarbonate. 

Chlorinated Lime. Gm. Carbonate, Gm. Gm. 

20 230 II5 96 

21 220 110 92 

22 210 105 88 

23 200 100 84 

24 192 96 80 

25 184 92 76 

26 177 89 72 

27 170 85 70 

28 164 82 68 

29 159 80 66 

30 154 77 64 

31 148 74 62 

32 144 72 60 

33 140 70 59 

34 135 68 57 

35 132 66 55 

36 128 64 53 

37 124 62 52 



It would be well to take the titer of this solution occasionally. The 
same substances used for determining the activity of the chlorine 
in the lime are used for this purpose. 

To ten mils of the finished solution add 20 mils of 10 per cent, 
solution of potassium iodide and 2 mils of acetic or hydrochloric 
acid. Measure into this mixture, drop by drop, from a burette, a 
decinormal solution of sodium thiosulphate until decoloration is 
complete. The number of mils used multiplied by 0.03725 will give 
the weight of the sodium hypochlorite in 100 mils of the preparation. 

In order to determine the alkalinity of the Carrel-Dakin solution 
or note its freedom from caustic sodium, add to 20 mils of the 
solution 0.02 of phenolphthalein ; if correctly prepared no red color- 
ation should appear. 



^S'ptember^^" } ^ Well-Equipped College of Pharmacy. 401 

Estimation of the amount of chlorine in the chlorinated lime is 
of the utmost importance and the method for doing this is simplicity 
itself. One may use the method given in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, 
or the following, which is the one mentioned by Carrel in his note 
to the Journal A. M. A., December 9, 191 6, p. 1777, and which note 
is printed in the American Journal of Pharmacy, February, 1917, 
p. 84: 

" Weigh out 20 grammes of the average sample, mix it as com- 
pletely as possible with 1 liter of ordinary water and leave it in 
contact for a few hours, agitating it from time to time. Filter. 

" Measure exactly with the gaged pipette 10 mils of the clear 
fluid ; add to it 20 mils of a I : IX) solution of potassium iodide and 2 
mils of acetic or hydrochloric acid. Drop a drop at a time into this 
mixture a decinormal solution of sodium thiosulphate until decolor- 
ation is complete. 

"The number of mils of the thiosulphate solution required for 
complete decoloration, multiplied by 1.775, gives the weight of the 
active chlorine contained in 100 grammes of the chlorinated lime." 



A WELL-EQUIPPED COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

By Henry Kraemer. 

Pharmacy, like every other profession, requires for its just rec- 
ognition by the public at large that all of its educational institutions 
shall be properly manned and fully equipped with everything that 
will make for the highest development of pharmacy at the present 
time. While this is true, the only way that this uniform progress 
can be attained is by the signal advancement of either some one 
school or college as a whole, or some one of their departments. 
There is no question but that the progress in one school is advan- 
tageous to every other, as every other school is desirous of not being 
found lagging. I think that this broad spirit characterizes educa- 
tors in their work. He who would begrudge any institution of its 
having attained preeminence and a vantage point which is deserving 
of the felicitations of the best men and women shows a mean spirit 
and is not deserving of a place among the world's educators. It 
was with a great deal of satisfaction that I visited the College of 
Pharmacy of the University of Minnesota last winter, and saw its 



4 02 A Well-Equipped College of Pharmacy. 

new building, excellent laboratories and splendid equipment. It is 
now little more than twenty-five years ago that the dean of this col- 
lege and I were associated as instructors in the College of Pharmacy 
in the City of New York. He at that time was an earnest student, 
filled with visions of a higher pharmacy and was called to build up 
the department of pharmacy of the University of Minnesota. It 
is always a source of satisfaction to see visible expressions of the 
fact that the dreams of a young man will come true, providing he 
works. Dean Frederick J. Wulling has labored hard and success- 
fully and at the prime of life, with many years ahead of him, has 
an institution which is the equal of that of the best professional and 
technical schools anywhere. He has associated with him a group 
of men who will support him and will demonstrate to the regents 
of the University of Minnesota that their confidence in him has not 
been misplaced and that professional pharmacy is deserving of this 
support. 

The new buildings were completed in 191 3 and since that time 
the college has continued to grow. The pharmacists of the North- 
west are to be felicitated that they have an institution of pharma- 
ceutical learning that is adequately equipped and stands in the very 
front line of institutions of its kind in the world. From six stu- 
dents in 1892 with no fixed entrance requirements to over one hun- 
dred students in 191 7, practically all four-year high-school grad- 
uates ; from the meager appropriation of $5,000 in 1892 to an appro- 
priation of $75,000 in 191 1 ; from a property value of about $2,000 
in 1892 to a property value (personal and real) of over $300,000, 
inclusive of sites, in 191 1; from a few instructors in 1892 to an 
active working faculty of twenty-seven, with every member of 
which every student comes in contact ; from no special lecturers in 
1892 to fourteen in 191 1 ; from a single room in which lecture and 
laboratory work was carried on in 1892 to a fine large four-story 
building, 61x115 ft. in dimensions, in the erection and remodeling 
of which for the College of Pharmacy over $100,000 has been 
spent up to the present; from a fairly good curriculum in 1892 to 
one which is comparable with the best now; from comparatively 
little research work in 1892 to a fair volume of such work now; 
from an attempted medicinal plant garden in 1894 to a real drug 
garden of several hundred medicinal plants and to a plant house 
31 x6o ft., devoted to economic plants; from a precarious existence 
within the few years following organization, during which period 



A Sptember h i a 9 T7 ) A Well-Equipped College of Pharmacy. 403 




4 o4 4 Well-Equipped College of Pharmacy. { A g P tember h i a 9 T 7 

the very life of the college was in the balance continually because 
of the hostile attitude of the medical college and the indifference 
of the regents, to a firm, substantial, recognized and unmenaced 
position now ; from the position of an unrecognized, unwelcomed 
outsider in 1892 to a fully recognized, to be-reckoned-with and rep- 
resentative member of the university family in 1913, is a record 
with which any man can be well satisfied. Since the college emerged 
from the pioneer period, it has steadily gained in momentum, so 
that it sees itself now on the way to much more substantial and 
accelerating development and achievement within the next decade. 

The new building with its equipment cost approximately $110,- 
000. The building is 60x115 ^ eet i n dimensions and full four 
stories high, entirely fireproof and equipped with eight connections 
on each floor for hot and cold water, steam under pressure, gas, 
electricity for light and power ; air pressure ; vacuum cleaning sys- 
tem ; elevator ; steam heating with thermostatic control in every 
room; direct illumination in the laboratories and halls and indirect 
illumination in the lecture and recitation rooms, library and offices ; 
sanitary drinking fountains ; electric fan ventilation in every large 
room ; intercommunicating telephone system ; electric clocks in every 
room regulated from a central system ; four toilet rooms and a 
women's retiring room ; metal weather strips and metal screens on 
all windows ; washable window shades with additional black opaque 
shades for the lecture room and recitation room for lantern work; 
eight sockets on each floor for electric motor attachments for mo- 
tors varying in power from T V h. p. to 10 h. p. ; attachment for pro- 
jection apparatus in the lecture room and two laboratories; alberene 
stone sinks ; fire protection on every floor, etc. The building was 
constructed by erecting within the old stone walls a strong steel 
skeleton for the walls, floors and roof. The floors are constructed 
of tile set in between steel crossbeams. A substantial grouting 
covers the tiles and something over one inch of solid finish cement 
over the grouting. The cement floor is covered with a special ce- 
ment paint, giving a very smooth and sanitary floor. The thick 
paint consisting of several coats takes away much of the hardness 
of the cement floor. 

A central hall divides the building on all floors into two equal 
halves. The west half of the full-height and fully lighted basement 
is connected with the adjoining medicinal plant laboratory by a tun- 
nel. This half of the building is devoted to a commercial pharma- 



406 A Well-Equipped College of Pharmacy. { September h i a 9 T 7 

cognosy laboratory, a students' lunch and locker room, and a suite 
of three rooms for photographic purposes consisting of a dark room, 
a developing room and a camera room. The photographic depart- 
ment is furnished with an arc lamp, mercury lamps, and with other 
equipment required for general photographic and micro-photo- 
graphic work. The east half of this floor contains a large pharma- 
ceutical manufacturing laboratory for the rougher work, a locker 
room and a storage room. There are two front entrances and three 
rear entrances to this lower floor. The central rear entrance leads 
into the sub-basement unpacking room, from which room shipments 
and material are distributed to the respective parts of the building 
by the elevator, which has its lower terminus in this room. Nearby 
a room supplies space for acids and inflammable chemicals and in 
one of the angles of the room the motor for the vacuum cleaning 
system is placed. 

The first floor contains the lobby, which is lighted from the 
ceiling by a cluster fixture. The main clock is located here. The 
floor of this hall as well as of the upper halls is of tile. The east 
half of this floor contains the library, the dean's offices and private 
laboratory. In the west half is located the pharmacognosy labo- 
ratory proper and a preparation room and an office. The west half 
of the second floor contains the lecture room, the east half a smaller 
lecture room and the dispensing laboratory and stock and prepara- 
tion room. The third or top floor is devoted entirely to laboratory 
purposes, the west half containing the pharmaceutical chemistry 
laboratory with preparation and stock rooms and the State Board 
of Pharmacy stock room. The east half is taken up by the pharma- 
ceutical laboratory with adjoining stock and preparation room and 
balance room. The upper floor is lighted not only by large win- 
dows, but by a ceiling skylight as well. The roof is entirely fire- 
proof, of steel and concrete construction with slate shingles, the 
whole surmounted by a lantern skylight containing three large venti- 
lators to ventilate especially the two upper laboratories. The spa- 
cious room in the attic is utilized for the drying or curing of drugs 
from the drug garden. 

The furniture equipment is almost entirely of steel, consisting of 
steel work-tables, cupboards, lockers, cabinets, shelves, hoods, drug 
bins, animal cages, library stacks, etc. The steel furniture is made 
of a heavy gauge steel covered with an olive green baked-on enamel. 
All tops are of cypress stained black to withstand the action of acids, 
alkalies and chemicals generally. 



408 A Well-Equipped College of Pharmacy. { September 

Pharmaceutical Department. 

As has already been stated the department of pharmacy with 
its lecture and recitation rooms and laboratories occupies the entire 
third floor and a part of two other floors. The laboratories cover a 
floor space of approximately 11,000 sq. ft. The laboratories on the 
third floor are fitted out exclusively with specially designed and most 
modern steel furniture, including students' work tables in the center 
of the laboratories, cupboards, drawers, enclosed shelving, hoods, 
wall cases, steam and sand baths, along the outer walls. This steel 
furniture is covered with olive green baked-on enamel, rubbed down 
to a smooth surface. The locker and drawer handles and label 
holders are of solid brass. The laboratory in the east half of the 
top floor has easy access to a balance or weighing room and a stock 
and preparation room. The latter is separated from the main labo- 
ratory by a unique steel case 25 feet in length, 3 feet wide and 
about 10 feet high, with a central opening of four feet above the 
top, which serves as a students' supply window. The side facing 
the main laboratory is provided with shelves enclosed with glass 
doors on which pharmaceuticals are placed for exhibition pur- 
poses. The lower part of the inner side of the case consists of cup- 
boards for storage purposes. The upper part consists of shelves 
for tincture and other display bottles. The preparation room has 
direct access to the elevator and is supplied with an alberene stone 
sink and drainboard and on the south wall with a series of thirty 
drawers for laboratory supplies, utensils and storage. Over these 
drawers are a series of shelves for stock bottles, etc. The weigh- 
ing room, about 16x12 feet in dimensions, is provided with suit- 
able supports for balances so made and placed as to reduce vibra- 
tion to the minimum. The construction of the building is so solid 
and substantial that very little vibration is felt anywhere, even while 
the trains, not 200 feet distant, pass by. 

The main laboratory of the east half of the top floor provides 
steel working tables for eighty students working at one time. Each 
student has a locker 3 feet 4 inches high, 18 inches wide and 2 
feet deep, containing an adjustable shelf, another locker 2 feet 8 
inches high, 18 inches wide and 2 feet deep and over this an 8 inch 
deep drawer provided with side suspensions, insuring easy operation 
of the drawer and keeping it always level in any position. The table 
space assigned to each student is three feet wide by two feet deep. 
The table tops are of cypress covered with a special acid and stain 



%$2$b£^. > ^ W ell-E quip p c d College of Pharmacy. 409 

proof preparation. Running lengthwise over the tops of the tables 
in the center is a steel shelf eight inches high, affording room for 
reagent bottles. Under this shelf runs the 1^2 inch gas main, sup- 
plying each student with gas for fuel purposes from the two lever 
gas cocks. 

Each of the eight students' work tables provides room for ten 
students at one time. At the end of four of these long tables are 
located alberene stone sinks, 2 feet by 4 feet in dimensions, pro- 
vided with hot and cold water, steam under pressure and water and 
hose connections. Each pipe has a shut-off below the sink. On 
the inner hall wall are located a six-foot alberene stone sink, the 
lecture or demonstration table on a platform, a spacious slate black- 
board, cupboards surmounted by percolating racks, and a sand and 
steam bath. 

The lecture table is provided with hot and cold water, gas, steam 
under pressure, electric current and air pressure. Over the lecture 
table and elsewhere in the laboratory are located pulleys for the 
exhibition of charts. The main hood, which is made of steel, is 
found in the northeast corner of the room. The central portion 
reaches a height of about nine feet and to each side a wing is at- 
tached, located under the high windows, but high enough to serve 
as fume chambers. These wings empty into the central portion of 
the hood, which is exhausted at the top through the window at the 
north side of the building where current is created by an exhaust 
fan operated by a motor. This hood, like all others in the building, 
has cupboards below, covered with soapstone. All portions exposed 
to fumes are asbestos lined and painted over with a special fume and 
acid proof preparation. This laboratory has no posts in view. All 
of the supply pipes, such as hot and cold water, steam, gas and the 
waste pipes, are brought up through the floor from the ceiling below, 
where attachment to the various supply pipes is made. The floor 
of this laboratory, like all other floors in the building, has a top coat- 
ing of an inch and a half of cement and is provided with floor drains 
so that the entire floor can be flushed. It is not the purpose to flush 
the floor, except possibly in parts, but in case the water leaks any- 
where it will drain off into the sewer. This is true of all the floors 
in the building, each floor having four large floor drains. All floors 
are covered with three coats of special cement paint. 

This main pharmaceutical laboratory is lighted by twelve electric 
ceiling fixtures, the eighteen-inch shades of which are of white 



4 io A Well-Equipped College of Pharmacy. { A £ p ^^ a ™-. 

enameled steel, fitted wtih clusters of four tungsten lamps of sixty- 
watts each, affording a very brilliant illumination on dark days or 
late afternoons during the winter months. The day lighting of 
this laboratory is excellent. The wall windows are numerous and 
large and in addition there is a very large ceiling skylight admitting 
a flood of light. The frosted glass in the ceiling skylight prevents 
the glare of direct sunshine, which however rarely strikes this ceil- 




Fig. 4. Medicinal Plant Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, University 
of Minnesota, interior view, showing arrangement of plant benches and 
aquatic pool. 

ing skylight directly since the light must first pass through the 
roof skylight. On this account there is for the most part a soft 
diffused light in the room. This and all other laboratories are con- 
nected by an intercommunicating telephone system with the Dean's 
office. One of the nine electric clocks provided for the building 
is located in this laboratory. The laboratory is entered from the 
central hall by three doors affording ample ingress and egress. It 
is ventilated through the skylight, two special devices affording easy 
means for the opening of the three large copper ventilators in the 



4 I2 A Well-Equipped College of Pharmacy. { ^Zber^. 

lantern of the roof. Electric current attachment for motors up to 
5 h. p. is provided in four convenient places in this laboratory. 

The laboratory occupying the west half of the third floor is 
planned and furnished identically as the laboratory just described, 
with the exception that it contains an additional small room on the 
south side to be used for weighing purposes, the space for which 
has been taken from the preparation and supply room. In this 
laboratory a room is provided for the Board of Pharmacy in which 
to store its supplies. 




Fig. 6. Slat House for Shade Loving Plants, Medicinal Plant Garden, 
College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, showing hydrastis, podo- 
phyllum and cimicifuga in the foreground. 



The subjects in which pharmaceutical work is carried on include 
the physics of pharmacy, pharmaceutical processes, operative 
pharmaceutical chemistry, junior and senior operative pharmacy 
(both organic and inorganic), U. S. P. testing, quantitative analysis 
of U. S. P. salts in preparations, National Formulary work, 
Pharmacopceial assay, dispensing and study of incompatibles and 



A ?ep{embe? h i a 9 T 7 } A W el1 E Q ui PP e d College of Pharmacy. 



413 



the identification of pharmaceuticals There is a thorough coordina- 
tion of the work in the several departments, so that the preliminary 
work in connection with the making of galenicals is carried on in 
the department of pharmacognosy. 

Department of Pharmacognosy. 

Under the title of Materia Medica, the department devoted to 
the study of crude drugs was limited in its scope and was not ex- 
pensive to maintain. This department, which formerly dealt in 
generalities, is now happily replaced by a department of fact and 
practice, viz., pharmacognosy. This latter department requires 
many facilities and an outlay of money to maintain it properly. 
The first prerequisite in such a department is a medicinal plant 
garden. In this the student should become acquainted with grow- 
ing plants, and if he is required to collect the drugs, making assays 
upon them and preparations from them, he will understand why 
preparations vary in strength and are frequently inert. The medic- 
inal plant garden of the University of Minnesota covers 50,000 
sq. ft. and is under active cultivation, containing most of the official 
drug plants and several hundred unofficial drug plants. The stu- 
dents are required to examine the growing plants, later collecting 
the drug portions, drying them, powdering them and making prep- 
arations from them. In addition to the medicinal plant garden, the 
school has a large greenhouse adjoining the pharmacognostical 
laboratory. In structure it is like a palm house, allowing ample 
room for growing tropical medicinal trees. 

The department is well equipped with facilities for drying drugs 
and has a large milling laboratory. The equipment includes large 
drying ovens, 10 h. p. motor, shaftings and pulleys, drug thresher, 
fanning mill, disintegrator mill, limited mill, gyrator sifter, small 
motors and small drug mills, steel carriage drug bins and work 
tables. A part of this floor is devoted to inclosures, especially 
designed and constructed of steel for guinea pigs, rabbits, roosters 
and other animals for physiological drug testing. Storage bins of 
steel are provided for pots and soil. The wash room and me- 
chanical room, containing the switch boards, steam trap, tool bench, 
etc., occupy the north end of the floor. 

The plant laboratory building is provided with hot and cold 
water, high and low pressure steam and a conduit laid in concrete 



414 A Well Equipped College of Pharmacy. { September h i a 9 T 7 " 

for electric light, power, exhaust fans, class bells and telephones. 
The construction throughout is of concrete, brick, steel and glass 
and its architectural simplicity presents an exceedingly pleasing 
aspect. 

A passageway leads directly from the milling laboratory to the 
commercial pharmacognosy laboratory on the ground floor of the 
main building. In this latter laboratory are steel cases with tightly 
fitting covered drawers. These cases, with about 500 drawers, hold 
the main vegetable drug stock. The tops of the cases are used by 
the students for work in drug garbling and identification. A 
vacuum drier, steam distillation outfit and other extraction appa- 
ratus are located along the west side of the laboratory. Space for 
sterilizers and special apparatus and desk room for special students 
is provided along the south side. 

A suite of rooms for photographic work adjoins the commercial 
laboratory, including dark room, camera room and printing room. 
Facilities are also provided for the making of reproductions by 
means of the Edinger drawing apparatus. Other apparatus already 
in use includes a large plate camera and a micro-photographic 
camera. The dark room is provided with all the facilities necessary 
for the preparation of autochrome negatives showing the true color 
of medicinal plants or other objects. 

The main pharmacognosy laboratory is situated on the first floor, 
directly over the commercial pharmacognosy laboratory, with which 
it is connected by a broad stairway. The laboratory is furnished 
with specially designed students' desks for microscopical work and 
each desk is provided with closets for simple and compound micro- 
scopes, drawers, micro-chemical reagents, permanent slide collection, 
and collection of authentic powders in sprinkle-top bottles. Both 
natural and artificial light are available for use. A long blackboard 
and demonstration desk occupy one side of the room and cases are 
provided for charts, maps, pharmocognosy models, drug specimens, 
etc. A part of the room is reserved for herbarium work and cases 
for other botanical specimens. Splash sinks are located at con- 
venient places. A stock and preparation room is located on the 
south side of the laboratory for the preparation of special micro- 
scopic mounts and for storing microscopical accessories, reagents, 
etc. A projection lantern for microscopic, opaque and lantern slide 
work has been installed in the main laboratory so that any difficult 
part of the work may be clearly elucidated during laboratory in- 



September h i a 9 T 7 } A Well Equipped College of Pharmacy. 4^5 

struction. The special equipment includes : polariscopes, micro- 
spectroscopes, a large sliding microtome, centrifuges, extraction ap- 
paratus, apparatus for physiological work, balopticon, etc. 

Library. 

Reference books and journals are absolutely indispensable in a 
teaching institution. Fortunately the conditions at the University 
of Minnesota are such that each department has its own library. In 
the College of Pharmacy it occupies the greater part of the east 
half of the first floor of the building and includes a floor space ap- 
proximating 1,600 square feet. The library is admirably situated, 
so far as lighting is concerned, since it has a southern exposure of 
44 feet with four very large windows and an eastern exposure of 37 
feet also well lighted by four large windows, each measuring 5x7 
feet. The windows are supplied with shades almost exactly match- 
ing the very light brownish yellow painted walls, giving a very pleas- 
ing lighting effect, which is calculated to relieve the eyes as much as 
possible from strain from library work. The shades are of an im- 
ported material made at Lancaster, England, and are washable on 
both sides. 

The steel library stacks which are so placed that the light from 
the spacious windows can be most fully utilized, are of the very 
latest construction, thoroughly braced in the center and on the top, 
thus affording a very rigid and substantial fixture. The shelves are 
adjustable. The width of the double stacks is 16 inches and of the 
two large double stacks for journals and large volumes is 21 inches, 
all of a height of 7 feet, 6 inches. The stacks afford 1,680 running 
feet of shelving, nj^ inches in height. Since most books are less 
than nine inches in height and as the shelves are adjustable, the 
total number of running feet for all sizes of books approximates 
2,000. The stacks are of a heavy gauge steel with curved corners, a 
substantial base and an ornamental cornice of olive green, baked-on, 
rubbed-down, enamel finish. The passageway between the stacks 
approximates 3 feet, with two substantial equidistant electric lights 
in the center to facilitate book work at night. In addition to this 
direct lighting between the stacks, there is abundant provision for 
the indirect illumination of the entire room from the ceiling. The 
floor of this room is of cement, covered with a special cement paint. 



\ 



416 



Quarterly Review on 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
<- September, 19 17. 



QUARTERLY REVIEW ON THE ADVANCES IN 
PHARMACY. 

By John K. Thum, Ph.M., Lankenau Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa. 

America's entrance into the Great War continues to be the great 
topic, and the cause of unprecedented activity and preparations for 
preparedness, in all walks of our daily life. 

Top-notch efficiency for the conduct of the war will only be ob- 
tained by selecting and utilizing those of our citizens who are espe- 
cially fitted and trained to look after the welfare of our youth who 
must make this fight for us. Not only must the best brains of the 
country be brought forward to train them in all the newest methods 
that have been developed in modern warfare, but the best that we 
have in medicine and surgery — and particularly preventive medicine, 
hygiene and the latest and most improved methods of sanitation — 
must be utilized and placed at the disposal of the young men of our 
country who will be called upon to make the great sacrifice. Men 
who are willing and prepared to give their life for their country — 
and no sacrifice can be greater — should at least be made to feel that 
everything that is humanly possible is and will be done to prevent 
disease and give that medical and surgical attention to the wounded 
that is so vital and necessary. 

And this brings to the role that the pharmacist must play in this 
great drama and tragedy, for it is all of that ! 

There has never been any great number of pharmacists in our 
army because of the fact that they can only enter as a private or 
enlisted man and never rise to any greater rank than to that of a 
non-commissioned officer. It is needless to say that this is a strong 
deterrent against enlistment of young men who have had the advan- 
tages of a good preliminary as well as a good scientific education. 
And for this reason, and no other, the fighting men of our army 
have had to submit to the dispensing of medicines by men who are 
not qualified to perform this important function. 

We believe we are right in making the statement that the bulk of 
the dispensing and pharmaceutical work is done by ordinary enlisted 
men who have about the same qualifications as an ordinary hospital 
orderly or male nurse. Surely the men in the field are entitled to 
better than this ! In civil life the pharmacist stands between the 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
September, 19 17. * 



Advances in Pharmacy. 



417 



patient and the physician. If the physician should by chance write 
for an over-dose of a potent medicine — and there are cases in which 
he has been known to do that very thing — the law holds the pharma- 
cist responsible. Has the soldier of the regular army the same pro- 
tection? Will our sons and brothers who have volunteered and 
been selected for the new National Army have every safeguard in 
this respect? We are constrained to utter an emphatic no ! Not if 
the present method of medicinal administration is continued. 

As for pharmaceutical work, there certainly can be none, or at 
best, very little done. The army physician must rely very largely 
on manufacturing pharmacists for practically all of the pharma- 
ceutical preparations prescribed by him. Is he capable of assaying 
these? And would it be possible for him to find time for such work 
even if he were capable of such work? Will he find time to make 
any of the simplest tests for chemicals, etc.? Even now we hear 
it rumored that the government is experiencing much difficulty in 
getting the adequate quota of doctors for the first army. 

Granting that the army will be able to mobilize the necessary 
number of physicians, experiences related by keen observers from 
the theatre of war teem with information as to the busy times the 
medical men are having and the tremendous strain that the whole 
field of medical and surgical organization is subjected to. Under 
such conditions it will be absolutely impossible for the medical men 
to interest themselves in the drug supply of the army and neither 
should the government expect it of them. It is not right that they 
should have this burden put on them and the sooner it is removed 
and placed where it rightly belongs the better for the fighting men 
of the army and the medical men themselves. To right thinking 
men and women the logical solution of such an anomalous condi- 
tion is proper organization of the pharmaceutical ability of the 
country for service in the army. If physicians, dentists and veter- 
inarians are given recognition for their special ability and training, 
by the government, why may not the same official recognition be 
given to the men of the pharmaceutical profession? In no period 
in the whole history of the world was it ever more necessary for the 
intelligent cooperation of service and special ability than it is in this 
epoch-making time. It is the solemn duty of a nation to take special 
care of the health of its fighting men, and the people of this country 
should demand that Congress. enact the necessary legislation for the 
creation of a pharmaceutical corps of the army. Such an act, pro- 



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f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
<- September, 1917. 



viding for commissions as officers, would attract to the service men, 
whose scientific ability and technical training as pharmacists could 
be utilized in many ways. 

It is gratifying to note that following their accustomed initiative, 
the allied pharmaceutical organizations of Philadelphia have com- 
bined to form an organization to bring about this very thing. This 
organized body has been named the Pharmaceutical Military Asso- 
ciation. 

There is also cause for gratification in the fact that the Journal 
of the American Medical Association favors the organization of such 
a pharmaceutical corps and in a recent editorial points out the ad- 
vantages its creation would bring to the medical men of the army. 
In a recent communication to the New York Medical Journal, Dr. 
J. Madison Taylor puts the case so well for the pharmacist that we 
quote him as follows : 

"We have no desire to be hypercritical of the Medical Depart- 
ment of the army and navy — we realize fully the serious burdens 
they are carrying — but in my judgment there is grave peril that in 
the near future the demands upon the military medical service will 
be so many and serious that it might break down from overwork. 
It is to prevent this, to anticipate, that we make the constructive 
suggestion that steps be taken immediately to provide a sufficient 
number of assistants skilled in all branches of service required for 
the Medical Corps. 

" There are several ways through which this assistance can be 
given — by utilizing medical students by utilizing nurses, and by 
utilizing pharmacists. The first is economically, unwise, because 
medical students are potential physicians and surgeons, and will be 
needed later on to take the places of the medical men now in the ser- 
vice. The second is objectionable by reason of the limitation of a 
nurse's training along medical lines and also her sex. The third is 
the most promising, because it furnishes material that, with but little 
intensive training, could be made most helpful to the physician and 
the surgeon. He could cover more ground more throughly, more 
deliberately, and more creditably to himself, to the service, to his 
country and to all of humanity. 

" The skilled pharmacist of today has had collegiate training and 
years of practical experience, with a manipulative skill in the hand- 
ling of materials that eminently fits him for minor medical and sur- 
gical work. At the present time the pharmacist is taught a series of 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
September, 19 17. > 



Advances in Pharmacy. 



419 



subjects which qualifies him to supplement the work of the surgeon 
on closely co-related lines, especially in chemistry, bacteriology, clin- 
ical laboratory investigation, roentgenography, in assaying drugs, 
foods and other supplies, in analyzing human excretions, blood, 
sputum, etc., in testing drinking water, food products, soils, as well 
as in toxicology and drug compounding and dispensing. 

" In any event, the services he could render are numerous, among 
them note taking, examinations, diagnoses of minor ailments, prompt 
clinical laboratory findings, and opinions would be invaluable. He 
could act as expert anaesthetist, as assistant in many operative di- 
rections, and could apply the less complicated dressings and plaster 
casts, and variously hold up the hands of the surgeon. He could 
apply much of the detail of medical advice in hygiene and dietetics. 
The whole subject of sanitation falls naturally within his purview, 
the precautions of hygiene, of preventive medicine generally, also 
applied bacteriology, disinfection and other prophylactic necessities 
of modern warfare. 

"Justice to the medical men of the army and navy demands 
that they be given adequate assistance in the prosecution of their 
work, and the suggestion that skilled pharmacists be given a com- 
missioned rank in the army and navy, and that they be made, also, 
medical and surgical assistants, will meet, we believe, not only with 
the unqualified approval of the medical profession generally, but 
with that of the public whose interests are still further protected." 

Preparation of Dichloramin T. — Chlorinated lime of phar- 
macopoeial strength — from 350 to 400 grams — is well agitated with 
two liters of water for half an hour. When sedimentation has 
taken place the supernatant fluid is siphoned off and the remainder 
filtered. Powdered toluene-parasulphonamid, 75 grams — the crude 
product may be used — is dissolved in the chlorine solution. If 
necessary the resulting solution is then filtered, placed in a separat- 
ing funnel, and made acid by gradually adding 100 mils of acetic 
acid. 100 mils of chloroform is then added to extract the dichlora- 
min. After frequent vigorous agitation the chloroform layer is 
drawn off, dried over calcium chloride, filtered, and allowed to 
evaporate in the air. The residue then obtained is powdered and 
dried in vacuo. If necessary it may be purified by recrystallization. 
Generally it is not necessary. 

This chemical is stated to be powerfully germicidal and is gen- 
erally used dissolved in a mixture of Eucalyptol U. S. P., which 



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f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
September, 1917- 



has been chlorinated, and Liquid Petrolatum also chlorinated, equal 
parts of each. The amount of Dichloramin T dissolved in this mix- 
ture varies from 5 to 10 per cent., which is from twenty to forty 
times the strength of the Carrel-Dakin Solution, for which the 
Dichloramin T mixture is claimed to be a far superior substitute 
(Jour. A. M. A., July 7, 1917, p. 27). 

The Proteins of the Peanut (Arachis hypogaea). — The in- 
creasing popularity and consequent increased production of the pea- 
nut makes a study of its proteins especially appropriate at this time, 
a time of ever increasing demand for food-stuffs. Heretofore the 
proteins of the peanut have received scant attention. This investi- 
gation, undertaken in the Protein Investigation Laboratory, Bureau 
of Chemistry, Washington, D. C, discloses that this popular nut 
contains two globulins, arachin and conarachin, as well as small 
amount of albumin. Oil-free peanut meal was used in the investi- 
gation, obtained by expresion of raw Virginia peanuts with the aid 
of an Anderson expeller. The pressed cake was finely powdered 
and remaining oil removed by percolation with petroleum ether. 
Nitrogen estimation showed 18 per cent, equivatent to 45 per cent, 
protein. Extraction of the meal with 10 per cent, solution sodium 
chloride, 32 per cent, protein, is dissolved at room temperature, 78 
per cent, of which was obtained in pure form by dilution of salt ex- 
tract with 5 or 6 volumes of distilled water, or by saturation with 
C0 2 . It was also possible to obtain these globulins by dialysis of the 
salt solution. The two globulins were isolated by means of fractional 
precipitation of the protein extracted by salt solution. Arachin, 
which predominates among the globulins in the peanut, is the least 
soluble, and is precipitated when in a 10 per cent, solution of sodium 
chloride by the addition of ammonium sulphate to 0.2 of saturation. 
After separation of the arachin by nitration, conarachin is obtained 
by dialysis, or by saturation of the filtrate with ammonium sulphate. 
These two globulins show quite a difference in the sulphur content ; 
it being 0.40 and 1.09 per cent, respectively. The distribution of ni- 
trogen, particularly in the precentage of basic nitrogen, presents 
likewise a large difference, the figures being respectively 4.96 and 
6.55 per cent. The basic nitrogen in a mixture of these globulins is 
likewise very high, namely, 5.23 per cent. It is just possible that 
conarachin contains more basic nitrogen than any other seed globulin 
so far investigated. Judging from the results so far obtained it 
seems safe to predict that peanut press cake will be found very useful 



Am. Jour. Pharm. j 
September, 19 17. 



Advances in Pharmacy. 



421 



in supplementing food products made from cereals and other seeds 
whose proteins are deficient in the basic amino-acids (Jour. Bio. 
Chem., vol 28, 77, through Jour. Franklin Institute. July, 191 7, p. 
120). 

Formaldehyde for Seed Grain. — Dilute solutions of formal- 
dehyde gas are said to be very effective in preventing parasitic dis- 
eases of seed grain and therefore increasing the crop. 250 mils of 
the 40 per cent, solution, known as formalin, diluted to make 160 
liters, is used to moisten 50 bushels of oats or other grain. It is 
left in a heap for 3 hours and then spread out to dry. Pharmacists 
in rural districts would do well to call this matter to the attention of 
their farmer customers (Bull. Pharmacy, 31, 1917, J. E. Taylor). 

Dulcin as a Food Sweetener in Germany. — Because of the 
scarcity of sugar in Germany the laws forbidding the employment 
of artificial sweetening substances have been repealed. And in lieu 
of our old friend " saccharin " they are using a new synthetic to 
which has been given the names " dulcin " and " sucrol." Chem- 
ically it is known as paraphenetolcarbamide. Statements are made 
that this substance is absolutely harmless to man and animals ; it is 
also claimed that it has the advantage over saccharin in that it has 
no bitter after taste, and that it does not mask natural flavors. It 
has been found that its sweetening strength is two hundred times 
that of sugar (Chem. Zeitung: Chem. Abstr., 1917, 11, 999). 

Mercurophen. — This chemical is stated to be powerfully ger- 
micidal and of great use as a local antiseptic. Chemically, it is said 
to be sodium oxymercuryorthonitrophenolate. The mercurial con- 
tent is said to be 53 per cent. This compound occurs in the form 
of a brick-red powder, free from odor and very soluble in water ; 
very dilute solutions show amber-yellow. The powder is easily 
made into compressed tablets which dissolve very readily. Against 
Staphylococcus aureus it has shown itself to be fifty times more 
active than mercuric chloride, killing the bacteria on prolonged ex- 
posure in bouillon in a dilution of 1-10,000,000. It claimed to 
have a lower toxicity than mercuric chloride (Jour. Amer, Med. 
Assoc., May 19, 1917). 

Digitalis Ambigua. — Investigation of the leaves of this plant, 
which grows in abundance in Austria, seems to show that the activity 
from a therapeutic standpoint is on a par with that of the normal 
leaves of Digitalis purpurea. If this is so, there is no reason why 
they should not take the place of the latter (Chem. Zeitung, vol. 41, 
p. 99). 



422 



Quarterly Review on 



I Am. Jour. Pharm. 
<• September, 19 17. 



Rhubarb Leaves Poisonous. — The sudden death of a person 
alleged to have eaten rhubarb leaves has been reported from Enfield, 
England. The symptoms were those usual in cases of oxalic acid 
poisoning. Because of the scarcity of vegetables abroad the news- 
papers have been advising their readers to eat stewed rhubarb leaves 
as a substitute for cabbage. It is reported that a similar instance 
of death from the same cause occurred in 1901. The leaves are not 
usually used as food but nearly everywhere the stalks are consumed 
in the form of sauce and in pies. The leaves and stalks contain 
citric, malic, and oxalic acids, mainly as the calcium, magnesium and 
potassium salts. As is well known, the oxalic acid is decidedly 
toxic. Poisoning from eating the stalks is very rare ; in fact liter- 
ature contains no such record. The stalks seemingly contain less 
of this toxic acid. And then the amount eaten at a single meal is 
very small. It would be well not to encourage leaf consumption 
{Jour. A. M. A., June 30, 191 7, p. 1954). 

D-Mannoketoheptose : A New Sugar from the Avocado. — 
The ripe fruit of Persea gratissima contains a ketose of seven car- 
bon atoms which was isolated in the crystalline condition and found 
to be d-mannoketoheptose. Its formula was established by analysis 
of its bromphenyl hydrazon and phenyl osazon and by a comparison 
of the latter derivative with the osazon of mannoaldoheptose ; also 
by the fact that it yielded the two epimeric mannoheptits on reduction 
with sodium amalgam. The melting-point of the new sugar regis- 
tered 152 and its specific rotation + 2 9-° Treated with yeast no 
fermentation was manifested ; it was not changed by bromine in 
aqueous solution. It is said that this is the first heptose to be found 
in nature (Jour. Biological Chem., vol. 28, 2, 1917, through Jour. 
Franklin Institute, July, 1917, p. 120). 

Impure Picric Acid as a Source of Error in Creatine and 
Creatinine Estimations. — It is stated that some specimens of this 
acid, especially those bought in a wet condition, contain some im- 
purity, and, owing to the more or less intense coloration they give 
when neutralized with NaOH, are quite unsuitable for use in the 
colorimetric estimation of creatinine. When 20 mils of saturated 
picric acid solution are treated with 1 mil of 19 per cent. NaOH, the 
color, after fifteen minutes, should be not more than about twice as 
deep as the color of the saturated picric acid solution (O. Folin and 
E. A. Doisy, Jour. Bio. Chem., 191 7, 28, 349, through The Analyst, 
April, 1917, p. 149). 



Am. Jour. Pharm. j 
September, 1917. 



Advances in Pharmacy. 



423 



Kafarin, an Alchohol-Soluble Protein from Kafir (And- 
ropogen sorghum) . — Until the present time no work has been done 
and reported concerning the proteins of kafir. Seeds grown in Kan- 
sas were used in this experimental work, of the kind known as dwarf 
kafir. The ground seeds showed 1.1.7 per cent, of protein, 7.9 of 
this was obtained by extraction of the meal with boiling alcohol. 
By the use of alcohol ranging from 60 to 70 per cent, strength, 
there was separated 5.2 per cent, of pure protein, kafirin. Kafirin 
in many respects resembles zein from maize, with this difference, 
that zein is very soluble in 70 per cent, alcohol at all temperatures, 
kafirin requires a large amount of the same strength of alcohol to 
effect solution. Kafirin is more readily soluble in hot than in cold 
alcohol; very dilute solutions will jelly on cooling. To avoid this 
it was necessary to use large volumes of alcohol and to filter the ex- 
tractions while hot. Kafirin is easily coagulated while an alcoholic 
solution of zein does not when heated. It also differs from zein in 
the percentage of amide and basic nitrogen being 3.46, 2.97 and 1.04 
and 0.49 per cent, respectively. There is also a difference in the 
amounts of diamino acids yielded. Kafirin contains lysine and 
tryptophane, which are absent in zein, and very necessary for 
animal nutrition (Jour. Bio. Chem., vol. 28, 59, through Jour. Frank- 
lin Institute, July, 1917, p. 122). 

Some Proteins from the Jack Bean (Canavalia ensiformis). 
— Canavalin and concanavalin, two globulins, and an albumin, have 
been obtained from this bean. The air-dried jack bean meal showed 
the amount of protein to be 23 per cent., and 15 per cent, of this is 
extracted from the meal by plain distilled water. Two per cent, 
solution of solution of sodium chloride increases the amount of ex- 
traction to 18.5 per cent. 0.2 per cent, solution of KOH extracted 
almost all of the protein, or 22.3 per cent. A mixture of meal and 
three times its weight of 10 per cent, solution of sodium chloride, 
and then ground in mill to break up cells gave an extraction of 20.5 
per cent, protein. Dialysis of salt extracts of the bean against dis- 
tilled water gave 10 per cent, of pure dried globulin, based on 
weight of the meal used. This globulin is so very soluble in salt 
solutions that it cannot be precipitated by diluting these solutions 
with water. The globulin of the jack bean is not identical with 
phaseolin, which substance was isolated by Osborne from the kidney 
bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Concanavalin, the globulin present in 
the jack bean in the smaller amount, and which is less soluble, was 



424 



Quarterly Review on 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
*• September, 19 17. 



precipitated from a one per cent, salt extract of the meal by adding 
ammonium sulphate to 0.6 of saturation. The precipitate was fil- 
tered off, redissolved in water, and dialyzed until free from sul- 
phates. Canavalin was obtained by making the filtrate from the 
concanavalin completely saturated with ammonium sulphate. The 
principal difference between the . two globulins is in their sulphur 
content; the one is 0.48 and the other 1.10 per cent. From the 
analyses of these two globulins it is evident that only a small amount 
of concanavalin can be present in the mixture of globulins obtained 
by dialysis, since the sulphur content of canavalin and the mixture 
of globulins are practically the same. Canavalin estimates 3.17 per 
cent, of basic nitrogen. The albumin, which contains 3.73 per cent, 
of basic nitrogen, resembles the legumelins which have been de- 
scribed by Osborne and his co-workers (Abstracted from the Jour. 
Franklin Institute, July, 1917, p. 119). 

Chemical and Physiological Detection of Several Al- 
kaloids in the Same Solution. — The well-known play of colors 
which occurs when strychnine is brought in contact with sulphric 
acid and potassium dichromate is not realized when 1 milligram of 
strychnine nitrate and 0.04 gram or more of quinine bisulphate in 
the same solution are treated thus, a passing garnet-red color ap- 
pearing, which changes to green or greenish-gray ; with smaller 
quantities of quinine this reaction is distinct, but transient. The 
same result is noticeable when salts of the alkaloids with the same 
acid or just plain alkaloids are used. Crystals of strychnine picrate 
may be formed in the presence of a large excess of quinine, but 
they are not then characteristic. The alkaloids are easily and cer- 
tainly separated by treatment with sodium potassium tartrate ; qui- 
nine tartrate being insoluble in solutions of alkali sulphates and 
tartrates, whereas the strychnine salt is soluble. It is observed 
that mixtures which do not give the characteristic reaction with 
potassium dichromate do not produce the characteristic symptoms 
in the frog (The Analyst, May, 1917, p. 177). 

Another New Source of Potash. — The U. S. Geological 
Survey reports the separation of potash from wyomingite, a lava 
found extensively in the Leucite Hills of Wyoming. This mineral 
is a silicate of alumina and potash, containing much more potash 
than feldspar. By heating to a dull-red heat with calcium chloride 
73 per cent, of potash is readily obtainable. 

The Volatile Reducing Substance in Cider Vinegar. — Ex- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
September, 19 17. 



Advances in Pharmacy. 



425 



perimental work in the preparation and purification of the phenyl- 
osazone obtained from the distillate from cider vinegar shows that 
such distillates contain a reducing substance that reduces Fehling's 
solution at room temperature. Judging from the melting-point of 
the phenylosazone obtained in these experiments and the amount 
of nitrogen it contained the indications point to its being diacetyl 
phenylosazone. Diacetyl and acetylmethylcarbinol, two substances 
from which this osazone could be formed, were made, and the 
actions of dilute solutions of these two substances were compared 
with those of the cider vinegar distillate. It was deduced that the 
reducing substance in the cider vinegar distillate is largely, if not 
altogether, acetylmethylcarbinol. It is stated that this substance is 
not formed during the distillation of vinegar but is present as such 
in the vinegar and certainly appears to be a normal constituent of 
cider vinegar (abstracted from Jour. Franklin Institute, July, 191 7, 
p. 119). 

Chrysarobin. — Purified chrysarobin, or Goa powder, consists 
of the anthranols chrysophanol, C 15 H 12 3 , and emodinol, C 15 H 2 4 , 
and their methyl ethers. Emodinol methyl ether forms yellow need- 
les melting at 180 ; chrysophanol methyl ether is not present in 
the chrysarobin now in commerce, which is said to contain about 33 
per cent, of chrysophanol. The therapeutic action of the drug is due 
to the anthranols only ; it is claimed that the substances insoluble in 
benzene take no part in it (O. Hesse, Liebig's Ann. d. Chem., 
throuhg The Pharm. Jour., Apr. 28, 1917, p. 353). 

Test for Chloroform. — To 10 mils of chloroform add as much 
benzidine as will lie on the point of a knife and shake gently, when 
a clear solution will form. If the specimen is pure, the solution will 
remain unchanged 24 hours if kept in the dark. If 0.01 per cent, 
of phosgene is present, it becomes cloudy at once; if 0.1 per cent, 
is present a yellowish-white precipitate is formed. When chlorine 
is present, the solution becomes pale rose in color, changing after- 
wards to a blue; if HQ is present, the solution becomes cloudy 
immediately (Utz, Pharm. Zentralb., Apotheker Zeitung, 32-60, 
through The Pharm, Jour., Apr. 28, 1917, p. 353). 

Cultivation of Medicinal Plants in Germany. — According 
to an article in the Pharm. Zeitung, volume 32, page 166, the gov- 
ernments of Prussia and Saxony are urging and encouraging the 
cultivation of plants for medical use. A commission has been ap- 
pointed to give the matter careful study and to report on the 



426 



Book Reviews. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
v September, 19 17. 



possibilities in this direction. Attention is called to the fact that 
improvements in agriculture are leading to the cultivation of land 
upon which wild drug -..plants were growing and to keep up this 
supply it is absolutely necessary to cultivate them. The medical 
profession for a long time was prejudiced against the use of culti- 
vated medicinal plants as it was felt that the activity and potency of 
cultivated drug plants was very inferior to that of the wild plants. 
But chemical and biological assay have shown that such prejudice 
has no basis in fact and is rapidly becoming a thing of the past. 
Where such inferiority may exist or appear it is undoubtedly due 
to improper and unsuitable methods of cultivation. Careful obser- 
vation and experimentation will bring about the best conditions 
for cultivation, when without doubt the active constituents will show 
an increase. It is also worth while that in the cultivation of these 
plants they can be collected at any given period of their development 
and also that they can be gathered free from admixture (The 
Pharm, Jour., May 5, 1917, p. 375). 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Year Book of the American Pharmaceutical Association 
1915. Chicago, Ills: Published by the American Pharmaceutical 
Association 1917. 

With the exception of the inclusion of the Constitution, By-laws, 
roll of Members, this volume is devoted to the report on the Prog- 
ress in Pharmacy. The latter is the work of Professor Arny, Dr. 
Koch and a corps of collaborators. The work has been very well 
done, the abstracts being very succinct and yet containing the es- 
sentials of the articles relating to pharmacy and pharmaceutical prod- 
ucts and preparations. It is difficult to conceive how any of the 
members of the Association could consider for an instant the possi- 
bility of doing away with this valuable publication. If it is true 
that is chiefly used by teachers and those engaged in research work 
this only proves the value of the Progress of Pharmacy that every 
one engaged in the practice of pharmacy should utilize it. It con- 
tains everything pertaining to the improvements in the preparation 
of medicaments and a great deal more. If the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association stands for anything, its members should will- 



September h i™' ) Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. . 427 

ingly support this publication as it represents an ideal and shows 
that the Association means to develop the progress in pharmacy, 
and that its members have lofty sentiments and high ideals. 

Henry Kraemer. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

Abstracts from the Minutes of the Meeting of the Board of 
Trustees. 

March 6th, 191 7. Twelve members were present. The Com- 
mittee on Instruction reported that Mr. C. J. Zufall had tendered 
his resignation as Instructor in the Department of Botany and 
Pharmacognosy, which was accepted. Committee on Examinations 
presented a communication from Prof. Roddy giving the names of 
the following students who had completed a Special Course in 
Bacteriology, and were, therefore, entitled to the Certificate : C. L. 
Coble, Wallace Dickhart, John F. Day, David Fibres, George R. 
Gross, Edward F. Henning, Antonio Mena Hernandez, William 
Menkemeller, Jr., H. K. Mulford, Jr., Charles Norton, G. W. Neif- 
fer, L. D. Rutter, Benjamin A. Sorber, Russell C. Smith, Albert 
Stoppel. The Board authorized certificates issued to the above. 
The Special Committee on Diplomas submitted a report proposing 
some changes in the form and wording of the diplomas. These 
changes were made necessary by the existing conditions. After the 
adoption of some of the proposed changes, it was ordered that a 
sketch be prepared and submitted at the next meeting of the Board. 
Karl F. Ehman, Class of 191 6, was elected an Associate Member. 

April 3d, 1 91 7. Fifteen members were present.' A communi- 
cation from the Secretary of the College was read, announcing the 
election of officers for the ensuing year and three members of the 
Board of Trustees for three years. This being the first meeting 
of the new Board, George M. Beringer was elected Chairman; 
Walter A. Rumsey, Vice-Chairman and Jacob S. Beetem, Registrar. 
The Committee on Finance recommended that owing to the in- 
creased duties of Professor Stroup, the Editorship of the Bulletin 
be placed in the hands of Professor Stunner. 

Committee on Announcement read a report giving the approxi- 
mate cost of publishing the six issues of the Bulletin, and recom- 
mending that hereafter the Bulletin be issued quarterly, namely, in 



428 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { ^lemb^ilT?. 

April, July, October and January. This would reduce the cost 
about 33 per cent. The Committee advocated an early issuance of 
the Catalogue Number and recommended that a definite and clear- 
cut policy regarding post-graduate instruction be outlined in same. 
The Committee referred to our Alumni and stated that the members 
of same should be kept well informed as to the post-graduate courses 
and other matters pertaining to the College, in order that they use 
their influence in assisting young men to matriculate in the College. 

The recently established Advisory Council of the Alumni Asso- 
ciation, embracing about one hundred of the more active members 
residing in every State of the Union and in twenty foreign countries, 
are earnestly working to further the interest of the College. 

The Committee on Instruction also recommended that authority 
be given members of the Faculty to give a few lectures in the high 
schools of Pennsylvania in accordance with the suggestion of Prof. 
Sturmer. On motion, the recommendations were adopted. 

The Special Committee on Diplomas, through Mr. Cliffe, pre- 
sented the sketch for the new Ph.G. diploma and after some dis- 
cussion the form submitted was adopted. 

Mr. French read a communication from Colonel Allen, First 
Regiment, N. G., U. S. A., relative to four of our graduates students, 
who are now absent from the college, serving in the Medical Corps. 
Mr. Osterlund said he was particularly interested and hoped some- 
thing could be done towards graduating the young men who were 
called to serve their country. The matter was referred to the Com- 
mittee on Examinations. 

The communication from the Secretary of the College was read, 
conveying the resolution adopted by the College at the annual meet- 
ing, recommending to the Board of Trustees that they extend the 
services of the College to the Government. Mr. Cliffe moved that 
the matter be referred to a Special Committee consisting of "the 
President, Chairman of the Board and the Dean. It was so ordered. 

A communication was received from L. L. Walton, Secretary, 
Pennsylvania State Pharmaceutical Board, announcing that the 
Board would require prospective pharmacy applicants who began 
their College course after July ist, 191 8, to present evidence of 
secondary education to the value of thirty counts. Mr. ClifTe moved 
that the Secretary be instructed to acknowledge receipt of the com- 
munication and state that the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
had already adopted the two year High School requirement, or 



A siptember h i a 9™7 ^ Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 429 

thirty academic counts, and same is to go into effect at the beginning 
of session 1918-19. 

The Dean presented a thesis submitted by a member of class 
1909 for the degree of Master in Pharmacy (in course) which, in 
accordance with the By-laws, was referred to the Committee on Ex- 
aminations. 

Communications were read from Professor William B. Day, 
Professor Fred. J. Wulling, and Mr. John K. Thum, expressing 
their appreciation of the honor conferred upon them by the College 
in awarding them the Honorary Degree of Master in Pharmacy. 

The Dean announced the death of Professor C. Lewis Diehl 
and spoke of his work in the cause of Pharmacy and his loyalty to 
his Alma Mater and his adopted country. The Chairman referred to 
Mr. Diehl as the highest type of an American Pharmacist. Mr. 
England read a brief sketch of Mr. Diehl's activities in connection 
with pharmacy and moved that a Committee of three be appointed 
to draft resolutions upon his death and the Chairman appointed 
Messrs. Joseph W. England, Joseph P. Remington and E. M. Boring. 

May 1st, 1917. Eleven members were present. The Committee 
on Instruction reported that a number of matters had been discussed 
at several recent meetings and the Committee had under consider- 
ation some very important matters and asked that an adjourned 
meeting of the Board be held to receive a report of the Committee. 

The Committee referred to Dr. Roddy's absence at Fort Slocum, 
N. Y., and decided to have Mr. Gershenfeld complete the two lessons 
remaining in the Bacteriology course. The Treasurer, representing 
the Board, was appointed to take the diplomas to Dr. Roddy for his 
signature. 

Mr. Cliffe moved that owing to the uncertainty existing, Dr. 
Roddy be granted a leave of absence for the balance of the session. 
It was so ordered. 

The Committee on Examinations presented the name of Gilbert 
L. Harvey as having successfully passed the examination in the 
Food and Drug Course, and therefore was entitled to receive the 
Certificate of Proficiency in Chemistry. On motion, the Certificate 
was awarded. The Committee also presented the following names 
as those who had satisfactorily completed the Special Course in 
Bacteriology and were entitled to receive a Certificate: Pedro R. 
Carbo, William C. Forbes, James S. Horton, Acisclo Marxuach, 
Hermogenes C. Ramirez, Jose S. Reynes, Morton D. Stickle and 



430 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { A ^ ep {ember 

Donald B. Smith. On motion it was ordered that the Certificate in 
Bacteriology be awarded. The Committee reported as follows, 
relative to the status of students in the graduating class who had 
enlisted : 

First, that all students who have been compelled to leave College 
on account of membership in the National Guard, previous to Jan- 
uary ist, 1 91 7, be given a special examination in a manner that may 
be found by the Committee on Examinations to be best suited to the 
necessities of the situation, and that they be given due credit for any 
professional work performed during their service under the govern- 
ment. 

Second, that all students who have enlisted or may enlist in the 
naval or military service of the United States, subsequent to Jan- 
uary ist, 191 /, be given the same status upon their return as when 
they left College to enter service, except that due credit and advance- 
ment be given for any experience or instruction they may have ob- 
tained as pharmacists while in the government service. It was so 
ordered. 

The Chairman advocated the adoption of a resolution asking the 
government to recognize pharmacists as professional men and not 
subject them to conscription in the ranks, as privates. Mr. England 
read a copy of a communication he had addressed to the Secretary 
of War, relative to establishing a Pharmaceutical Corps in the Army. 
The Chairman read a communication from Surgeon General Braisted, 
supplementing in a measure what Mr. England advocated. Mr. 
England then moved that the President of the College and the 
Chairman of the Board be authorized to forward such resolutions 
to the Federal Authorities. It was so ordered. 

The Special Committee to prepare resolutions on the death of 
Prof. C. Lewis Diehl presented their report and on motion it 
was ordered that the resolutions be entered in the minutes and a 
copy sent to the family. 

Mr. French proposed that some action be taken on the death of 
our Honorary Member, Frederick Gutekunst, and moved that a 
Committee of three be appointed to draft suitable resolutions. The 
Chairman subsequently appointed Howard B. French, A. W. Miller 
and C. A. Weidemann, as members of the Committee. 

Mr. ClifFe, for the Committee on Examinations, stated it would 
be necessary to have a form of Certificate for students of the two 
year course who had not met the full requirements of the College 



Am. jour Pharm. j Philadelphia College of 

beptember, 19 17. J r c j 



431 



for a diploma and moved that the matter be referred to the Special 
Committee on Diplomas. It was so ordered. 

May 15th, 1 91 7. Fourteen members were present. The Com- 
mittee on Instruction presented a lengthy report, giving a review of 
some of the conditions growing out of the changes in the courses 
of instruction. It also contained the annual reports of .the Faculty, 
together with a number of suggested recommendations. The report 
was carefully considered and on motion the various recommenda- 
tions were taken up seriatim. 

1st. That the special rules on conduct and order, adopted by the 
Trustees relating to students, be printed in abstract and distributed 
to each student at the beginning of each term ; and further, that the 
Dean address the students on the necessity of obeying the rules set 
forth. 

2d. That two hours per week be assigned to Commercial Phar- 
macy. 

3d. Prof. La Wall's recommendation to establish a student's con- 
ference of at least one hour per month for each class, as a part of 
the College curriculum. 

4'th. That Martin H. Gold be selected as the instructor in Botany 
and Pharmacognosy for the session of 1917-18. 

5th. That hereafter the physical examination be made com- 
pulsory. Adopted. In this connection the Committee has appointed 
Doctors Lowe, Roddy and Heineberg to determine upon a feasible 
plan by which the medical examination can be systematically carried 
out. 

6th. That Prof. Stroup be empowered to select an assistant to 
fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Dr. Brewer. 

7th. That Physics as a distinct branch be eliminated from the 
College curriculum. 

8th. That the lecture work in Chemistry be divided into two 
parts, namely, General Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 
That Prof. Stroup retain General Chemistry and Prof. Sturmer be 
assigned Pharmaceutical Chemistry, and be given the title of Pro- 
fessor in Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 

9th. That specimens as a separate branch of examination be 
eliminated and that hereafter the ratings in specimens in each de- 
partment be included along with the rating in written work. 

10th. That hereafter at least two of the scholarships be offered 
as awards to students in the second year class who have attained a 
high rating in the work of the first year. 



432 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { September ^9^7 

nth. If the size of the second year class next year shall require 
three sections, that these be given the same lesson on alternate days 
of the same week. If not too large, however, it should be divided 
into two sections, working on alternate days. 

1 2th. That a special course in Chemistry for Bacteriological stu- 
dents deficient in Chemistry be outlined for the catalogue. 

13th. Professor Moerk's request that an additional assistant be 
allowed to help in the advanced instruction was also approved. 

14th. Dr. Vanderkleed's request that " Chemical Control " as ap- 
plied to Industrial Pharmacy be accepted as a more appropriate 
title than "Industrial Pharmacy" for the subjects covered by his 
lectures. 

15th. That the teaching of scientific and technical German, ap- 
plicable to the Post-graduate courses, be assigned to Professor 
Sturmer. 

1 6th. Dr. Roddy having requested an assistant, but owing to Dr. 
Roddy's absence in the Medical Corps, and the uncertainties as to 
the effect of the war, action on this request of Dr. Roddy should be 
postponed. But if the necessity for an assistant arises, the Com- 
mittee on Instruction should be authorized to select such an assistant. 

Nominations being in order, Mr. Beringer nominated Prof. 
Freeman P. Stroup as Professor of General Chemistry and Pro- 
fessor Julius W. Sturmer as Professor of Pharmaceutical Chem- 
istry. According to the By-laws these nominations lay over for 
one month for action. 

Further recommendations by the Committee on Instruction were 
then considered, as follows : 

1. It was recommended that in order to carry out existing agree- 
ments, the Phar.D. course should be continued, as advertised, for 
the next two years. 

2. That the College continue the Ph.C. course as now provided 
by the By-laws. 

3. That there be offered a Post-graduate course of one year, 
scheduled for three days per week, and a minimum of 700 hours of 
instruction. Any student who has successfully completed the two 
year Pharmacy course is eligible to this course. 

The above recommendations were all approved. 

In regard to the question of fees, which was considered by the 
Committee, it was on motion decided to advance the Laboratory 
fee to Fifteen Dollars, per annum. The fees for tuition were also 



A Spt?mber h i a ^' ) Philadelphia College of 



433 



considered, but owing to the lateness of the hour, further consider- 
ation was postponed. 

May 1 8th, 1917. Nine members were present, and regrets from 
eight members were noted. The Committee on Instruction read a 
supplementary report regarding fees, and after a very thorough dis- 
cussion of the subject of fees and the methods of collection, the 
recommendation of the Committee was adopted. 

The rules and regulations governing fees and general require- 
ments for promotions and graduations would be published in full in 
the forthcoming announcement. On motion of Mr. Boring, a vote 
of thanks was extended to the Committee on Instruction for their 
valuable report. 

The Committee on Examinations presented the name of Clarence 
H. Henderson as being entitled to the Certificate of Bacteriology. 
On motion the Certificate was granted. 

May 25th, 1 91 7. Eleven members were present. On motion of 
Mr. ClifTe, Professor J. W. Sturmer was invited to be present at the 
meeting of the Board. 

The Committee on Examinations recommended Charles Elbert 
Hoffman, P.D. 1909, for the degree of Master in Pharmacy, Ph.M. 
(in course), for his thesis entitled "Topical Applications — the 
methods of preparation and means of dispensing for the treatment 
of diseases of the eye." see this Journal, July, 191 7. It was sug- 
gested that the degree be granted at the next Commencement. A 
ballot was then taken and being clear, the Chair declared Mr. Hoff- 
man elected to receive the degree of Master in Pharmacy (in 
course) . 

The Committee on Examinations also presented the name of 
those who had satisfactorily passed the examinations and met all the 
requirements for graduation and were entitled to receive the 
diploma and certificates of the College. The number, comprised 
94 for the degree of Doctor in Pharmacy ; 15 for the degree of Phar- 
maceutical Chemist (P.C.), old style, and 8 former students of the 
Medico-Chi who had completed their instruction at the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy, and were entitled to receive the degree of 
Pharmaceutical Chemist (Ph.C). 

A separate ballot was taken for each class and it being clear, 
they were elected to receive the degree. 

The consideration of those entitled to receive the degree of 
Graduate in Pharmacy (Ph.G.) was postponed for the present. 



434 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { A gJ t Zhe^™ 7 . 

Mr. ClifTe, for the Committee on Examinations, stated that the 
Rev. J. J. Joyce Moore had created a prize in memory of. his father, 
J. B. Moore. The prize consists of a Troemner Agate Prescription 
Balance to be awarded to a member of the third year graduating 
class presenting the best thesis representing original work in the 
Department of Pharmacy. The Secretary was instructed to extend 
to the Rev. Dr. Moore the appreciation and thanks of the Board. 

Mr. ClifTe then presented the report of prizes to be given to the 
graduates of the P.D. course. He also presented the name of 
Charles L. Coble as having taken the full course in Analytical Chem- 
istry and entitled to receive the Certificate of Proficiency in Chem- 
istry, and the name of Harry Philip Ottinger as having taken the 
Food and Drug Course and entitled to receive the Certificate of 
Proficiency in Food and Drug Analysis. 

May 28th, 1917. Ten members were present. The Committee 
on Examinations presented the names of 93 candidates for the degree 
of Graduate in Pharmacy (Ph.G.), who had met allthe require- 
ments for graduation. 

The Committee then presented the names of 38 students who 
had passed all the second year examinations and were, therefore, 
eligible to the degree of Ph.G. when the other graduation require- 
ments shall have been met. They will receive a Certificate attesting 
to these facts. 

Mr. ClifTe read a communication from Professor Kraemer, 
stating that owing to the merits of the theses of the Second year 
class he desired to present in addition to his prize to the Third year 
class a compound microscope for the best thesis in pharmacognosy 
in the Second year class. This was adopted. He then presented 
a report covering the award of prizes to students of the Ph.G. class, 
with the names of those who were to award the prizes. Mr. ClifTe 
also presented the form of Certificate to be given to those who had 
not complied with all the requirements. 

In addition to the names presented by the Committee for di- 
plomas, there were presented the names of those entitled to Cer- 
tificates and whose names would appear on the Commencement 
program. Two to receive the Certificate of Proficiency in Chemistry. 
Two to receive the Certificate of Proficiency in the Food and Drug 
Course. Twenty-five to receive the Certificate in Bacteriology, one 
to receive the degree of Bachelor in Science, in Pharmacy and Chem- 
istry. 



THE AMERICAN 



journal or :iti:ak 



SPECIFICITY OF DRUGS FOR PP^pSP: 



By C. G. MacArthur and G. D. Cald' 




CY 



The phosphatids are blamed for a great many physiological 
changes. Very often they are ascribed these special functions be- 
cause certain other tissue constituents have been shown not to be 
involved, more often, however, because of their resemblances to 
ordinary fats. If one notes the complex and peculiar composition 
of the phosphatids it will be evident that it is not safe to rely too 
much on the physical resemblances to fats in an explanation of the 
physiological part the phosphatids play in the selective activities of 
the tissue cells. 

In this investigation an attempt was made to see if there was 
any evidence that brain lecithin was involved in the specific action 
of brain drugs, and that heart drugs were not thus related to brain 
lecithin but were to heart lecithin. There is some evidence now 
that the two lecithins as prepared for this investigation are at least 
very similar in chemical constitution. 2 If the two are identical the 
drug specificity could not be attributed to their presence, but might 
be to a difference in amount or to a peculiarity in their position. 

It is necessary to keep in mind the fact that there is not a very 
large amount of specificity in the drugs used for either of the tissues 
studied. In general there is only a difference in the degree of effect 
produced by a drug on the various tissues of the body. Then, too, 
it does not necessarily follow that because there is a certain pre- 

1 The importance of the work here reported was urged by the late Walde- 
mar Koch. He was largely instrumental in getting the investigation properly 
started. C. G. M. 

2 J. E. Darrah and C. G. MacArthur, Jour. Am. Chem. Soc, 38, 922, 1916. 
C. G. MacArthur, F. G. Norbury and W. G. Karr, Jour. Am. Chem. Soc, 39, 
768, 191 7, 



43 6 Specificity of Drugs for Phosphatids. {^oiXrf!?™" 

dominant physiological effect this is the result of a correspondingly 
large chemical alteration. A small amount of a drug in one tissue 
may produce a much more noticeable pharmacological effect than a 
large quantity in another group of cells. Data is continually accu- 
mulating which shows that some chemical compounds, as, for in- 
stance, the hypnotics and anesthetics, are selected by the various 
tissues in approximate accordance with their lipin content. 

The phosphatids of the brain may be concerned in the action of 
brain drugs in one or more of several ways : ( I ) There may be a 
more or less firm physical or chemical combination between the 
drug and the phosphatid in the cell itself. This might interfere 
with the normal respiration, as there is evidence for believing in 
the case of anesthetics. The phosphatids are very likely concerned 
in the metabolism of cell food, so the drug might affect this process. 
(2) The drug may enter into combination of some sort with the 
extremely complex associations of lipoids, proteins, salts, etc., that 
very probably exist in the cell. In this case the effects produced 
might be similar to those given above, but there might be no direct 
effect of drugs on the lipins themselves. (3) Whatever the nature 
of the limiting surface layer of the cell, the phosphatids in it, 
through solution of the drug, adsorption of it, or chemical combina- 
tion with it, may bring about a specific transference of this par- 
ticular drug to the interior of the cell and there cause disturbance 
in normal activity by affecting compounds probably other than phos- 
phatids. If it is a question of solution-permeability, then one would 
expect that the specificity would depend very largely on the locali- 
zation and quantity of the lipin and not so much on its chemical 
nature. (4) Or the phosphatids may interfere with the passage in 
and out through this surface layer of food or metabolized products. 
This might lead to a more or less general cell asphyxiation or cell 
starvation in the former case, while in the latter we would have 
so-called toxic effects, resulting from accumulations of end products 
which would cause retardation (depression) or increase (stimula- 
tion) of the rate of metabolism. 

The same possibilities apply to the action of heart drugs on heart 
phosphatids. 

It is rather difficult to understand just how a drug could pro- 
duce changes in physico-chemical properties 3 without altering to 
some extent the chemical nature of the substances present. It 

3 Handowskay, Biochem. Z., 25, 510, 1910. 



Am 6ct°o U b r er P1 i9"7' ^ Specificity of Drugs for Phosphatids. 437 

would seem that those who have been finding a difference, say of 
surface tension, as the prime cause of the changes produced by 
drugs are getting only another measurement of what others measure 
by changes in the state of aggregation or amount of chemical com- 
pound or adsorption compound formed. Undoubtedly it would not 
be true to speak of any one of these changes as the cause or even 
as the predecessor of another, for probably they occur simul- 
taneously. 

If digitalis, strophanthin and other heart drugs show their speci- 
ficity in action on the heart by some particular effect on heart 
lecithin or heart cuorin, they ought to produce consistent changes in 
the very sensitive calcium chloride precipitation limit of the phos- 
phatid solutions, while caffein, cocaine, strychnine and other brain 
drugs should have either no effect on the heart phosphatid solutions 
or a different one from the heart drugs. Brain drugs, on the other 
hand, should produce similar consistent effects on brain phosphatids. 

EXPERIMENTAL. 

Varying amounts of a standard CaCl 2 solution (M/100, iW/50 
or iW/25) are added to two series of test tubes. To each tube is 
added water enough to bring the amount to 5 Cc. A .2 per cent, or 
.3 per cent, phosphatid solution is made by continuous shaking of 
the required amount of phosphatid in water till homogeneous. An 
aliquot part is used for control experiments, while the rest is shaken 
with the drug to be tested. Five Cc. of the control solution is added 
to each of the series of tubes containing calcium chloride, while 
5 Cc. of the drug solution is added to the tubes of the other series. 
The difference in the molecular amounts of calcium chloride neces- 
sary to precipitate the drug solution from that required for the con- 
trol is a measure of the influence of the drug on the phosphatid. 
Readings are taken after twenty-four hours. 4 

Relation to Oxidation. — With new lecithin solutions the method 
is accurate to .1 Cc. of M/100 calcium chloride. The phosphatid 
solution slowly changes, thus making it necessary to run controls 
every day. This change seems to be related to the stage of oxida- 
tion of the preparation. The darker and older the phosphatid, the 
greater the amount of calcium chloride required to precipitate the 
lipoid and as a rule the smaller the difference between the controls 
and the drug solutions. One sample of lecithin was originally pre- 

4 For more details of method, see W. Koch, Jour. Pharm. and Exp. 
Ther., 2, 239, 1910. 



438 Specificity of Drugs for Phosphatids. ^VltXr^™ ' 

cipitated in a .0048 molecular solution. A few days later the molec- 
ular concentration required was .0055. After a week it had risen 
to .0059 M. If the state of oxidation of the phosphatid is related 
to the nature or amount of combination between the phosphatid and 
the drug, one would expect that the presence of the drug would 
affect the rate of oxidation of the lipin. 5 There seems to be but 
little doubt that one of the effects of those drugs which give evi- 
dence of combining with the phosphatids is to alter the auto- 
oxidation of the lipin. 

Relation to Drugs— -In the following tables drugs in a dilution 
of 1/1000 were used instead of more concentrated solutions, be- 
cause these small quantities seemed comparable with the amounts 
that might actually exist in a tissue when therapeutic amounts are 
given. 

Table I. 
Heart Lecithin A, 0.3 Per Cent. 



- 


CaCl2 to ppt. 


Control. 


Diff. in CaClo. 


1/1000 digitalis 


.0110 


.0044 


+.0066 


" strophanthin 


.0057 


.0044 


+ .0013 




.0057 


.OO44 


+ •0013 




.0066 


.0044 


+ .0022 


saponin 


.0052 


.0044 


+ .0008 




.0044 


.0044 


.0 




.0044 


.OO44 


.0 




.0044 


.0044 


•O 


" theobromine 


.0044 


.0044 






.0044 


.0044 


.0 




.0044 


.OO44 


.0 




.0040 


.0044 


— .0004 







Table II. 
Heart Lecithin B, 0.2 Per Cent. 





CaClo to ppt. 


Control. 


Diff. in CaCl 2 . 




.0059 


.0055 


+ .0004 




.0059 


.0055 


+ .0004 




.0068 


.0059 


+ .0009 




.0068 


.0059 


+ .0009 




.0064 


•0055 


+ .0009 




.0048 


.0048 


.0 




•0055 


•0055 


.0 




.0055 


•OOS5 


.0 




.0055 


•OO55 


.0 




.0064 


.0055 


+ .0009 




.0066 


.0048 


+ .0018 



5 This question is being studied directly by adding drugs to phosphatid 
solutions and comparing the rate of oxidation with phosphatid controls. 



Am 6-ct ober!?9™: > Specificity of Drugs for Phosphatids. 439 



Table III. 
Brain Lecithin, 0.2 Per Cent. 





CaCU to ppt. 


Control. 


Diff. in CaCl 2 . 


1/1000 strophanthin 


.0040 


.0037 


+ -0003 


chloral hydrate 


.0042 


.0037 


4- -0005 




.0044 


.OO40 


+ .0004 




.0040 


.0040 


.0 




.0040 


.OO4O 


.0 




.OO37 


.0037 


.0 




.0040 


.0037 


4- -0003 




.0040 


.OO4O 


.0 




.0036 


.0035 


4- .0001 


atropine 


.OO50 


.0040 


+ .0010 



It will be evident from Tables I and II that such heart drugs as 
digitalis and strophanthin, etc., do produce an effect on heart lecithin 
that brain drugs like caffein do not. But in Table III it will be 
noted that heart drugs produce practically the same effects on brain 
lecithin. Therefore it seems reasonable to suppose that strophanthin 
and digitalis are active on phosphatids because of the chemical 
nature of the drugs. Very likely this action can be attributed to 
the fact that they are glucosides, because chemical substances such 
as phlorhizin and saponin, which are not heart drugs, produce very 
similar results with both brain and heart lecithins. 

At first one might conclude that the lecithins are in no way re- 
lated to drug action. But in the cases where an effect on the pre- 
cipitation limits of CaCl 2 is produced by a drug it seems necessary 
to assume that the lipins have at least a secondary importance. The 
results would indicate that the combination between the drugs and 
the lecithin is not the chief cause of the specific action. It is pos- 
sible that the effect is largely oxidation, as noted above. But 
another possible way of explaining the relationship is to suppose 
that the location and quantity of the phosphatid determine whether 
the particular drug will enter the tissue cell or determine the amount 
that will enter. In this case th